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The  REV.  CHARLES  H.  H.  WRIGHT,  D.I), 

Trinity  College,  Dublin;  M.A.  of  the  Exeter  College,  Oxford;  Ph.D.  of  University  of 

Leipzig;  Examiner  in  Hebrew  and  New  Testament  Greek,  University 

of  London;  and  Grinfield  Lecturer  on  the  Septuagint 

in  the  University  of  Oxford. 

Rearranged,  with  an  Extended 


Including  Index,  Concordance,  Etc.,  Etc., 

BY  THE  AMERICAN  EDITOR.  /%*    .  r\P^Rf£fc7         •O' 

AUG  28  1895 . 





Copyright,  1895. 
All  rights  reserved. 

Bible  Readers'  Aids. 



The  Bible  Readers'  Aids  is  designed  to  present  in  brief,  concise  form,  yet  full  enough  for 
use,  the  information  needed  by  Bible  readers  regarding  questions  of  importance  connected  with 
the  Holy  Scripture.  Especially  is  it  the  desire  to  present  facts  and  topics  not  always  conveniently 
accessible,  and  thus  to  make  this  a  handbook  of  Bible  knowledge  for  the  general  reader  who 
wishes  the  information  in  a  condensed  form,  as  well  as  a  ready  compendium  for  the  student  who 
may  have  access  to  good  libraries. 

The  design  has  been  to  give  the  latest  information  in  matters  of  biblical  research,  presenting 
fuily  the  facts  and  briefly  the  best  theories,  being  always  conservative,  and  never  in  any  way 
suggesting  any  doubts  in  matters  of  the  inspiration  or  authority  of  the  Bible,  but  seeking  to 
strengthen  the  readers'  faith  through  an  intelligent  knowledge  of  the  truth  regarding  the  Scrip- 
ture. The  present  Aids  has  necessarily  been  confined  within  defined  limits,  but  it  is  hoped  that 
it  will  be  found  to  meet  all  proper  requirements. 

Most  of  the  articles  in  these  Aids  are  based  upon  contributions  originally  prepared  for  and 
used  in  the  Manual  issued  wTith  other  editions  of  this  series  of  Bibles;  but  they  have  been 
rearranged  by  the  editor  of  the  Aids  to  meet  the  special  plan  of  this  edition.  Some  of  the  most 
useful  papers,  however,  have  been  prepared  for  this  series. 

The  articles  included  in  both  editions  were  written  by  able  writers  representing  the  chief 
Protestant  churches  of  Great  Britain  and  America,  especially  qualified  to  treat  biblical  questions 
at  once  scholarly  and  popular.  Care  was  taken  to  secure  contributors  who  are  believers  in  the 
Divine  inspiration  and  the  historical  truth  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  in  the  divinity  of  our 
Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ.  The  Table  of  Contents  will  show  the  wide  range  of  writers  and 
the  high  scholarship  of  those  enlisted  in  this  undertaking. 

In  this  arrangement  special  care  has  been  taken  to  avoid  repetition,  and  thus  not  only  to  have 
all  matters  regarding  one  subject  in  one  place,  but  also  to  save  valuable  space  in  the  Aids.  Prefer- 
ence has  always  been  given,  in  the  choice  of  material,  to  ascertained  facts,  though  sometimes  the 
authors'  conclusions  are  stated,  or  the  arguments  of  others  are  given,  that  the  subject  may  be 
fuily  treated  as  it  may  be  seen  to-day. 

The  attention  of  the  reader  is  especially  called  to  the  practical  character  of  the  topics  chosen 
for  presentation  and  to  their  convenient  treatment.  These  include  suggestions  on  the  study  of  the 
Bible  and  its  use  in  the  church,  Sunday-school,  and  home:  articles  on  questions  connected  with 
the  choice,  arrangement,  and  history  of  the  various  books  of  the  Bible;  a  complete  system  of 
chronology  from  the  earliest  to  the  latest  events  of  Bible  history,  including  a  brief  and  excellent 
study  of  the  history  of  the  Jews,  and  of  the  early  Christian  church;  clear  explanations  of  ques- 
tions connected  with  the  tabernacle,  prophecies,  sects,  etc. ;  admirable  illustrated  articles  on  the 
Bible  as  it  is  related  to  ancient  contemporary  peoples  and  their  history,  together  with  studies  of 
Jewish  antiquities,  poetry,  and  music,  and  full  discussions  of  the  important  and  interesting  sub- 
jects suggested  by  our  knowledge  of  the  land  of  the  Bible. 

In  the  arrangement  of  these  topics,  special  care  has  been  taken  to  group  them  in  convenient 
form  for  reference,  so  that  any  reader,  with  a  few  minutes  of  study,  can  know  exactly  where  to 
find  whatever  subjects  may  be  desired.  This  is  independent  of  the  very  complete  index  to  all 
important  subjects  treated  found  in  the  Word  Book.  Not  only  are  the  topics  carefully  grouped, 
but  each  article  is  presented  in  the  manner  which  will  make  it  most  easily  consulted;  divisions 
of  the  subject,  topics  of  the  paragraphs,  and  important  names  are  all  printed  prominently  so  that 
they  may  be  readily  seen. 

The  publishers  are  especially  gratified  with  the  fact  that  they  first  introduced  illustrations 
into  Bible  Helps,  the  first  edition  of  this  Manual  containing  some  of  the  best  illustrations  yet 
published.  In  preparing  these,  in  this  edition  as  in  the  former,  the  aim  has  been  to  give  simply 
a  few  typical  illustrations,  rather  than  to  encumber  the  book  with  a  large  number  of  pictures, 
which  increase  the  thickness  without  adding  material  value.  These  illustrations  have  been 
chosen  with  the  greatest  care  by  the  editor  and  his  assistants,  and  cover  all  necessary  subjects. 
Some  of  them  are  given  directly  in  connection  with  the  text,  and  therefore  are  convenient  for 



reference  to  the  student.  In  other  cases  it  was  impossible  to  introduce  them  into  the  text,  but 
where  necessary  the  proper  articles  are  mentioned.  The  writers  have  made  frequent  references 
to  these  illustrations  in  the  body  of  the  Aids,  and  the  pictures  themselves  refer  to  the  articles 
which  they  illustrate. 

The  peculiar  features  of  this  edition  are  the  Books  of  Reference  and  the  Word  Book.  After  each 
topic  is  given  a  selected  list  of  books  bearing  upon  that  subject,  for  those  who  desire  to  continue 
the  study  more  fully.  While  these  lists  are  not  complete,  yet  an  eftbrt  has  been  made  to  select 
books  of  practical  value  as  well  as  scholarly  attainments. 

The  Word  Book  is  a  new  feature  in  Bible  Aids.  It  includes  those  words  which  have  been 
usually  given  in  various  alphabetical  lists,  thus  often  requiring  research  in  several  places  before 
the  information  could  be  obtained.  When  necessary  to  give  fuller  descriptions  than  possible  in 
the  Word  Book,  the  index  reference  will  give  at  once  the  clue  to  its  page  and  column  in  the  general 
a . .  tales.  This  Word  Hook  forms  the  larger  portion  of  the  Aids,  and  includes  Concordance,  Index, 
Proper  Names,  Gazetteer,  etc.    It  will  commend  itself  to  all  desiring  something  for  ready  reference. 

It  is  confidently  believed  that  this  new  edition  will  prove  valuable,  and  that  its  unique 
features  will  commend  themselves  to  Bible  readers  generally. 

The  American  Editor. 




These  tablets,  of  which  about  320  were  found,  are  mostly  letters  from  Phenicia,  Syria,  Pales- 
tine, Babylonia,  etc.,  to  Amenophis  III.  and  IV.  of  Egypt,  and  other  persons,  concerning  affairs 
in  those  countries  between  1500  and  14-50  B.C.  The  Museum  of  Berlin  possesses  three  in  which  the 
city  Urusalim  (Jerusalem)  is  mentioned.  The  text  of  the  tablet  here  reproduced,  which  is  one  of 
the  best  specimens  in  the  British  Museum,  is  a  letter  sent  by  Tushratta,  king  of  Mitani,  to  Mim- 
muria  (=Neb-mut-Ra,  Amenophis  III.),  king  of  Egypt,  his  son-in-law,  concerning  their  friend- 
ship, etc.,  and  asking  for  a  gift  of  gold.  A  list  of  the  gifts  sent  on  this  occasion  by  Tushratta  to 
the  king  of  Egypt  closes  the  document.    Date  about  1500  B.C. 



i„v.J  ?^0i\bl?e  ^°ne'  now  in  the  Museum  of  the  Louvre,  Paris.  It  was  found  at  Diban,  in  the 
iana  olMoab,  in  1868,  and  is  dedicated  to  Chemosh  (the  principal  god  of  the  land)  by  Mesha,  king 
2^°ir'  wh°se  victory  over  the  Israelites-  in  the  time  of  Ahab  (about  875  B.C.)  it  records,  together 
,^1  •iT?iCaP4fcJ?roe.0^  Aterotn>  Nebo,  and  Jahaz,  and  the  restoration  of  several  cities.  The  stone  is 
!S«k  o*  Y11^34  lln,es  of  inscription  in  the  Phenician  character,  and  measures  3  feet  10  inches 
?o¥  '  £*  W1?^'  and  14^  incnes  thick.  The  text  has  been  completed  from  the  paper  "squeezes" 
tafcen  before  the  original  was  broken,  the  restored  places  being  the  smoother  portion  of  the 




This  stone  is  a  slab  of  black  basalt,  discovered  in  1799  among  ruins  near  the  Rosetta  mouth  of 
the  Nile.  The  British  Museum  obtained  possession  of  it  a  little  later.  It  has  inscribed  upon  it  a 
decree  of  the  priests  of  Egypt,  at  Memphis,  in  honor  of  Ptolemy  V.,  Epiphanes,  in  recognition  of 
the  benefits  conferred  by  him  upon  his  people.  The  inscription  is  first  in  hieroglyphics,  or  the 
writing  of  the  priests;  second,  in  demotic,  or  the  writing  of  the  people;  and  third,  in  Greek.  The 
stone  furnished  the  first  clue  to  the  decipherment  of  the  Egyptian  hieroglyphics  of  the  monu- 
ments. The  Greek  inscription  was  easily  read,  and  it  being  evident  that  this  was  a  translation  of 
the  hieroglyphics,  the  key  was  obtained.  It  was  also  found  that  the  oval  rings  or  "  cartouches  " 
contained  the  royal  names,  and  from  these  a  part  of  the  alphabet  was  arranged. 




The  first  row  of  bas-reliefs  shows  the  tribute  of  Sua,  of  the  land  of  the  Kirzanaa;  the  second 
that  of  "  Yaua,  mar  Khumri"  (Jehu,  son  of  Omri)  (see  also  article  Ethnology  of  the  Bible,  par- 
agraph 6) ;  the  third  row  has  the  tribute  of  the  Musri ;  the  fourth  that  of  Marduk-abla-usur,  of  the 
land  of  the  Sukhaa:  and  the  fifth  gives  the  tribute  of  Garparunda,  of  the  land  of  the  Patinaa. 
Found  at  Nimroud  (Calah). 










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Rameses  II.  was  one  of  the  greatest  conquerors  among  the  kings  of  Egypt.  He  was  famous 
also  as  a  builder  of  temples  and  cities,  including  the  treasure-cities  of  Raamses  and  Pithom, 
built  by  the  Israelites.  He  is  regarded  as  the  Pharaoh  of  the  oppression.  In  the  illustration 
(from  a  statue  in  the  British  Museum)  he  is  kneeling,  holding  a  table  of  offerings. 



COFFIN  OF  SCRIBE  NEBSENI.     21st  DYNASTY,  BETWEEN  B.C.  1100  AND  975. 

Mummy  in  coffin  and  lid  of  coffin  beside  it. 


Shekel  of  Simon  Maccabeus.    Silver. 

Half-Shekel.    Silver. 

Coin  of  Augustus,  struck  at  Antioch;  known  in  the  New  Testament  as  the  Assarion 

or  Farthing.    Bronze. 

Denarius  of  Tiberius— the  "Penny."    Silver. 

Small  Jewish  Coin  of  Alexander  Jann^us,  probably  the  "Mite."   Bronze,    b.c.  105-78. 



%1  Hfl 

%iinmr                    -       ;"'~^8M 



This  celebrated  scroll  is  in  the  synagogue  of  Nablus  (ancient  Shechem).  It  is  written  on 
ram-skins  about  15  by  25  inches  in  size,  which  are  much  worn  and  stained.  The  text  is  writ- 
ten in  gold,  which  still  preserves  its  luster.  It  is  kept  in  a  cylindrical  silvered  case,  opened  on  two 
sets  of  hinges.  The  outside  of  the  case  is  richly  embossed  to  illustrate  the  tabernacle  of  the  wilder- 
ness, the  ark  of  the  covenant,  altars,  and  other  sacred  implements. 


;&,.  i.' w-i'«i* ■'*:■■  ill ■*'.■'■   ^j- 




The  above  page  begins  at  Deut.  4:  48,  and  closes  after  the  first  sentence  of  chap.  5:  14,  which 
verse  commences  the  last  line.  The  writing  is  read  from  right  to  left.  Points  are  put  between 
the  words,  but  the  letters  are  often  separated  from  the  word  to  which  they  belong,  in  order  to 
make  the  lines  complete,  for  in  Semitic  writing  it  is  not  allowed  to  carry  a  syllable  over  to 
the  following  line. 

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(BRITISH  MUSEUM,  OR.  4445.) 

Exodus  19:  24-20:  17,  with  the  Massorah  Magna  and  Parva. 



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I.  Tlie  Sinaitic  Codex  was  discovered  by  Tischendorf  at  Mt.  Sinai  in  1859,  and  is  now  in  the 
Imperial  Library  at  St.  Petersburg.  There  are  346%  leaves,  13%  inches  wide  and  15  finches  long. 
The  text  is  in  beautiful  uncial  letters,  and  is  of  the  fourth  century. 

II.  The  Alexandrian  Codex,  now  in  the  British  Museum,  belongs  to  the  fifth  century.  It  was 
brought  from  Egypt  in  1628.  The  letters  of  the  text  are  large  and  elegant  uncials.  Each  page  has 
two  columns,  each  of  fifty  lines,  with  about  twenty  letters  to  the  line.    (See  p.  25.) 


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1.  How  to  Study  tlie  Bible.    By  Rev.  James  Stalker,  D.D.,  Author  of  "Imago 

Christi,"  etc.,  Glasgow, 5 

2.  The  Sunday-School  Teacher's  Use  of  the  Bible.    By  Rev.  John  H.  Vincent, 

LL.D.,  Bishop  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 7 

3.  The  Christian  Worker  and  His  Bible.    By  Major  D.  W.  Whittle,  Philadelphia,        9 

(1)  For  General  Use  as  Showing  the  Plan  of  Salvation, 9 

(2)  Texts  for  Special  Cases, 10 

(3)  Forty  Questions  Answered  from  the  Word  of  God, 11 

4.  Calendar  for  the  Daily  Reading  of  the  Bible.    By  Major  D.  W.  Whittle,    -      -  12 

5.  The  Bible  and  the  Christian  Church.     By  Rev.  A.  E.  Dunning,  D.D.,  Boston, 

Secretary  of  the  Congregational  Sunday-School  Union,  ------       14 

6.  The  Inspiration  of  the  Bible.    By  the  Late  Rev.  Philip  Schaff,  D.D.,  LL.D., 

Professor  in  the  Union  Theological  Seminary,  New  York;  with  Notes  by 
Rev.  C.  H.  H.  Wright,  D.D.,  Ph.D., -       16 

7.  On  the  Interpretation  of  Scripture.     By  Prof.  Wilbert  W.  White,  Ph.D.,  As- 

sociate Director,  Biblical  Department  of  the  Bible  Institute,  Chicago,  18 


1.  The  Canon  of  the  Old  Testament.    By  Rev.  Chas.  H.  H.  Wright,  D.D.,  Ph.D., 

Grinfleld  Lecturer  on  the  LXX.,  Oxford, 21 

2.  The  Canon  of  the  New  Testament.    By  Rev.  Alfred  Plummer,  M.A.,  D.D., 

Master  of  University  College,  Durham, -23 

3.  The  Languages  and  Manuscripts  of  the  Bible.    By  Rev.  J.  P.  Landis,  D.D., 

Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Old  Testament  Theology  and  Exegesis,  Union  Biblical 
Seminary,  Dayton, 24 

4.  Ancient  Versions  of  the  Bible : 

(1)  The  Old  Testament.    By  William  Rainey  Harper,  Ph.D.,  President  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,    -- 26 

(2)  The  Old  and  New  Testaments.     By  William  Rainey  Harper,  Ph.D.,       -  26 

(3)  The  New  Testament.    By  Rev.  Alfred  Plummer,  M.A.,  D.D.,  27 

5.  The  English  Versions  of  the  Bible.    By  Rev.  Henry  Evans,  D.D.,  H.  M.  Com- 

missioner of  National  Education,  Ireland, 28 


1.  The  Old  Testament— Summary  of  the  Books.    By  George  J.  Spurrell,  M.A., 

Balliol  College,  Oxford,  Late  Examiner  in  Hebrew  and  New  Testament 
Greek,  University  of  London;  and  Rev.  Chas.  H.  H.  Wright,  D.D.,  Ph.D., 
Grinfield  Lecturer  on  the  LXX.,  University  of  Oxford,  and  Examiner  in 
Hebrew  and  New  Testament  Greek,  University  of  London, 30 

2.  The  Apocryphal  Books  of  the  Old  Testament.    By  George  J.  Spurrell,  M.A.,    -      42 

3.  The  New  Testament— Summary  of  the  Books.    By  Rev.  Alfred  Plummer,  M.A., 

D.D., 43 

4.  The  New  Testament  Apocrypha.      By  Rev.  William  Heber  Wright,  M.A., 

Trinity  College,  Dublin,  Rector  of  St.  George's,  Worthing,    -----       55 





1.  Old  Testament  Chronology.    By  Rev.  Owen  C.  Whitehouse,  M.A.,  Professor  of 

Hebrew,  Chesthunt  College,  near  London, 57 

2.  Table  of  the  Prophetical  Books.    By  Jesse  L.  Hurlbut,  D.D.,  Corresponding 

Secretary  of  the  Sunday-School  Union  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
New  York, 64 

3.  Chronology  of  Period  Intervening  Between  the  Age  of  Malachi  and  the  Birth  of 

Christ.    By  Rev.  Owen  C.  Whitehouse,  M.A., 65 

4.  Jewish  History  Between  the  Evening  of  the  Old  Testament  Dispensation  and  the 

Morning  of  the  New.  By  Rev.  J.  B.  Heard,  M.A.,  Caius  College,  Cambridge; 
Vicar  of  Queen-Charlton,  Bath;  Late  Hulsean  Lecturer  in  the  University  of 
Cambridge, 68 

5.  The  Herodian  Family  Table  in  Connection  with  the  New  Testament.    By  Rev. 

A.  R.  Fausset,  D.D.,  Canon  and  Prebendary  of  York;  Sometime  University 
Scholar  and  Senior  Classical  Moderator  of  the  Trinity  College,  Dublin,        -       -       69 

6.  Brief  Chronological  Conspectus  of  New  Testament  History,  Including  Roman  Em- 

perors and  Governors  of  Palestine.  By  Rev.  Prof.  Owen  C.  White- 
house,  M.A., 70 

7.  Summary  of  the  Gospel  Incidents  and  Harmony  of  the  Four  Gospels.    By  Rev. 

A.  R.  Fausset,  D.D., 73 

8.  Sketch  of  Apostolic   History,  Including   Paul's  Missionary  Journeys  and  the 

Voyage  to  Rome.    By  Rev.  A.  R.  Fausset,  D.D., 80 

9.  The  Sub-Apostolic  Age.    By  Rev.  Henry  Cowan,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Church  His- 

tory, University  of  Aberdeen, 81 

10.  Hebrew  Festivals.    By  Rev.  Prof.  Owen  C.  Whitehouse,  M.A., 82 

11.  Hebrew  Calendar.    By  Rev.  Prof.  Owen  C.  Whitehouse,  M.A., 85 


1.  Politico-Religious   Parties  Among  the  Jews  in  the  Time  of  Christ.    By  Rev. 

C.  R.  Blackall,  D.D.,  Editor  of  Periodicals,  American  Baptist  Publication 
Society,         -  ---------       86 

2.  The  Tabernacle  and  the  Temple,  Including  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  of  Zerubba- 

bel,  and  of  Herod.    By  Rev.  Chas.  H.  H.  Wright,  D.D.,  Ph.D.,      -      -      -       -      90 

3.  The  Messianic  Prophecies,  Inclusive  of  the  Names,  Offices,  and  Titles  of  Jesus 

Christ.  By  Rev.  George  Adam  Smith,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Hebrew  and  Old 
Testament  Exegesis,  Free  Church  College,  Glasgow, 93 

4.  New  Testament  Quotations  from  the  Old.    By  Rev.  Wibeiam  Heber  Wright, 

M.A.,  with  The  Editor, 97 

5.  References  to  the  Old  Testament  Histories  in  the  New  Testament.    By  Rev. 

Wieliam  Heber  Wright,  M.A.,  with  The  Editor, 107 

6.  Parables  and  Miracles  of  the  Bible.    By  Rev.  C.  H.  H.  Wright,  D.D.,  Ph.D.,  -       -     108 

7.  The  Lord's  Prayer.    By  Rev.  Hugh  Macmilban,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.E.,  Greenock,  -     111 

8.  The  Sermon  on  the  Mount.    By  Rev.  Alexander  Stewart,  D.D.,  Principal  of 

St.  Mary's  College,  University  of  St.  Andrews,       -  112 

9.  Hebrew  Poetry.    By  Rev.  A.  B.  Davidson,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  Professor  of  Hebrew,  etc., 

New  College,  Edinburgh, 113 

10.  The  Music  of  the  Bible.    By  Rev.  T.  K.  Abbott,  D.Litt.,  F.T.C.D.,  Professor  of 

Hebrew  in  the  University  of  Dublin, '-       -       -       -      115 

11.  Weights,  Money,  and  Measures.    By  Rev.  Proe.  Owen  C.  Whitehouse,  M.A.,    -     117 



1.  Babylonia  and  Assyria.    By  Theophiltjs  G.  Pinches,  M.R.A.S.,  Department  of 

Egyptian  and  Assyrian  Antiquities,  British  Museum,  London. 

(1)  Babylonia  and  Assyria:  History,      -----------  119 

(2)  Babylonia  and  Assyria :  Influence  of  Their  Religion  on  Israel,                        -  121 

(3)  The  Babylonian  Story  of  the  Flood, 121 

(4)  The  Bible  and  the  Literature  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria, 122 

(5)  Customs  of  the  Israelites  Which  may  be  Traced  to  Babylonia,                        -  122 

2.  Egypt.    By  Theophieus  G.  Pinches,  M.R.A.S. 

(1)  Egyptian  History, 123 

(2)  Religion  of  Egypt, 124 

3.  Persia.    By  Theophieus  G.  Pinches,  M.R.A.S. 

(1)  Persia  and  the  Jews, 124 

(2)  The  Jews  and  the  Religion  of  Persia,     - 125 

4.  Phenicia  and  Surrounding  States.    By  Theophieus  G.  Pinches,  M.R.A.S. 

(1)  Phenicia, - 125 

(2)  The    Religion  of  the   Phenicians   and   the   Nations   to  the  North  of  the 

Israelites,      - 126 

(3)  The  Aramean  States,     -      -      - 127 

(4)  The  Hittites  and  Hamath, 127 

(5)  Commercial  Relations  of  the  Israelites, 128 

(6)  Influence  of  the  Art  of  the  Nations  Around  on  that  of  Israel,     -      -      -      -  128 


1.  Geography  of  the  Bible.    By  Major  Ceaude  R.  Conder,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  M.R.A.S., 

R.E.,  Southampton, - 130 

2.  The  Ethnology  of  the  Bible.    By  Theophieus  G.  Pinches,  M.R.A.S.,  Department 

of  Assyrian  and  Egyptian  Antiquities,  British  Museum,  London,    -       -       -      137 

3.  Geology  and  Mineralogy  of  the  Land  of  the  Bible.    By  V.  Ball,  C.B.,  LL.D., 

F.R.S.,  Director,  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin,  -       -       -       -       -       -       -      142 

4.  The  Animals  and  Plants  of  the  Bible, 143 

PART  VIII.- WORD  BOOK, -       -       -       -      145 

The  explanations,  use  of  terms,  etc.,  of  the  Word  Book  are  based  principally  upon 
articles  written  by  those  whose  names  are  given  below. 

1.  Biblical  Antiquities,  Customs,  Etc.     By  Rev.  Henry  Evans,  D.D.,  H.  M.  Com- 

missioner of  National  Education,  Ireland. 

2.  Glossary  of  Archaic,  Obsolete,  and  Obscure  Words  in  the  English  Bible.     By 

Rev.  Henry  Evans,  D.D. 

3.  Alphabetical  List  of  the  Proper  Names  in  the  Bible ;  with  Their  Meanings  in  the 

Original  Languages,  and  Their  Pronunciation  in  English.    By  Rev.  C.  H.  H. 
Wright,  D.D.,  Ph.D. 

4.  All  Important  Words  in  Other  Departments— Hebrew  Months,  Festivals,  Money, 

Musical  Terms,  Etc. 

5.  Animals.    By  E.  Percevae  Wright,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Dublin;  M.A.,  Oxon.,  etc.;  Pro- 

fessor of  Botany  in  the  University  of  Dublin. 

6.  Plants.    By  E.  Percevae  Wright,  M.A.,  M.D. 

7.  Minerals.    By  V.  Baee,  C.B.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  Director,  Science  and  Art  Museum, 


8.  Names  of  Places  and  Biblical  Gazetteer,  with  References  to  Maps. 

9.  Index  to  Persons,  Places,  and  Subjects  of  the  Bible. 

10.  Concordance. 

11.  General  Index  to  the  Contents  of  these  AIDS. 

PART  IX.— MAPS  AND  PLAN  OF  HEROD'S  TEMPLE -From  Recent  Surveys. 



I.  Tel-el-Amakna  Tablet. 

II.  The  Moabite  Stone. 

III.  The  Rosetta  Stone. 

IV.  The  Black  Marble  Obelisk  of  Shalmaneser  II. 
V.  The  Prism  of  Sennacherib. 

VI.  Cylinder  of  Cyrus  II. 

VII.  Rameses  II. 

VIII.  Egyptian  Mummy  and  Its  Coffin. 

IX.  Jewish  and  Other  Coins. 

X.  The  Samaritan  Pentateuch  (Nablus). 

XI.  Page  of  the  Text  of  the  Samaritan  Pentateuch. 

XII.  Page  of  Hebrew  Manuscript. 

XIII.  Facsimiles  of  Greek  New  Testament  Manuscripts. 

(By  permission  of  American  Tract  Society,  from  Barrows'  Companion  to  the  Bible.) 

XIV.  Early  English  Manuscript  Bible,  Etc. 

(By  permission  of  American  S.  S.  Union,  from  Our  Sixty-Six  Sacred  Books,) 

XV.    Tyndale's  New  Testament. 

(From  same  as  above.) 

XVI.    View  of  Nazareth. 


The  Rosetta  Stone  as  it  Appears  in  the  British  Museum,      -       -       -       -       -       -       -  20 

Specimen  of  Anglo-Saxon  Version, - 29 

Men  and  Horses  of  King  Assur-nasir-apli  Crossing  a  River,       ------  59 

Babylonian  Brick  Inscription,        _-._ 64 

Egyptian  Mummy  and  Its  Sepulcher,- -       -       -       -  72 

The  Mosaic  Tabernacle,  --- --------  90 

Plan  of  the  Tabernacle  and  Its  Enclosure, 91 

Elamite  Musicians  Coming  to  Welcome  the  New  Ruler,        -       -       -       -       -       -       -  116 

assur-bani-apli  hunting  llons, - 119 

The  Babylonian  Account  of  the  Flood.    A  Fragment, 122 

Tiberias  and  the  Sea  of  Galilee, 129 

Jewish  Tribute-Bearers  (Black  Obelisk), 139 

Head  from  a  Statue  from  Tel-Loh  (Akkadian), ,---140 

Elamite  Soldiers  and  an  Official, ----140 




THE  best  preparation  for  the  successful  study 
of  the  Bible  is  deep  devotion  to  Him  who 
is  its  Author,  and  to  the  Saviour  of  whom  it 
speaks.  But  only  second  to  this  is  a  good  method 
of  study,  which  will  conduct  the  mind  natural- 
ly into  the  subject,  and  lead  it  on  from  attain- 
ment to  attainment.  Love  quickens  study;  and 
study,  pursued  in  the  right  way,  increases  love. 


The  way  in  which,  as  children,  we  are  taught 
to  read  the  Bible  is  to  take  a  chapter,  or  per- 
haps a  smaller  portion,  daily,  or  perhaps  twice 
a  day— in  the  morning  and  at  night;  and,  when 
those  who  may  have  dropped  the  habit  of 
Bible-reading  take  it  up  again,  during  some  sea- 
son of  religious  impression,  this  is  usually  the 
way  they  begin.  Perhaps  they  go  through  a 
book,  reading  a  chapter  every  day ;  or  they  may 
take  a  chapter  of  the  Old  Testament  in  the 
morning  and  one  of  the  New  in  the  evening. 

When  this  mode  of  reading  is  followed,  that 
which  the  reader  generally  gets  is  a  verse  here 
and  there  which  warms  his  heart  at  the  mo- 
ment and  remains  for  a  shorter  or  longer  period 
in  the  memory.  Now  and  then,  indeed,  the 
chapter  may  be  such  a  connected  whole— like 
the  fifty-third  of  Isaiah  or  the  thirteenth  of  I. 
Corinthians— that  it  goes  into  the  mind  entire ; 
and  sometimes  a  few  verses  are  so  connected 
that  they  can  scarcely  help  making  a  united 
impression;  but  in  general  the  profit  of  this 
kind  of  reading  lies  in  the  impression  made  by 
isolated  and  striking  verses. 

The  division  of  the  Bible  into  chapters  and 
verses  facilitates  this  kind  of  study,  and,  in- 
deed, was  invented  for  the  purpose.  But  these 
divisions  do  not  belong  to  the  original  book. 
On  the  contrary,  they  are  a  comparatively  mod- 
ern device. 

Of  all  modes  of  Bible  reading,  the  most  un- 
profitable and  deadening  is  to  read  a  daily 
chapter  and  then  lay  the  book  aside  without 
attempting  to  retain  any  definite  impression. 
Means,  therefore,  require  to  be  taken  to  over- 
come this  tendency.  It  is  a  good  plan,  as  we 
read,  to  pick  out  the  choicest  verse  in  the  chap- 
ter—the one  most  attractive  in  itself  or  most 
adapted  to  our  circumstances— and,  before  clos- 
ing the  book,  commit  it  to  memory.  Then  let 
it  be  kept  in  the  mind  till  the  next  reading.  In 
this  way  the  memory  is  gradually  stored  with 
a  collection  of  choice  texts,  and,  almost  una- 
wares, the  reader  becomes  the  possessor  of  spir- 
itual wealth. 

The  selected  text  may  be  imprinted  still  more 
deeply  on  the  mind  by  writing  out  a  few  lines 
of  reflection  on  it.  Something  thus  to  awaken 
the  mind  and  concentrate  the  attention  should 
be  devised  by  every  one;  because  it  is  not  mere 
reading,  but  meditation,  which  extracts  the 
sweetness  and  power  out  of  Scripture. 


There  are  many  who  never  all  their  days  ad- 
vance beyond  the  method  of  reading  the  Scrip- 
tures which  I  have  called  the  study  of  texts. 
But  it  is  a  more  masculine  and  advanced 
method  to  study  the  books  of  the  Bible  as 
connected  wholes. 

The  advantages  of  this  method  are  here  indi- 
cated. In  the  first  place,  it  makes  you  feel  the 
impression  of  the  book  as  a  whole.  Nearly 
every  book  of  the  Bible  may  be  said  to  be  a 
discussion  of  some  particular  theme.  For  ex- 
ample, Job  is  on  the  Problem  of  Evil,  Ecclesi- 
astes  is  on  the  Highest  Good,  Romans  is  on 
Righteousness,  Timothy  and  Titus  on  the  Pas- 
toral Office,  and  so  on.  It  has  pleased  God  thus 
to  give  in  his  Word  full  statements  on  a  num- 
ber of  the  greatest  subjects;  and  to  master  the 
contents  of  these  books  is  to  fill  the  mind  with 
the  great  thoughts  of  God. 

The  other  advantage  is,  that  the  different 
parts  of  a  book  are  much  more  intelligible 
when  read  in  the  light  of  the  whole.  It  is  sur- 
prising how  clear  the  meaning  of  obscure  verses 
sometimes  becomes  when  they  are  seen  in  their 
place  in  the  entire  structure  to  which  they  be- 
long; and  verses  which  have  been  impressive 
by  themselves  sometimes  receive  an  entirely 
new  importance  when  they  are  seen  to  be  the 
keystones  of  an  argument  whose  strength  de- 
pends upon  their  truth. 

Some  may  think  this  method  of  studying 
whole  books  to  be  above  them,  because  de- 
manding too  much  time.  But  few  know  how 
limited  the  Bible  literature  is.  Even  a  long 
book,  like  Job,  can  be  read  without  haste  in 
a  couple  of  hours;  and  many  books  scarcely 
take  longer  than  ordinary  letters.  In  fact,  they 
are  j  ust  letters. 

Of  course,  the  Bible  is  not  to  be  always  read 
as  quickly  as  this.  But  to  read  rapidly  is  a 
great  advantage  when  what  you  wish  is  to 
catch  the  drift  of  a  book  as  a  whole.  When  this 
has  been  done,  it  is  a  good  thing  to  note  some- 
where, say  at  the  top  of  the  book  in  your  Bible, 
what  the  theme  is  and  where  the  chief  hinges 
of  the  story  or  argument  come  in;  because, 
in  the  subsequent  reading  of  chapters  of  the 
same  book,  you  can  refer  to  this  scheme  and  see 
in  what  portion  of  the  whole  you  are. 

A  more  serious  impediment  will  sometimes 
be  encountered  in  the  difficulty  of  making  out 
what  the  drift  of  a  book  is.  The  articles  on  the 
different  books  in  any  Bible  dictionary,  or  in  Dr. 
Wright's  Introduction  to  the  Old  Testament,  or 
Dr.  Dods'  Introduction  to  the  New  Testament,  will 
help  (see  also  list  of  books  below) ;  and  the  use 
of  the  Revised  Version  along  with  the  Author- 
ized will  clear  away  many  obstacles. 

The  best  help  to  the  understanding  of  any 
book  of  the  Bible  is  knowledge  of  the  time  and 
circumstances  in  which  it  was  composed.     If 


you  know  in  what  circumstances  the  author 
was  when  he  was  writing,  and  what  was  the 
condition  of  those  he  was  writing  to,  there  is 
generally  little  difficulty  in  understanding  what 
he  says.  Id  this  way  some  of  the  Bible  hooks 
throw  light  on  one  another.  The  histories  of 
the  kings,  for  example,  in  t lie  Old  Testament, 
explain  the  prophets  who  wrote  in  the  reigns 
of  those  kings;  and  the  life  of  St.  Paul  in  the 
Acts  of  the  Apost  les  throws  light  on  his  epistles. 
Some  modern  hooks  make  excellent  use  of  the 
same  method,  among  which  there  is  no  better 
example  than  Conybeare  and  Howson's  Life  of 
St.  /'an/,  which  thus  casts  a  flood  of  light  oh 
the  apostle's  writings. 

Yet  let  it  always  he  remembered  that,  what- 
ever assistance  may  be  derived  from  these  and 
similar  sources,  the  most  serviceable  division 
for  every  one  will  be  that  which  he  has  made 
for  himself. 


This  is  a  method  of  study  more  advanced 
than  that  of  which  we  have  just  spoken,  but 
following  naturally  upon  it;  and  it  is  one 
which  at  the  present  time  is  proving  to  many 
so  fascinating  as  almost  to  make  the  Bible  a 
new  book. 

When  the  books  of  the  Bible  are  carefully  ex- 
amined, it  is  found  that  not  only  is  each  book  a 
connected  whole,  but  sometimes  several  books, 
either  on  account  of  their  chronological  prox- 
imity, or  from  being  penned  by  the  same  hand, 
or  for  other  reasons,  all  bear  the  impress  of  the 
same  type  of  thought.  It  is  advantageous  to 
study  them  together;  because  they  cast  light  on 
one  another  arid  produce  on  the  mind  a  united 
impression  or  effect.  In  the  Old  Testament  there 
are  three  outstanding  groups — the  historical, 
the  poetical,  and  the  prophetical  books;  and  in 
the  New  Testament  we  may  distinguish  four 
great  groups— first,  the  synoptic  Gospels  and  the 
Acts;  secondly,  the  writings  of  St.  Peter,  and 
along  with  them,  Hebrews,  St.  James,  and  St. 
Jude;  thirdly,  the  epistles  of  St.  Paul;  and, 
fourthly,  the  writings  of  St.  John.  Within  these 
large  groups  smaller  ones  may  be  formed. 

The  principal  charm  of  this  mode  of  study  is 
the  perception  of  the  growth  of  revelation. 
When  the  books  of  the  Bible  are  thus  arranged, 
and  the  groups  placed  in  chronological  succes- 
sion, it  becomes  manifest  at  once  that  there  is 
in  them  a  gradual  unfolding  of  the  truth.  Even 
in  the  career  of  a  single  writer,  like  St.  Paul, 
this  is  perfectly  manifest.  The  ideas  of  his  ear- 
lier epistles  are  much  simpler  than  those  of  the 
later  ones. 

The  scientific  name  given  to  the  results  of 
this  method  of  study  is  Biblical  Theology.  The 
following  books  are  helpful:  Oehler'sOtd  Tes- 
tament Theoloc/i/,  and  The  Theology  of  the  New 
Testament  by  Reuss,  Weiss,  or  Van  Oosterzee. 


The  three  methods  of  study  already  spoken  of 
inevitably  lead  on  to  a  fourth,  which  is  more 
advanced  than  any  of  them.  This  is  the  study 
of  the  doctrine  of  Scripture. 

The  study  of  verses  and  chapters  yields  us  the 
truth  contained  in  separate  morsels  of  Holy 
Writ;  and  the  study  of  whole  books  or  groups 
of  books  gives  the  mastery  of  larger  portions  of 
the  divine  revelation.  But  it  is  inevitable  to 
t  liose  who  go  so  far  to  ask,  What  is  the  message 
conveyed  by  God  to  man  in  the  Bible  as  a 
whole?  Though  the  Bible  is  a  large  collection 
of  separate  books,  each  of  which  contains  its 
own  leading  thought,  it  is,  in  another  aspect, 
one  book,  conveying  to  the  sinful  children  of 
men  the  mind  of  the  loving  and  redeeming 
God.  What, then, is  this  message?  As  we  ascer- 
tain the  meaning  of  the  verses  and  the  messages 
of  the  books,  we  arc  collecting  fragments  of  it ; 

but  what  is  it  as  a  whole?  The  catechisms,  the 
creeds,  and  the  doctrinal  systems  of  thechurehes 
are  attempts  to  answer  this  question. 

if  we,  grasping  the  message  conveyed  by  all 
the  books  taken  together,  express  it  in  our  own 
words,  we  are  doing  what  the  other  methods 
of  study,  which  every  one  applauds,  have  made 

In  like  manner,  to  avail  ourselves,  in  this 
study,  of  the  help  and  guidance  of  the  great 
and  good  who  in  the  past  have  devoted  them- 
selves to  the  same  task,  is  only  to  do  what  is 
done  in  every  other  department  of  knowledge. 
A  good  catechism  or  manual  of  Christian  doc- 
trine serves  to  the  student  of  Scripture  the 
same  purpose  as  is  served  to  the  tourist  in  Switz- 
erland or  Norway  by  his  Murray  or  Baedeker. 
He  will  be  ill-advised  indeed  if  he  does  not  use 
and  trust  his  own  eyes  and  allow  the  Scriptures 
to  make  on  him  their  own  natural  impression, 
just  as  the  traveler,  if  he  has  any  wisdom,  will 
not  wait  to  see  what  the  guide-book  says  before 
enjoying  a  lake  or  a  mountain  or  a  sunset,  if  it 
happen  to  be  beautiful.  But  the  catechism  will 
direct  him  to  the  most  important  statements  of 
Scripture,  and  acquaint  him  with  the  relation 
of  the  different  parts  of  truth  to  one  another, 
in  the  very  same  way  as  the  guide-book  con- 
ducts the  tourist  to  the  best  points  of  view 
and  shows  him,  in  the  map,  the  relation  to 
each  other  of  the  different  parts  of  the  country. 
Nor  is  it  wiser  to  scorn  such  assistance  from 
the  thinkers  of  the  past,  and  act  as  if  the  study 
of  the  Bible  had  begun  with  us,  than  it  would 
be  to  go  to  a  foreign  country  without  a  guide- 
book on  the  ground  that  every  one  should  see 
the  world  with  his  own  eyes. 

Here,  however,  as  before,  the  principle  holds 
good  that  the  truth  most  valuable  to  us  will 
be  that  which,  whether  with  assistance  from 
others  or  not,  we  have  appropriated  by  our  own 
thinking  and  confirmed  by  our  own  experience. 

A  simple  plan  is  to  take  a  single  doctrine  at  a 
time,  such  as  the  love  of  God,  the  person  of 
Christ,  or  the  destiny  of  man,  and  collect  from 
the  different  books  or  groups  of  books  in  chron- 
ological order  the  most  important  passages 
bearing  on  the  subject.  This  will  frequently 
be  found  to  yield  surprising  results,  disclosing 
unexpected  points  of  view,  and  producing  on 
the  mind  an  overwhelming  total  impression; 
and,  applied  to  truth  after  truth  round  the  circle 
of  doctrine,  it  will  supply  to  any  diligent  student 
a  comprehensive  and  scriptural  theology. 

It  has  pleased  God  to  give  us  the  whole  Bible; 
and  it  ought  to  be  the  ambition  of  the  Christian 
mind  to  take  complete  possession  of  it.  The 
volume  of  our  joy  throughout  eternity  may 
depend  on  the  faithfulness  and  diligence  with 
which  we  now  make  use  of  this  precious  herit- 

It  will  be  observed  that  these  different  modes 
of  study  do  not  exclude,  but  supplement,  one 
another.  The  simpler  lead  on  to  the  more  elab- 
orate; but  it  is  not  less  true  that  the  attempt 
to  cultivate  the  more  difficult  kinds  of  study 
will  lend  new  interest  to  the  daily  reading  of 
brief  portions  of  the  Word,  which  must  always 
for  the  great  majority  of  Christians  be  the  com- 
mon way  of  using  this  means  of  grace. 

Books  of  Reference:  In  addition  to  the  books 
mentioned  above  are,  Bishop  Ellicott's  Plain  Intro- 
ductions to  the  Books  of  the  Bible;  Dr.  W.  G.  Moore- 
head's  Outline  Studies  in  the  Books  of  the  Old  Testament; 
Farrar's  Messages  of  the  Books;  Fraser's  Synoptical  Lec- 
tures on  the  Books  of  the  Bible;  The  Cambridge  Bible  for 
Schools;  the  article  on  the  Bible  in  Chambers's  Encyclo- 
jxvdia;  Angus'  Bible  Handbook;  D.  L.  Moody's  How  to 
Study  the  Bible;  Boy oe^s  Abstract  of  Systematic.  Theology; 
Pope's  Higher  Catechism  of  Theology;  Bernard's  Prog- 
ress of  Doctrine  in  the  New  Testament;  Nicholls'  Help 
to  the  Reading  of  the  Bible;  Moody  ^  Pleasure  and  Profit 
in  Bible  Study;  Hodge's  Outlines  of  Theology;  Mill- 
ion!'s  Lejmblic  of  God;  also  books  under  various  special 


By  REV.  JOHN  H.  VINCENT,  LL.D.,  Bishop  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 


1.  The  Bible  is  the  one  text-book  of  the  Sun- 
day-school teacher. 

2.  The  Bible  becomes  exceedingly  important 
when  we  find  its  relation  to  the  work  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  in  the  salvation  of  men.  It  enlight- 
ens, quickens,  converts,  sanctifies,  edifies,  etc. 
No  wonder  it  is  in  itself  compared  to  "seed," 
"word,"  "fire,"  "manna,"  "silver,"  "gold,"  etc. 

3.  The  Bible  is  to  be  used  by  the  whole  church 
—the  ministry  and  the  laity. 

4.  The  teacher's  use  of  the  Bible,  to  be  effect- 
ive, requires  the  aid  of  the  Holy  Spirit. 

5.  The  teacher's  use  of  the  Bible  must,  how- 
ever, be  in  harmony  with  the  true,  natural,  and 
human  laws  of  teaching. 

6.  The  teacher's  use  of  trie  Bible  is  twofold- 
personal  and  professional. 

7.  The  teacher  must  use  the  Bible  to  find 
Christy  since  Christ  the  Word  is  in  his  Word. 

8.  The  teacher  must  also  seek  the  indwelling 
of  Christ,  that  he  may  say,  "I  live;  yet  not  I, 
but  Christ  liveth  in  me." 

9.  The  teacher  thus  finding  Christ  in  the 
Word,  and  having  Christ  in  his  own  soul,  will  be 
earnest,  will  love  his  pupils,  and  will  be  patient 
with  them  and  in  his  work. 

10.  Certain  important  facts' are  to  be  recog- 
nized by  the  teacher  in  his  use  of  the  Bible:  (1) 
The  Bible  is  a  human  as  well  as  a  divine  book. 
(2)  The  Bible  presents  many  difficulties  to  the 
student  of  it.  (3)  The  Bible  difficulties  may  be 
obviated  by  the  observance  of  certain  sugges- 

11.  Certain  rules  will  aid  the  teacher  in  the 
use  of  the  Bible:  (1)  He  should  make  much  of 
the  spiritual  and  ethical  aim  in  his  work.  (2) 
He  should  study  the  examples  of  teaching- work 
wmich  abound  in  the  Bible.  (3)  He  should  study 
the  Bible  independently.  (4)  He  should  study  it 
systematically.  (Guide-questions  to  exhaustive 
analysis.)  (5)  He  should  study  every  lesson  from 
a  pupil's  point  of  view.  (6)  He  should  illustrate 
fully  and  wisely.  (7)  He  should  use  the  art  of 
conversation  and  questioning.  (8)  He  should 
secure  home  work  by  his  scholars. 

12.  The  teacher's  real  work  and  his  true  prep- 


1.  The  Sunday  school  is  a  school  with  one 
text-book— the  Holy  Scriptures;  therefore,  the 
Sunday-school  teacher  must  use  the  Bible. 
Whatever  other  works  he  consults,  his  final 
authority  is  the  Bible.  Whatever  helps  he  em- 
ploys, they  must  be,  in  every  case,  helps  to  the 
better  understanding  and  use  of  the  Word  of 

2.  This  is  the  more  evident  when  one  con- 
siders the  relation  of  the  truth  as  revealed  in 
the  Holy  Scriptures  to  the  work  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  in  the  hearts  and  lives  of  men.  No  man 
can  say  in  what  way  or  how  far  the  Spirit  of 
God  acts  immediately  upon  the  human  spirit 
without  the  intervention  of  revealed  truth,  nor 
to  what  extent  other  truth  not  found  in  the 
Bible,  but  set  forth  in  nature  and  in  the  consti- 
tution of  man,  has  its  influence  in  promoting  the 
gracious  work  of  God  in  the  human  soul;  but 
this  much  is  plainly  set  forth  in  the  book  of 
divine  revelation:  The  processes  of  divine 
grace  in  the  life  of  man  are  performed  through 
the  truth  of  God  as  contained  in  the  written 
Word  of  God. 

It  is  the  w-ord  of  God  that  "quickens"  the 
soul  (Ps.  119:  50).    It  is  the  "entrance"  of  the 

word  of  God  that  giveth  "light"  (Ps.  119:  130). 
The  word  is  the  "sword  of  the  Spirit"  (Eph.  6: 
17)  which  Christ  used  with  the  adversary  in  the 
wilderness  (Matt.  4:4,  7,  10).  It  is  the  "law  of 
the  Lord "  that  is  "perfect,  converting  the  soul  " 
(Ps.  19:  7).  It  is  the  "word  of  God  which 
effectually  worketh  also  in  you  that  believe  "  (I. 
Thes.  2:  13).  It  is  the  word  of  God  which  is 
able  to  build  up  believers,  and  to  give  them  "an 
inheritance  among  all  them  which  are  sancti- 
fied" (Acts  20:  32).  Through  the  "exceeding 
great  and  precious  promises  "  of  the  Word,  be- 
lievers are  made  "partakers  of  the  divine  na- 
ture" (II.  Pet.  1:  4).  Spiritual  enlargement 
comes  from  running  in  the  way  of  God's  com- 
mandments (Ps.  119:  32). 

If  God's  Word  be  so  goodly  and  mighty  a  thing 
as  these  scriptures,  declare,  no  wonder  that  they 
who  knew  best  its  source  and  mission  should 
account  the  truth  it  contains  like  "seed" 
(Luke  8:  11),  like  a  "sword"  (Heb.  4:  12),  like  a 
"  fire  "  and  a  "  hammer  "  ( Jer.  23 :  29),  like  "  rain  " 
and  "dew"  (Deut.  32:  2).  like  "honey"  and  the 
"honey-comb"  (Ps.  19:  10),  like  "silver"  (Ps.  12: 
6),  like  "gold"  (Ps.  19:  10),  like  "thousands  of 
gold  and  silver"  (Ps.  119:  72),  and,  finally,  like 
"all  riches"  (Ps.  119:  14).  No  wonder  that  the 
Psalmist  made  it  his  song  in  the  house  of  his 
pilgrimage  (Ps.  119:  54),  and  that  his  delight  was 
in  the  law  of  the  Lord,  in  which  he  meditated 
day  and  night  (Ps.  1:  2).  No  wonder  that  we  are 
exhorted  to  take  earnest  heed  what  we  hear 
(Mark  4:  24),  and  how  we  hear  (Luke  8:  18).  No 
wonder  that  earnest  Jews  searched  the  Scrip- 
tures (John  5:  39),  and  that  the  Bereans  were 
commended  as  being  "  more  noble  than  those  in 
Thessalonica,  in  that  they  received  the  word 
with  all  readiness  of  mind,  and  searched  the 
Scriptures  daily"  (Acts  17:  11). 

3 .  It  is  this  wonderful  Word  which  the  Sunday- 
school  teacher,  as  one  of  the  servants  and  officers 
of  the  church,  must  use  in  all  his  work.  Parents 
at  home,  like  the  mother  of  Timothy  (II.  Tim. 
1:  5;  3:  15);  men  like  Aquila;  women  like  Pris- 
cilla,  in  their  own  places  of  abode  (Acts  18:  26), — 
all  church  members,  from  apostles  and  prophets 
to  deacons  and  unofficial  disciples,  are  to  set 
forth  the  word  of  life.  Here  among  divinely 
called  and  appointed  teaching-disciples  stand 
the  Sunday-school  teachers. 

4.  But  since  it  is  the  "church  of  the  living 
God"  (I.  Tim.  3:  15)  in  which  the  teacher  serves, 
he  may  trust  in  divine  aid.  "Not  by  might,  nor 
by  power,  but  by  my  Spirit,  saith  the  Lord  of 
hosts"  (Zech.  4:  6).  And  the  best  use  to  which 
the  Sunday-school  teacher  can  put  his  Bible  is 
to  find  in  it  doctrine  and  promise  on  which  he 
can  rest. 

5.  In  the  use  of  his  Bible  the  Sunday-school 
teacher  must  remember  that  while  his  work  is 
spiritual,  and  dependent  upon  divine  coopera- 
tion, he  is  to  observe  all  natural  laws  of  teaching 
which  are  based  upon  a  wise  human  psychol- 
ogy. By  the  best  processes  of  instruction,  which 
represent  the  most  advanced  thought  of  modern 
educators,  the  Sunday-school  teacher  must  use 
his  text-book  in  gaining  access  to  his  pupils, 
winning  and  holding  their  attention,  exciting 
curiosity,  eliciting  questions  and  statements  of 
their  own,  training  memory,  encouraging  rigid 
analysis,  developing  self-activity  and  self-appli- 
cation. In  the  use  of  his  Bible  the  Sunday- 
school  teacher  should  seek  to  be  at  his  human 
best  in  his  personal  qualifications  and  in  his 
method  of  work. 

6.  It  will,  therefore,  easily  appear  that  there 


is  a  twofold  use  to  be  raade  of  the  Bible  by 
the  Sunday-school  teacher,  the  one  personal  and 
the  other  professional.  He  must  know,  and  be 
possessed  by,  the  truth;  and  he  must  be  able 
rightly  to  divide  and  wisely  to  apply  it.  The 
first  is  necessary  to  the  second. 

7.  As  a  means  to  this  the  teacher  must  under- 
stand the  relation  of  the  personal  Christ  to  the 
Scriptures.  Are  they  not  the  "word  of  Christ"? 
(Col.  3:  16.)  Old  Trapp  says:  uThe  Babe  of  Beth- 
lehem is  wrapped  up  in  the  swathing  bands  of 
both  Testaments."  The  whole  book  is  full  of 
him.  lie  is  the  keystone  of  the  arch;  the  heart 
of  the  Holy  Scriptures;  the  Sun  of  righteous- 
ness among  the  planets  that  shine  in  Psalms, 
Prophets,  Gospels,  and  Epistles.  The  teacher 
begins  the  proper  use  of  Scriptures  when  he 
begins  with  Christ.  Since  the  teacher  rightly 
1  Kindling  the  Word  is  bringing  Christ  to  his 
pupils,  with  what  loving  tenderness,  what  scru- 
pulous care,  what  holy  reverence,  should  he 
use  it! 

8*  There  is  another  feature  of  the  divine  rev- 
elation to  man  which  the  Sunday-school  teacher 
must  remember.  Not  only  does  Christ  dwell  in 
the  Word  whieh  the  teacher  is  to  use,  but  Christ 
may  dwell  in  the  heart  of  the  teacher  himself. 
He  may  sit  before  his  class  with  the  Word  of 
Christ  in  his  hand,  and  with  the  very  life  and 
personal  force  of  Christ  in  his  heart.  Here  is 
the  Sunday-school  teacher's  best  preparation  for 
using  his  Bible.    He  not  only  knoivs,  he  is. 

9.  Among  the  effects  of  such  use  of  the  Bible 
as  one  makes  who  rinds  Christ  in  it  and  draws 
Christ  from  it  into  his  own  life,  will  be  a  pecu- 
liar earnestness;  an  ardent  love  for  the  pupil,  a 
love  for  the  very  soul  life,  regardless  of  social 
position,  personal  attraction,  or  intellectual  gifts; 
so  that  no  stone  will  be  left  unturned,  no  page  or 
text  will  be  left  unexamined,  no  device  unem- 
ployed, for  the  bringing  of  Christ  and  the  re- 
deemed soul  together. 

10.  Certain  important  facts  are  to  be  remem- 
bered by  the  teacher,  lest  he  be  too  easily  dis- 
heartened in  his  great  work. 

(1)  The  Bible  is  in  one  sense  a  human  book, 
and  there  are  many  human  marks  about  it.  The 
divine  treasure  has  been  given  to  us  in  earthen 
vessels.  God  has  revealed  himself  through  hu- 
man eyes  and  ears,  intellect  and  hearts,  tongues 
and  pens.  The  book  is  God's  book,  but  he  has 
used  men  in  the  making  and  completing  of  it, 
and  by  this  process  man  is  immensely  helped, 
and  is  still  further  to  be  helped,  as  the  original 
gift  of  God  in  the  most  ancient  tongues  is  grad- 
ually unveiled  and  set  forth  through  human 
investigation  and  scholarship. 

(2)  The  Bible  is  full  of  difficulties— the  ancient 
languages,  the  references  to  almost  obsolete 
usages,  the  idiosyncrasies  of  the  Bible  writers, 
the  Oriental  imagery  employed,  the  divine  in- 
terpositions in  miraculous  deeds,  the  mysteries 
of  divine  providence,  the  severities  and  appar- 
ent cruelties  of  the  divine  administration,  the 
gross  inconsistencies  of  certain  Scripture  char- 
acters, whose  lives  are  recorded,  and  who,  in 
spite  of  their  sins,  receive  proof  in  words  and 
in  official  promotion  of  the  divine  commenda- 
tion. Again,  the  Bible  is,  in  fact,  a  book  so 
different  from  the  ideal  revelation.  It  is  not 
at  all  a  systematic  and  carefully  classified  series 
of  plain  and  applied  principles.  It  is  a  book  of 
ancient  history,  full  of  hard  names,  indefinite 
chronologies,  unattractive  genealogies,  bloody 
battles  and  transactions,  some  of  which  it  is 
painful  and  almost  impossible  to  read  to  little 
children.  The  Snnday-school  teacher,  in  his 
casual  and  professional  reading,  in  his  conver- 
sation in  parlor  and  class,  must  meet  these  em- 
barrassments. He  cannot  refuse  to  consider 
them  as  unworthy  of  his  notice.  What  shall 
he  do? 

(3)  The  old  commentator  Trapp  says,  con- 
cerning   the    difficulties    of  Scripture,    "  Plain 

places  therein  are  for  our  nourishment,  hard 
places  for  our  exercise."  The  Bible  as  a  true 
history  of  rugged  times  must  reflect  the  features 
of  the  ages  it  represents.  It  was  not  meant  to  be 
"an  easy  book."  To  the  man  who  really  desires 
to  know,  love,  and  obey  the  truth,  there  are 
no  insurmountable  obstacles  in  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures. Difficulties  that  there  appear  speedily 
vanish  before  his  spirit  of  surrender  to  the  will 
of  God.  "If  any  man  will  do  his  will,"  saith  the 
Christ,  "he  shall  know  of  the  doctrine,  whether 
it  be  of  God,  or  whether  I  speak  of  myself" 
(John  7:  17). 

11.  Let  us  therefore  present  certain  rules  to 
govern  the  teacher  in  his  use  of  the  Bible: 

(1)  It  will  at  once  appear  that  the  most  im- 
portant work  of  the  teacher  is  to  present  to  his 
pupils,  with  much  urgency,  the  spiritual  and 
ethical  claims  of  the  book.  They  must  accept 
Christ  as  their  righteousness,  but  they  them- 
selves for  this  reason  must  be  righteous. 

(2)  The  teacher  may  rind  in  the  Bible  abun- 
dant illustrations  of  the  true  principles  and 
methods  of  teaching;  processes  adopted  by  pa- 
triarchs, prophets,  .and  apostles,  in  the' pro- 
claiming, upholding,  applying,  and  enforcing 
of  truth;  plans  for  arresting  and  riveting  atten- 
tion; for  illuminating  doctrine  and  ethics;  for 
answering  objections;  for  enlightening  and 
quickening  the  conscience;  for  exciting  fear, 
kindling  desire,  and  bringing  to  decision.  Every 
fundamental  teaching  process  finds  clear  and 
attractive  illustration  somewhere  in  this  great 
text-book,  so  "profitable  for  doctrine,  for  re- 
proof, for  correction,  for  instruction  in  right- 
eousness "  (II.  Tim.  3: 16).  In  Jesus  we  have  the 
perfection  of  teaching.  To  understand  him,  to 
master  his  methods,  to  possess  his  spirit,  is  to 
become  a  teacher  of  the  highest  order.  There- 
fore let  the  Sunday-school  teacher  use  his  Bible 
to  gather  from  it  lessons  in  teaching,  and  espe- 
cially from  the  great  Model.  Study  carefully 
every  word  he  used,  every  conversation  he 
conducted,  every  figure  of  speech,  every  method 
of  arresting  attention,  every  argument,  every 
reference  to  his  own  times,  and  every  quota- 
tion wThich  he  made  from  the  Old  Testament. 

(3)  The  teacher  must  study  his  Bible  inde- 
pendently, going  to  it  alone  before  consulting 
commentaries  or  other  human  helps.  The  ap- 
petite for  the  truth  will  be  whetted,  intellectual 
freshness  and  vigor  increased,  and  with  en- 
larged capacity  he  will  turn  to  the  library  for 
the  help  which  other  men  have  provided. 

(4)  The  teacher  must  study  his  Bible  systemat- 
i  cally.  He  must,  first  of  all,  collate  every  passage 
from  the  entire  book  bearing  upon  the  subject 
in  hand,  all  parallel  accounts  of  the  same  events, 
miracles,  conversations,  sermons,  with  all  inci- 
dental references.  This  will  form  his  body  of 
biblical  authority.  He  should  then  critically 
analyze  the  text  material  thus  provided,  by 
some  such  series  of  questions  as  the  following: 

First.  Some  person  here  writes,  and  he  writes 
to  or  for  some  other  person  or  persons.  Who 
writes?  To  whom?  He  writes  concerning  some 
person  or  persons,  meaning  or  referring  to  them. 
Who  are  they?   What  do  we  know  about  them? 

Second.  Tliese  persons  speaking,  acting,  writ- 
ing, or  written  to,  named,  or  simply  referred  to, 
must  have  lived  in  some  country,  city,  or  other 
locality  named  or  implied.  Where  are  the  places 
of  this  lesson—the  topographical  elements  of  it? 
Can  we  find  them  on  the  map?  What  can  we 
find  out  about  them  — their  connection  with 
other  biblical  events,  and  the  accounts  given 
of  them  by  travelers? 

Th  ird.  All  persons  who  here  sustain  a  relation 
to  place,  also  sustain  a  relation  to  time.  There- 
fore we  ask:  When  did  these  people  in  these 
places  do  or  say  the  things  here  recorded?  Or 
when  were  they  recorded?  What  references  do 
we  find  here  to  days,  hours,  seasons,  festivals, 
months,  years? 


Fourth.  And  now  we  come  to  the  historical 
questions.  What  things  are  here  written  con- 
cerning these  persons,  in  these  places,  at  these 
times?  What  did  they  do?  What  did  they  say? 
Who  had  the  most  to  say  or  do?  How  far  did 
the  words  or  acts  of  one  person  or  class  of  per- 
sons influence  the  words  or  acts  of  other  persons 
introduced  in  this  scripture? 

Fifth.  Through  this  passage,  biographical,  his- 
torical, didactic,  runs  a  divine  thought.  There 
are  some  direct  teachings  or  truths  to  be  in- 
ferred, concerning  God,  man,  sin,  personal 
character,  the  past,  the  present,  the  future. 
What  are  these  teachings  or  doctrines  ? 

Sixth.  All  this  history,  biography,  doctrine, 
has  an  ethical  significance  and  design.  It  is 
intended  in  some  way  to  lay  down  laws  of 
practical  life.  There  are  here  some  duties 
specifically  stated  or  easily  inferred,  which 
every  student  of  Scripture  should  be  able  to 
know  and  obey.  What  are  these  duties?  For 
the  teacher?    For  the  pupil? 

Seventh.  All  ancient  history,  especially  that 
which  records  an  extinct  civilization,  is  sure  to 
contain  many  things  which  are  obscure  and 
which  perplex  the  student— references  to  ob- 
solete customs,  to  eccentricities  of  conduct  and 
government,  to  relations  of  individuals,  and  to 
administration  of  divine  government.  There 
occur  verbal  and  grammatical  difficulties  in  the 
text,  apparent  discrepancies  of  various  kinds, 
affecting  the  very  foundations  of  faith.  What 
are  these  difficulties?  What  added  difficulties 
are  likely  to  present  themselves  to  the  youthful 
student,  who,  hearing  of  them  from  irreverent 
skeptics,  may  come  to  his  teacher  at  any  time 
with  his  hard  questions  ? 

(5)  The  teacher  having  then  analyzed  his 
lesson,  and  having  transferred  the  whcle  sub- 
ject to  his  own  mind,  that  he  may  have  it  well 
in  hand  for  further  study,  should  again  and 
again  look  at  it  from  the  point  of  view  occupied 
by  his  pupils.  A  vivid  conception  of  their  con- 
dition and  necessities  will  present  the  subject  to 
his  own  mind  in  a  new  light.  He  should  there- 
fore form  the  habit  of  thinking  intently  and 
sympathetically  upon  each  scholar  in  his  class, 
his  home  life,  hindrances,  faults,  perils,  most 
immediate  need,  and  then  review  the  already 
carefully  prepared  lesson  with  this  thought 
burning  in  his  heart:  "How  shall  I  make  this 
lesson  most  profitable  to  this  pupil?  " 

(6)  The  teacher  must  employ  the  illustrative 
element  in  his  class  work.  The  open  eyes  of 
wide-awake  youth  must  be  arrested,  the  imagi- 
nation stimulated.  Objects,  incidents,  compari- 
sons, similes,  metaphors,  parables,  facts  of  this 

busy  everyday  world,  historical  anecdotes, 
mental  pictures,  must  be  employed  to  place  the 
truth  vividly  and  attractively  before  the  learner. 

(7)  The  Sunday-school  teacher,  like  all  success- 
ful teachers,  must  master  the  art  of  questioning. 
This  is  necessary  to  find  out  what  the  scholar 
knows;  to  stimulate  his  desire  to  know  more; 
to  give  him  knowledge  by  making  him  seek  it; 
and  finally,  to  test  the  teacher's  own  work. 
Attention  is  necessary  to  success  in  teaching 
and  in  learning,  and  attention  which  is  simply 
the  stretching  of  the  pupil's  mind  with  desire 
and  purpose,  will  break  out  into  numberless 
questions.  When  this  end  is  attained,  the  suc- 
cess of  the  teacher  is  assured. 

(8)  The  teacher  should  awaken  within  the  pupil, 
first,  an  interest  in  the  subject  matter  of  the 
lesson  for  the  ensuing  Sabbath,  an  interest  suf- 
ficient to  secure  some  advance  preparation ;  and 
second,  an  interest  in  his  own  spiritual  and 
eternal  welfare,  that  he  may  apply  to  his  heart 
and  life  the  truths  which  he  finds. 

12.  To  save  his  scholars  from  all  evil,  by 
leading  them  to  know  Christ,  in  whom  abides 
all  good;  to  develop  within  them,  through  the 
divine  grace  and  truth,  the  love  of  God  and  the 
love  of  men;  to  make  conscience  tender  and 
intelligent,  faith  simple  and  strong,  the  will 
prompt  and  firm,  and  the  outward  life  consist- 
ent and  useful,— this  is  the  varied  and  divine 
mission  of  the  Sunday-school  teacher.  That  he 
may  do  his  work  well  the  teacher  must  be  a 
Christian  in  experience  as  well  as  in  profession ; 
a  consistent  Christian  in  life  and  deportment; 
a  Christian  teacher  in  life  and  tact,  and  a  Chris- 
tian friend  in  sympathy  and  helpfulness.  What 
he  is  and  does  will  be  a  living  proof  of  the  truth 
he  teaches,  and  he  may  then  say  in  all  sincerity 
and  humility  to  those  who  are  under  his  care, 
"  Follow  me  as  I  follow  Christ." 

"Blessed  Lord,  who  hast  caused  all  Holy 
Scriptures  to  be  written  for  our  learning,  grant 
that  we  may  in  such  wise  hear  them,  read, 
mark,  learn,  and  inwardly  digest  them,  that 
by  patience  and  comfort  of  thy  Holy  Word  we 
may  embrace  and  ever  hold  fast  the  blessed 
hope  of  everlasting  life  which  thou  hast  given 
us  in  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.    Amen." 

Books  of  Eepeeence:  H.  C.  Trumbull's  Teaching 
and  Teachers,  Yale  Lectures  on  the  Sunday  School,  and 
Principles  and  Practice;  Boy n ton's  The  Model  Sunday 
School;  Bishop  J.  H.  Vincent's  The  Modern  Sunday 
School  and  A  Study  in  Pedagogy;  Lyon's  The  Sunday 
School;  Gregory's  Seven  Laws  of  Teaching;  Holborn's 
The  Bible:  The  Sunday-School  Text-Book;  Hurlbut's 
Revised  Normal  Outlines  and  Studies  in  Old  Testament 



Arranged  by  D.  W.  WHITTLE,  Philadelphia. 

"He  that  winneth  souls  is  wise." — Pro  v.  11:  30. 
" The  entrance  of  thy  words  giveth  light."— Ps.  119:  130. 


GROUP  1. 

Ruin  by  sin,  Isa.  53:  6;  Ps.  53:  2,  3. 
Redemption  by  Christ,  John  3:  16. 
Regeneration  by  the  Spirit,  John  1:  12, 13. 

GROUP  2. 

Under  the  curse,  Gal.  3:  10. 

A  Saviour  provided,  Gal.  4:  4,  5. 

What  he  has  done,  Gal.  3:  13. 

How  he  is  received,  Gal.  3:  1,  2. 

GROUP  3. 

Man  guilty,  Rom.  3:  19. 
Cannot  be  justified  by  law,  Rom.  3:  20. 
Justification  provided  by  grace,  Rom.  3:  24. 
The  death  of  Christ  the  procuring  cause,  Rom. 

3:  24,  25. 
Justified  by  faith,  Rom.  5:  1. 



GROUP  4. 

What  you  are,  Rom.  3:  23. 

Where  you  are,  John  3:  18. 

Whose  you  are,  Eph.  2:  2. 

Jesus  a  Saviour,  Matt.  1:  21. 

God  laid  our  sins  upon  him,  Isa.  53:  6. 

He  bore  them,  I.  Pet.  2:  24. 

Our  sins  removed,  Ps.  103:  12. 

GROUP  5. 
Confession  of  sin,  Luke  18:  13. 
Confession  of  helplessness,  Rom.  7:  18. 
Invited  to  call  on  the  Lord,  Rom.  10:  13. 
Invited  to  come  to  the  Lord,  Matt.  11:  28. 

GROUP  6. 

No  power  but  of  God,  Rom.  13:  1. 
God's  power  in  the  gospel,  Rom.  1:  16. 
Self  must  die  to  know  this  power,  Gal.  2:  20. 
Power  to  live  as  a  child  of  God,  Col.  1:  10,  11. 
Power  to  preach  Christ,  Rom.  15:  19. 

GROUP  7. 

Under  power  and  penalty  of  sin,  Eph.  2:  1-3,  12. 
Grace  in  God  the  source  of  redemption,  Eph. 

2:  8,  9. 
The  death  of  Christ  the   fact   of  redemption, 

Eph.  1:  7. 
When  Christ  is  trusted  we  have  redemption, 

Eph.  1:  12,  13. 
Fruit  of  faith,  Eph.  5:  1,  18-20. 

GROUP  8. 

False:  Based  on  ignorance,  Luke  12:  16-20. 
Based  on  self-righteousness,  Luke  18:  9. 
Based  on  a  seared  conscience,  I.  Tim.  4:  2. 
True:  Based  on  sin  judged  and  forgiven,  Eph. 
2:  14,  17;  Col.  1:  20;  John  20:  19-22. 
Maintained  by  confession  to  God,  confidence, 
and  communion,  I.  John  1:  9;  Isa.  26:  3,  4; 
Phil.  4:  4-9. 

GROUP  9. 

A  sinner  under  law,  Jas.  2:  10;  Rom.  2:  3. 

A  disobedient  child,  Mai.  1:  6. 

A  rebellious  subject,  Luke  19:  14. 

A  despiser  of  grace,  John  5:  40. 

Christ  exalted  to  give  repentance,  Acts  5:  31. 

GROUP  10. 

Salvation  needed,  Rom.  3:  9,  10. 
Salvation  provided,  Rom.  5:  8. 
Salvation  proffered,  Acts  13:  38,  39. 
Salvation  rejected,  Acts  13:  45,  46. 
Salvation  accepted,  Acts  13:  48. 

GROUP  11. 

Heart  wrong,  Matt,  22:  37-39. 
Life  wrong,  Rom.  2:  1-3. 
Consequences,  Rom.  2:  8,  9. 
Present  need,  Ps.  51:  10. 
Present  duty,  Isa.  1:  16-18. 
God's  present  offer,  Isa.  43:  24-26. 

GROUP  12. 

Christ's  invitation,  Matt.  11:  28. 
Who  are  invited?    Rev.  22: 17. 
Who  will  come?    John  0:  44,  65. 
What  is  it  to  come?    Rom.  10:  9,  10. 
What  will  Christ  do?    John  6:  37. 

GROUP  13. 

Salvation  a  gift,  Rom.  5:  15. 

Through  Jesus  Christ,  Rom.  6:  23. 

Ask  him  for  it,  John  4:  10;  Luke  11:  13;  18:  13. 

Receive  by  faith,  Mark  2:  5;  11:  24. 

GROUP  14. 

Christ  exalted  to  give  repentance,  Acts  5:  31. 
Christ  preached  in  order  to  lead  to  repentance* 

Luke  24:  47. 
Repentance  secured  by  Christ's  being  accepted, 

Acts  9:  6. 

GROUP  15. 

Where  Christ  finds  us,  Gal.  3:  22,  23. 

Personal  contact  through  the  word,  John  17:  20; 

Rom.  10:  17. 
The  Spirit  of  God  from  Christ.  John  7:  39;  10:  10. 
Where  Christ  takes  us,  Eph.  2:  6-8. 
How  Christ  keeps  us,  John  10:  27-29. 

GROUP  16. 

The  Natural  Man,  Gen.  5:1-3;  6:  5,  13:  Ps.  43:  1-3; 

Matt.  15:  18,  19;  Gal.  5:  19-21;  Rom.  8:  7,  8; 

I.  Cor.  2:  14. 
The  Spiritual  Man,  I.  Cor.  15:  47-50;  John  3:  3,  5; 

1:  14,  16,  12,  13;  Jas.  1:  18;  I.  Pet.  1:  3,  23,  25; 

Gal.  4:  4-7;  I.  John  5:  1,  4,  5. 
The  Two  Natures  in  One  Man,  John  3:  6;  Rom. 

7:  21-23;  Gal.  5:  16,  17;  I.  John  1:  8-10;  3:  9,  1. 

Cor.  9:  27;   10:  11-13:   II.  Cor.  12:  7-9;  Acts 

15:  37-39;  II.  Cor.  4:  10,  11;  Phil.  3:  20,  21;  I. 

Cor.  15:  51-54;  Rom.  8:  21-23;  Rom.  13:  14. 


Where  the  Deity  of  Christ  is  Doubted. 

John  1:  1-3,  14,  18,  34,  49;  I.  John  1:  1-3;  5:  10-13.  20; 
Acts  4:  10-12;  Rom.  1:1-4;  Matt.  22:  42-45; 
John  12:  38-41,  with  Isa.  6;  John  9:  35-38; 
14:  9;  19:  7;  Mark  14:  61-64. 

Where  Christ's  Substitutionary  Work  as  the  Sac- 
rifice for  Sin  is  Rejected. 

Isa.  53:  12, with  Luke22:  37;  Matt.  26:  27,28;  Mark 
10:45;  Luke  24:  44-48;  Johnl:29;  6:51;  10:15- 
IX;  Acts  <S:  30-35;  Rom.  4:  25;  7:  4;  8:  3;  10:4; 
I.  Pet.  1:  18, 19;  2:24;   3:18;  Rev.l:5,6. 

Where  the  Divine  Authority  of  the  Word  of 
God  in  Holy  Scripture  is  Questioned. 

John  5:  39;  15:  26,  27;  20:  30,  31: 1.  John  1:1-4;  John 
17:  20;  II. Tim.  3: 13-17;  II.  Pet.  1: 21;  3: 15, 16. 

How  to  Believe. 

Rom.  10:  17;  I.  John  5:  9-13;  II.  Tim.  1:  12;  Heb. 
11:  1-6;  Eph.  1:  12,  13;  Luke  24:  27;  John 
4:  50:  9:  11;  7:  17;  Acts  8:  35-37;  10:  43;  16:  14, 
31;  Rom.  10:  8-11;  I.  Cor.  15:  1-4;  John  20: 

Commands  to  Forsake  Sin. 

Isa.  55:  7;  5£:  1-3;  Luke  3:  8'  John  5:  14;  Acts 
19:  18,  19;  20:  21;  26:  20;  I.  Tim.  1:  5;  Matt. 
5:  23,  24;  6:  15;  Ezek.  33:  11-15;  Mic.  6:  8. 

Encouragement  for  Great  Sinners. 

Isa.  43:  22,  26;  I.  Tim.  1:  11-16;  Luke  7:44-50;  I. 
Cor.  6:9-11;  Eph.  2:  3-10;  Isa.  44:22;  John 
10:  9-11;  II.  Chr.  33:  9,  12,  13;  Ps.  116:  1-6; 
Luke  19:  10;  18:  13,  14;  15:  18-20;  Mark  16:  15; 
Matt.  9:  12,  13. 



How  to  be  Kept. 
I.  Pet.  1:  5;    Isa.  41:  10:    40:  27-31;    45:  22,  24;    I. 
Pet.  2:  2;  Col.  3:  16;  John  15:  4,  7;  I.  John 
2:  24-29. 

For  Dark  Days. 
Isa.  50:  10;  Job  13:  15-18;  Mic.  7:  7,  8;  Ps.  37:  1-11 
Nah.  1:  7;  Heb.  10:  35-37;  13:  5,  6;  I.  Pet.  4 
12-14;  5:  4,  7-11;   II.   Cor.   4:  16-18;   Rom.  8 
22,  23;  I.  Thes.  4:  13-18;  Hab.  3:  17-19. 

For  Backsliders. 

(Let  such  go  carefully  through  with  the  texts  of 
Group  2,  and  see  if  they  have  ever  truly 
trusted  Christ,  and  understood  redemp- 
tion.)    Mai.  3:  10;    Mic.  2:  7;    Hos.  14:  1-4; 

Jer.  31:  18-20;  Ps.  32,  51;  Luke  22:  61,  62; 
Mark  16:  7;  I.  John  1:  7-9;  2:  1,  2. 

For  Those  Who  Look  to  Feeling  for  Faith. 

1.  Feeling  not  to  be  trusted,  Jer.  17:  9;  Luke 

18:  11,  12. 

2.  God    speaks    to    us    through    his   word,  not 

through  our  feelings,  Jer.  23:  25-30;  Ps. 
119:  113-117:  John  5:  24;  Rom.  10:  12-17. 

3.  The  witness  of  the  Holy  Spirit  is  received  by 

our  receiving  his  testimony  to  Christ  in 
the  written  word,  I.  John  5:  9-13;  Eph.  1: 12- 
14;  Rom.  16:  25,  26,  with  Rom.  8:  1-4,  15,  16. 

4.  Feelings  fluctuate,  but  God's    word  is  un- 

changeable, Rom.  3:  3,  4;  4:  20,  21;  II.  Tim. 
1:  12;  Rom.  8:  23,  with  34-39;  I.  Pet.  1:  7,  23- 
25;  John  3:  34-36. 


1.  How  may  I  know  that  there  is  a  G-odf   John 

1:14,  18;   14:9-14;  20:29-31;  Rom.  1:20;   Ps. 
19:  1;  Isa.  43:  9,  10;  Hos.  3:  4,  5;  John  8:  47. 

2.  How  can  I  know  that  the  Bible  is  true?   John 

5:  39,  40;  John  7:  17;  Acts  17:  11,  12. 

3.  How   can    I  understand   the    Bible?    I.  Cor. 

2:  9-14;  John  16:  13;  Luke  11:  13. 

4.  If  a  man  does  the  best  he  can,  will  he  not  go  to 

heaven?  John  3:  5,  6,  36;  Rom.  3:  19,  20;  Gal. 
3:  10. 

5.  If  a  man  honestly  thinks  he  is  on  the  right  road, 

will  he  be  condemned?  Prov.  14:  12;  Rom. 
3:3,  4;  Acts  17:30. 

6.  Can't  a  man  be  a  Christian  without  believing 
that  Christ  was  the  Son  of  God?  I.  John  5:  9- 
13,  20;  John  20:  28-31;  Matt.  16:  13-18. 

7.  Why  was  the  death  of  Christ  needed  to  save 
men?    Rom.  8:  3;  Gal.  3:  10;  Rom.  5:  12,  19. 

8.  What  is  the  first  thing  to  do  in  becoming  a 

Christian?  Matt.  11:  28;  John  6:  29,  37;  Acts 
16:  31. 

9.  What  is  the  next  thing?  Matt.  10:  32;  Rom. 
10:  9,  10;  Heb.  13:  15,  16. 

10.  Must  I  not  feel  my  sins  before  I  can  come  to 

Christ?  How  can  I  do  this?  Rom.  7:  13; 
John  16:  8,  9;  Acts  2:  36,  37;  Zech.  12:  10. 

11.  Must  I  not  repent?  What  is  repentance?  How 
can  I  repent?  Luke  24:  46,  47;  Acts  5:  30, 
31;  Acts  20:  21;  Luke  15:  17,  18. 

How  do  I  come  to  Christ?  Isa.  55:  7;  I.  John 
1:1-3;  Rom.  10:  8-17;  Mark  10:  49,  50. 
What  is  it  to  accept  of  Christ?  John  1:  11, 
12;  Rom.  6:  23;  John  4:  10;  Eph.  2:  8. 
How  may  I  get  faith?  Rom.  10:  17;  Eph.  1:  12, 
13;  Luke  16:  29-31;  John  5:  39,  46,  47;  John 
4:50;  Luke  17:  5. 

How  can  I  know  that  my  sins  are  forgiven  ? 
Mark  2:  5;  Luke  7:  48-50;  Acts  13:  38,  39;  I. 
Johnl:  9. 

How  can  I  tell  that  I  love  God?  I.  John 
4:  10,  19;  Rom.  5:  5-8;  Eph.  2:  4-8. 
Why  will  not  the  Lord  shoiv  himself  to  me,  and 
speak  to  me,  as  he  did  to  Paid?  I.  Tim. 
1:  16;  John  17:  20;  John  20:  29;  I.  Pet.  1:  8; 
John  14:  16-18. 

How  may  I  know  that  the  Spirit  of  God  has 
come  to  me?  John  16:  8;  I.  Cor.  12:  3;  Gal. 
5:  22,23;  I.  John  3:  14. 

Wliy  do  church  members    do  wrong?     Phil. 
3:  18,  19;  I.  Tim.  4:  1,  2;  II.  Tim.  3:  1-5;  Gal. 
5:  17;  6:1. 
Why    are  there  so  many   different  churches? 

I.  Cor.  3:  1-5;  I.  Cor.  12:  12-14;  I.  Cor.  11:  19; 

II.  Pet.  2:  1,  2;  Eph.  1:  17-23. 
Must  I  join  the  church  to  be  a  Christian  ?  Matt. 
28:  18-20;  Acts  2:  38-42,  47;  Heb.  10:  25. 

22.  Are  dancing,  card-playing,  and  theater-going 

wrong  for  Christians?    I.  John  2: 15-17;  John 
17:  14-19;  I.  Pet.  4:  2-5. 

23.  How  shall  I  overcome  the  world?    Col.  3:  1-6; 

I.  John  5:  4,  5;  Gal.  1:  4. 

24.  Why  do  good  Christians  have  so  much  trouble 
in  the  world?  I.  Cor.  11:  32;  Ps.  94:  12,  13; 
Heb.  12:  6-11;  I.  Pet.  4:  i2-19. 

25.  How  shall  I  find  deliverance  from  the  power  of 
sins  that  I  have  practiced  ?  Rom.  6 :  9-14 ;  Epli. 
6:  10-18;  I.  Pet.  5:  6-10. 

26.  If  I  sin  after  I  become  a  Christian,  will  God 
forgive  me  ?  Rom.  13 :  14 ;  I.  John  2:1,2;  Heb. 
4:  14-16;  Jas.  5:  16;  Matt.  18:  21,  22. 

27.  What  is  the  sin  against  the  Holy  Ghost?  Mark 
3:  28-30;  Heb.  10:  28,  29;  Acts  8:  18-23. 

28.  How  ivill  I  know  that  I  am  one  of  the  elect? 

John  3 :  16 ;  John  6 :  37 ;  John  10 : 9 ;  Rev.  22 :  17. 

29.  Must  I  forgive  my  enemies  in  becoming  a  Chris- 

tian?   Matt.  5:  23, 24;  Matt.  6: 12,  14,  15;  Eph. 
4:  31,  32. 

30.  Must  I  make  restitution?    Mark  12:  31;  Rom. 

12:  17;  Luke  19:  8;  II.  Cor.  8:  21. 

31.  Must  I  not  wait  until  I  understand  the  Bible 

better  before  I  become  a  Christian  ?     Acts  8 : 
12,  35-37;  Acts  16:  30-33:  I.  Cor.  2:  1-5. 

32.  Must  I  not  become  a  better  man  before  I  become 
a  Christian?  Matt.  9:  12,  13;  Matt.  17:  15-18; 
Rom.  7:  23-25;  Gal.  2:  16. 

33.  When  I  try  to  pray  it  seems  unreal  to  me.  How 
can  I  overcome  this?  Luke  11: 1-4;  John  1: 18; 
John  17:  6,25,26. 

34.  Are  you  sure  so  great  a  sinner  as  I  am  can 

be  saved?    Isa.  55:  6-9;  Isa.  43:  24-26;  I.  Tim. 
1 :  15,  16. 

35.  Should  I  make  any  start  to  confess  that  I  want 

to  be  a  Christian  while  I  have  no  feeling?  Matt. 
12: 10-13;  Ezek.  36:  26,  27;  Eph.  2:4-6. 

36.  What  is  the  greatest  sin?  I.  John  5 :10;  John  5 : 
38;  Num.  23:19. 

37.  If  I  become  a  Christian,  ivhat  ought  I  to  seek  for 

most  earnestly  ?    John  14: 16-18;  John  20:  22; 
Acts  1:8;  Acts  2:  39;  Eph.  5: 17-21. 

38.  What  will  be  my  greatest  difficulty  in  the  Chris- 
tian life?  Phil.  2:3-5;  Rom.  12:  3,  16;  John 

39.  How  can  I  be  sure  of  holding  out?    Isa.  41 :  10; 

I.  Cor.  10 :  13 ;  II.  Cor.  9:8;  II.  Cor.  12 : 9 ;  Heb. 
7:  25;  Jude  24;  John  10:  27-29. 

40.  I  do  not  feel  like  becoming  a  Christian  now;  can 

I  not  put  this  off"  until  some  other  time  ?  II.  Cor. 

6:2;  Heb.  3:  7,  8;  Heb.  4:7;  James  4: 13-17. 
Books  of  Reference:  Drury's  Handbook  for 
Worker's  and  At  Hand;  Whittle's  /Sword  of  the  Lord 
and  Thus  Saith  the  Lord;  Torrey's  Vest  Pocket  Com- 
panion; Munhall's  Furnishing  for  Workers;  Yatman's 
.Lessons  for  ChrHstian  Workers. 




By  Which  the  Bible  May  be  Finished  in  One  Year, 
Arranged  by  D.  W.  WHITTLE,  Philadelphia. 













1,   2,    3 

Matt.    1 



Matt.  21 :   1-22 

Num.  23,  24,  25 

Mark   7:14-37 



4,    5,    6 

Matt.    2 



Matt.  21:23-46 

Num.  26.  27 

Mark   8:   1-21 



7,    8,    9 

Matt.    3 


31,  32,  33 

Matt.  22:    1-22 

Num.  28,  29,  30 

Mark    8:22-38 



10,  11,  12 

Matt.    4 


34,  35 

Matt.  22:23-46 

Num.  31,  32,  33 

Mark   9:   1-29 



13,  14,  15 

Matt.    5:    1-26 


36,  37,  38 

Matt.  23:    1-22 

Num.  34, 35,  36 

Mark    9:30-50 



16,  17 

Matt.    5:27-48 



Matt.  23:23-39 

Deut.    1,   2 

Mark  10:   1-31 



18,  19 

Matt.    6:    1-18 


1,    2,    3 

Matt.  24:    1-28 

Deut.    3,   4 

Mark  10:  32-52 



20,  21,  22 

Matt.   6:19-34 


4,    5 

Matt.  24:29-51 

Deut.    5,   6,   7 

Mark  11 :    1-18 




Matt.    7 


6,    7 

Matt.  25:    1-30 

Deut.    8,   9,10 

Mark  11: 19-33 




Matt.    8:    1-17 


8,    9,10 

Matt.  25:31-46 

Deut.  11, 12, 13 

Mark  12:    1-27 




Matt.    8:18-34 


11,  12 

Matt.  26:    1-25 

Deut.  14, 15, 16 

Mark  12:28-44 




Matt.    9:   1-17 



Matt.  26:26-50 

Deut.  17, 18, 19 

Mark  13:    1-20 




Matt.    9:18-38 



Matt.  26:51-75 

Deut.  20,21,22 

Mark  13:  21-37 



33,  34,  35 

Matt.  10:    1-20 



Matt.  27:   1-26 

Deut.  23,  24,  25 

Mark  14:    1-26 



36,  37,  38 

Matt.  10:21-42 


17,  18 

Matt.  27:27-50 

Deut.  26,27 

Mark  14:  27-53 




Matt.  11 



Matt.  27:51-66 

Deut.  28,29 

Mark  14:  54-72 




Matt.  12:    1-23 



Matt.  28 

Deut.  30,31 

Mark  15:    1-25 



43,  44,  45 

Matt.  12:24-50 



Mark    1:    1-22 

Deut.  32,33,34 

Mark  15:  26-47 



46,  47,  48 

Matt.  13:    1-30 



Mark    1:23-45 

Josh.     1,   2,   3 

Mark  16 




Matt.  13:31-58 



Mark   2 

Josh.     4,   5,   6 

Luke    1:   1-20 



1,    2,    S 

Matt.  14:    1-21 


.  1,    2 

Mark   3:    1-19 

Josh.    7,   8,  9 

Luke    1:21-38 



4     5     6 

Matt.  14:22-36 


.  3,    4 

Mark   3:20-35 

Josh.  10,11,12 

Luke    1:39-56 



7,    8 

Matt.  15:   1-20 


.  5,    6 

Mark    4:    1-20 

Josh.  13,14,15 

Luke    1:57-80 



9,  10,  11 

Matt.  15:21-39 


.  7|    8 

Mark   4:21-41 

Josh.  16,17,18 

Luke    2:    1-24 




Matt.  16 


.  9,  10,  11 

Mark    5:    1-20 

Josh.  19,20,21 

Luke    2:25-52 




Matt.  17 

Num.12,  13,  14 

Mark   5:21-43 

Josh.  22,23,24 

Luke    3 



16,  17,  18 

Matt.  18:   1-20 


.15,  16 

Mark    6:    1-29 

Judg.    1,   2,   3 

Luke    4:   1-30 




Matt.  18:21-35 

Num.17,  18,  19 

Mark    6:30-56 

Judg.    4,   5,   6 

Luke    4:31-44 




Matt.  19 


.20,  21,  22 

Mark   7:   1-13 

Judg.    7,   8 

Luke    5:   1-16 




Matt.  20:    1-16 

Judg.    9,10 

Luke    5: 17-39 




Matt.  20:17-34 

Judg.  11, 12 

Luke    6:   1-26 

Note.— When  February  has  but  twenty-eight  days,  read  the  portion  for  the  29th  with  that  for  the  28th. 












Judg.  13,14,15 

Luke    6:27-49 

I.  Ki.   10, 11 

Luke  21:  20-38 

11.  Ch 


John  12:  27-50 


Judg.  16,17,18 

Luke    7:   1-30 

I.  Ki.   12, 13 

Luke  22:    1-20 

11.  Ch 


John  13:    1-20 


Judg.  19,20,21 

Luke    7:31-50 

I.  Ki.   14, 15 

Luke  22:21-46 

II.  Ch 


John  13:  21-38 


Ruth  1,2,3,4 

Luke    8:    1-25 

I.  Ki.   16, 17, 18 

Luke  22:47-71 

II.  Ch 


John  14 


I.  8a.     1,  2,  3 

Luke    8:26-56 

I.  Ki.   19,20 

Luke  23:    1-25 

II.  Ch.  23, 24 

John  15 


I.  Sa.     4,  5,  6 

Luke    9:   1-17 

1.  Ki.  21,22 

Luke  23:  26-56 

II.  Ch 


John  16 


I.  8a.     7,  8,  9 

Luke    9:18-36 

II.  Ki.    1,   2,   3 

Luke  24:    1-35 

II.  Ch 


John  17 


I.  Sa.  10,11,12 

Luke    9:37-62 

II.  Ki.   4,   5,   6 

Luke  24:36-53 

II.  Ch.  30, 31 

John  18:    1-18 


I.  8a.   13, 14 

Luke  10:   1-24 

II.  Ki.    7,   8,  9 

John    1:    1-28 

II.  Ch.  32, 33 

John  18:  19-40 


1.8a.   15,16 

Luke  10:25-42 

II.  Ki.  10,11,12 

John    1:29-51 

II.  Ch.  34, 35, 36 

John  19:    1-22 


I.  Sa.   17,18 

Luke  11:   1-28 

II.  Ki.  13, 14 

John    2 


1,  2 

John  19:  23-42 


I.  8a.  19, 20, 21 

Luke  11:29-54 

11.  Ki.  15, 16 

John    3:    1-18 


3,  4,  5 

John  20 


I.  Sa.  22, 23, 24 

Luke  12:   1-31 

II.  Ki.  17, 18 

John    3: 19-36 


6,   7,   8 

John  21 


I.  Sa.  25,26 

Luke  12:32-59 

11.  Ki.  19,20,21 

John    4:    1-30 



Acts     1 


I.  Sa.  27,28,29 

Luke  13:   1-22 

II.  Ki.  22, 23 

John    4:31-54 


1,  2,  3 

Acts     2:    1-21 


I.  Sa.  30,31 

Luke  13:23-35 

II.  Ki.  24, 25 

John    5:    1-24 


4,   5,   6 

Acts     2: 22-47 


11.  Sa.   1,  2 

Luke  14:    1-24 

I.  Ch.     1,   2,  3 

John    5:25-47 


7,  8,   9 

Acts     3 


II.  Sa.   3,  4,  5 

Luke  14:25-35 

I.  Ch.     4,   5,   6 

John    6:    1-21 



Acts     4:    1-22 


II.  Sa.   6,  7,  8 

Luke  15:    1-10 

I.  Ch.     7,  8,   9 

John    6:22-44 



Acts     4: 23-37 


II.  Sa.   9,10,11 

Luke  15: 11-32 

I.  Ch.  10,11,12 

John    6:45-71 


1,   2 

Acts     5:    1-21 


II.  Sa.  12, 13 

Luke  16 

I.  Ch.  13, 14, 15 

John    7:    1-27 


3,  4,  5 

Acts     5: 22-42 


II.  Sa.  14, 15 

Luke  17:    1-19 

I.  Ch.  16, 17, 18 

John    7:28-53 


6,  7,  8 

Acts     6 


II.  Sa.  16,17,18 

Luke  17:20-37 

I.  Ch.  19, 20, 21 

John    8:    1-27 



Acts     7:    1-21 


II.  Sa.  19,20 

Luke  18:   1-23 

I.  Ch.  22, 23, 24 

John    8:28-59 


1,  2 

Acts     7:  22-43 


II.  Sa.  21, 22 

Luke  18:24-43 

I.  Ch.  25,26,27 

John    9:    1-23 


3,  4 

Acts     7:  44-60 


II.  8a.  23, 24 

Luke  19:   1-27 

I.  Ch.  28,29 

John    9:24-41 


5,   6,   7 

Acts     8:    1-25 


I.  Ki.     1,  2 

Luke  19:  28-48 

II.  Ch.   1,  2,  3 

John  10:    1-23 


8,  9,10 

Acts     8: 26-40 


I.  Ki.     3,  4,  5 

Luke  20:    1-26 

II.  Ch.   4,  5,  6 

John  10:24-42 


11, 12, 13 

Acts     9:    1-21 


I.  Ki.    6,  7 

Luke  20:27-47 

II.  Ch.  7,  8,  9 

John  11:    1-29 


14, 15, 16 

Acts     9:  22-43 


I.  Ki.    8,  9 

Luke  21:   1-19 

II.  Ch.  10, 11, 12 

John  11:30-57 


17, 13, 19 

Acts    10:    1-23 


II.  Ch.  13, 14 

John  12:    1-26 















20,  21 

Acts   10:24-48 


57,   58,   59 

Rom.    4 

Ps.  135, 136 

I.  Co.  12 



22,  23,  24 

Acts   11 


60,   61,   62 

Rom.    5 

Ps.  137, 138, 139 

I.  Co.  13 



25,  26,  27 

Acts   12 


63,   64,   65 

Rom.    6 

Ps.  140, 141, 142 

I.  Co.  14:    1-20 



28,  29 

Acts   13:    1-25 


66,   67 

Rom.    7 

Ps.  143, 144, 145 

I.  Co.  14:21-40 



30,  31 

Acts   13:  26-52 


68,   69 

Rom.    8:    1-21 

Ps.  146, 147 

I.  Co.  15:    1-28 



32,  33 

Acts   14 


70,   71 

Rom.    8:  22-39 

Ps.  148, 149, 150 
Prov.   1,    2 

I.  Co.  15:29-58 



34,  35 

Acts   15:    1-21 


72,   73 

Rom.    9:    1-15 

I.  Co.  16 



36,  37 

Acts   15:  22-41 


74,   75,    76 

Rom.    9:  16-33 

Prov.   3,   4,   5 

II.  Co.  1 



38,  39,  40 

Acts   16:    1-21 


77,   78 

Rom.  10 

Prov.   6,    7 

II.  Co.  2 



41,  42 

Acts   16:  22-40 


79,   80 

Rom.  11:    1-18 

Prov.   8,    9 

II.  Co.  3 



1,    2,    3 

Acts   17:    1-15 


81,   82,   83 

Rom.  11:  19-36 

Prov.  10,  11, 12 

II.  Co.  4 



4,    5,    6 

Acts   17:  16-34 


84,   85,   86 

Rom.  12 

Prov.  13,  14, 15 

II.  Co.  5 



7,    8,    9 

Acts   18 


87,   88 

Rom.  13 

Prov.  16,  17, 18 

II.  Co.  6 



10,  11,  12 

Acts   19:    1-20 


89,   90 

Rom.  14 

Prov.  19,  20,  21 

II.  Co.  7 



13,  14,  15 

Acts   19:  21-41 


91,   92,   93 

Rom.  15:    1-13 

Prov.  22,  23,  24 

II.  Co.  8 



16,  17 

Acts   20:    1-16 


94,   95,   96 

Rom.  15:  14-33 

Prov.  25,  26 

II.  Co.  9 



18,  19 

Acts  20:  17-38 


97,   98,   99 

Rom.  16 

Prov.  27,  28,  29 

II.  Co.  10 



20,  21,  22 

Acts   21:    1-17 


100, 101, 102 

I.  Co.    1 

Prov.  30,  31 

II.  Co.  11:   1-15 



23,  24,  25 

Acts   21:  18-40 


103, 104 

I.  Co.    2 

Eccl.    1,    2,    3 

II.  Co.  11: 16-33 



26,  27,  28 

Acts   22 


105, 106 

I.  Co.    3 

Eccl.    4,    5,    6 

II.  Co.  12 



29,  30 

Acts  23:    1-15 


107, 108, 109 

I.  Co.    4 

Eccl.    7,    8,    9 

II.  Co.  13 



31,  32 

Acts   23:  16-35 


110,  111,  112 

I.  Co.    5 

:Eccl.  10,  11, 12 

Gal.      1 



33,  34 

Acts  24 


113, 114, 115 

I.  Co.    6 

Song    1,   2,    3 

Gal.      2 



35,  36 

Acts  25 


116, 117, 118 

I.  Co.    7:    1-19 

Song    4,    5 

Gal.      3 



37,  38,  39 

Acts  26 


119:     1-88 

I.  Co.    7:  20-40 

Song    6,    7,    8 

Gal.      4 



40,  41,  42 

Acts  27:    1-26 


119:   89-176 

I.  Co.    8 

Isa.      1,   2 

Gal.      5 



43,  44,  45 

Acts  27:27-44 


120, 121, 122 

I.  Co.    9 

Isa.       3,    4 

Gal.       6 



46,  47,  48 

Acts  28 


123, 124, 125 

I.  Co.  10:    1-18 

Isa.      5,   6 

Eph.     1 



49,  50 

Rom.   1 


126, 127, 128 

I.  Co.  10:  19-33 

Isa.      7,   8 

Eph.     2 



51,  52,  53 

Rom.   2 


129, 130, 131 

I.  Co.  11:    1-16 

Isa.      9, 10 

Eph.     3 



54,  55,  56 

Rom.   3 


132, 133, 134 

I.  Co.  11:  17-34 
















Eph.    4 

Jer.     24,  25,  26 

Titus  2 

Ezek.  40,  41 

II.  Pet.  3 






Eph.    5: 


Jer.     27,  28,  29 

Titus  3 

Ezek.  42,  43,  44 

I.  John  1 






Eph.    5: 


Jer.     30, 31 


Ezek.  45,  46 

I.  John  2 






Eph.    6 

Jer.     32, 33 

Heb.    1 

Ezek.  47,  48 

I.  John  3 






Phil.   1 

Jer.     34,  35,  36 

Heb.    2 

Dan.     1,    2 

I.  John  4 





Phil.   2 

Jer.     37,  38,  39 

Heb.    3 

Dan.     3,   4 

I.  John  5 





Phil.   3 

Jer.     40,  41,  42 

Heb.    4 

Dan.     5,    6,    7 

II.  John 





Phil.   4 

Jer.     43,  44,  45 

Heb.    5 

Dan.     8,    9, 10 

III.  John 





Col.      1 

Jer.     46, 47 

Heb.    6 

Dan.  11,12 







Col.      2 

Jer.     48, 49 

Heb.    7 

Hos.    1,  2,  3,  4 

Rev.       1 





Col.      3 

Jer.     50 

Heb.    8 

Hos.    5,  6,  7,  8 

Rev.       2 





Col.     4 

Jer.     51, 52 

Heb.    9 

Hos.     9, 10,  11 

Rev.       3 





I.  Thes. 


Lam.    1,   2 

Heb.  10:    1-18 

Hos.   12,  13,  14 

Rev.       4 





I.  Thes. 


Lam.    3,    4,    5 

Heb.  10:  19-39 

Joel      1,    2,    3 

Rev.       5 





I.  Thes. 


Ezek.  1,    2 

Heb.  11:    1-19 

Amos  1,    2,    3 

Rev.       6 






I.  Thes. 


Ezek.  3,    4 

Heb.  11:  20-40 

Amos  4,    5,    6 

Rev.       7 






I.  Thes. 


Ezek.  5,    6,    7 

Heb.  12 

Amos  7,    8,    9 

Rev.       8 






II.  Thes 


Ezek.  8,    9, 10 

Heb.  13 


Rev.       9 






II.  Thes 


Ezek.  11, 12, 13 

Jas.      1 

Jon.  1,2,    3,   4 

Rev.     10 






II.  Thes 


Ezek.  14, 15 

Jas.     2 

Mic.      1,   2,    3 

Rev.     11 






I.  Tim. 


Ezek.  16,  17 

Jas.      3 

Mic.     4,    5 

Rev.     12 





I.  Tim. 


Ezek.  18,  19 

Jas.      4 

Mic.     6,   7 

Rev.     13 





I.  Tim. 


Ezek.  20,  21 

Jas.      5 

Nah.    1,   2,    3 

Rev.      14 






I.  Tim. 


Ezek.  22,  23 

I.  Pet.  1 

Hab.    1,   2,    3 

Rev.      15 





I.  Tim. 


Ezek.  24,  25,  26 

I.  Pet.  2 

Zeph.  1,   2,    3 

Rev.      16 






I.  Tim. 


Ezek.  27,  28,  29 

I.  Pet.  3 

Hag.     1,    2 

Rev.     17 






II.  Tim. 


Ezek.  30,  31,  32 

I.  Pet.  4 

Zee.      1,2,3,4 

Rev.     18 






II.  Tim. 


Ezek.  33,  34 

I.  Pet.  5 

Zee.      5,6,7,8 

Rev.     19 





II.  Tim. 


Ezek.  35,  36 

II.  Pet.  1 

Zee.    9,10,11,12 

Rev.     20 





II.  Tim. 


Ezek.  37,  38,  39 

II.  Pet.  2 

Zee.    13, 14 

Rev.     21 







Mai.     1,2,3,4 

Rev.     22 

Books  foe.  Devotional  Reading:  Thomas  a  Kempis'  Imitation  of  Christ;  Bogatsky's  Golden  Treasury; 
Cuyler's  Heart  Life;  Havergal's  Kept  for  the  Master's  Use,  and  others;  Macduff's  Mind  and  Worrds  of  Jesus  and 
Brighter  Than  the  Sun;  Phelps'  The  Still  Hour;  Taylor's  Holy  Living  and  Holy  Dying;  Tholuck's  Hours  of 
Christian  Devotion;  Smith's  Christian's  Secret  of  a  Happy  Life;  Farrar's  Truths  to  Live  By;  Matheson's  Moments 
on  the  Mount;  Murray's  With  Christ  in  the  School  of  Prayer,  Abide  in  Christ,  Like  Christ,  and  others;  Meyer's 
Present  Tenses,  Future  Tenses,  Key  Words,  and  others;  Daily  Strength  for  Daily  Needs;  Bates'  Between  the 
Lights;  Mrs.  Bottome's  Crumbs  from  the  King's  Table;  Mead's  The  Wonderful  Counselor;  Keble's  Christian 
Year;  AdLucem;  Larcom's^  the  Beautiful  Gate;  Palgrave's  Treasury  of  Sacred  Poetry  and  Song. 




By  REV.  A.  E.  DUNNING,  D.D.,  Boston,  Secretary  of  the  Congregational 

Sunday-School  Union. 

The  purpose  of  the  Bible  was  to  give  to  man- 
kind the  record  of  the  manifestation  of  God  in 
Jesus  Christ,  and  through  him  to  create  and 
develop  the  Christian  church  for  the  salvation 
of  the  world.  That  purpose  began  to  manifest 
itself  in  the  Jewish  church,  which  was  coinci- 
dent with  the  Jewish  kingdom.  It  was  consti- 
tuted by  a  king  who  was  Jehovah,  a  law  whose 
basis  was  the  Ten  Commandments,  a  covenant 
conditioned  on  obedience  to  thorn  and  faith  in 
him,  a  ritual  through  which  worship  found  ex- 
pression, and  civil  institutions,  which  formed 
the  framework  of  the  church. 

The  Jewish  church  disclosed  within  itself  an 
expectation  of  a  coming  Redeemer,  which  was 
created  and  intensified  by  revealed  promises  of 
God  growing  more  positive  and  definite  as  the 
nation  passed  through  its  various  stages  of  or- 
ganization, development,  and  decline,  till,  when 
at  last  the  visible  church  decayed  and  crumbled 
into  fragments,  the  Redeemer  appeared  in  the 
person  of  Jesus  Christ. 

The  person  of  Jesus  Christ  is  the  central  fact 
of  God's  revelation  of  himself,  and  the  center  of 
all  history.  The  Christian  church  was  created 
by  the  love  he  disclosed  for  men,  the  principles 
he  taught,  and  the  rites  of  baptism  and  the 
Lord's  Slipper  which  he  established.  Upon  him 
as  the  foundation  it  was  built  through  the  labors 
of  the  apostles,  and  of  those  whom  they  won  to 
be  his  disciples,  the  accounts  of  which  are  given 
in  the  Acts  and  the  Epistles;  and  its  glorious 
consummation  is  foretold  in  the  book  of  Reve- 

We  may  trace  the  growth  of  the  church  from 
the  beginning  of  Bible  history,  which  shows: 

I.  The  Jewish  Church.— The  first  stejis  toward 
it  began  with  the  revelation  of  God  to  men  as 
Creator  and  Provider,  claiming  man's  obedience 
(Gen.  1:  27-29);  as  Lawgiver,  testing  man's  obedi- 
ence (Gen.  2:  16,  17);  as  Judge,  rewarding  obedi- 
ence and  inflicting  punishment  for  disobedience 
(Gen.  3: 10-24);  and  as  Father,  promising  redemp- 
tion (Gen.  3:  15).  The  development  of  this  pur- 
pose to  found  the  church  appears  in  the  creation 
of  Adam  in  the  image  of  God,  to  be  the  father  of 
a  race  of  God's  children  (Gen.  1:  2G,  27);  after  his 
fall,  in  Abel,  who  was  fitted  to  be  the  father  of  a 
holy  nation,  but  was  killed  by  his  brother  (Gen. 
4:  3-8);  in  Seth,  an  appointed  seed  instead  of 
Abel,  who  begat  a  praying  people  (Gen.  4:  25,  20), 
which  became  corrupted  by  evil  alliances  (Gen. 
6:  1),  and  were  all  destroyed  by  the  flood  except 
one  family  (Gen.  G:  IS);  in  Noah,  through  whom 
God  entered  into  a  new  relation  with  men  by 
means  of  a  covenant  established  with  sacrifice 
(Gen.  8:  20-22);  and  in  Abraham,  with  whom 
God  enlarged  his  covenant  so  that  it  embraced 
the  promise  that  he  should  be  the  father  of  a 
chosen  nation  (Gen.  15:  1-6). 

The  principles  on  which  the  Jewish  church 
was  founded  appear  with  increasing  distinct- 
ness from  the  time  of  Abraham's  leaving  his 
country  and  emigrating  to  Palestine  by  the 
command  of  God.  These  principles  were  faith 
in  one  God,  separation  from  the  world  (Gen.  24:  '■'>, 
4),  and  a  covenant  (Gen.  15:  1-21;  17:  1-14;  22: 
3-18).  which  became  a  family  covenant,  till  God 
led  them  forth  out  of  Egypt  to  be  a  people  by 
themselves,  so  beginning 

The  organization  of  the  church,  the  chief  steps  of 
which  are  described  in  the  book  of  Exodus. 
First,  Moses  was  prepared,  called,  and  guided  to 
be  the  leader  of  the  people  (Ex.  2-4) ;  second,  they 

were  led  out  of  Egypt  (Ex.  5-12) ;  third,  they  were 
conducted  to  Sinai,  and  a  covenant  was  made  with 
them  as  a  nation,  based  on  the  Ten  Command- 
ments with  accompanying  laws  (Ex.  24:  1-8). 

To  this  moral  law,  whose  center  was  the  Ten 
Commandments,  was  added  a  law  of  religious 
worship,  which  centered  around  the  tabernacle, 
and  which  is  found  in  the  book  of  Leviticus. 

The  church,  as  thus  organized,  was  cemented 
together  as  a  nation  by  the  appointment  of  sub- 
ordinate leaders  and  the  development  and  ap- 
plication of  the  law  as  a  civil  code  through  the 
life  in  the  wilderness. 

The  church  thus  planted  was  the  nation  itself, 
a  sawed  congregation,  chosen  and  set  apart  from 
other  nations,  governed  by  an  unseen  yet  present 
and  sovereign  God.  During  the  first  period  of 
its  growth  it  was  a  theocracy,  a  direct  govern- 
ment of  the  people  by  Jehovah  himself,  through 
officers  whom  he  appointed. 

The  book  of  Joshua  gives  the  account  of  the 
introduction  of  the  chosen  nation  into  Canaan 
and  its  establishment  there.  (1)  The  enemies  of 
Israel  were  conquered.  (2)  The  promised  land  was 
divided  among  the  twelve  tribes  (Josh.  13-19). 
(3)  The  throne  of  Jehovah  ivas  established  at  Shiloh, 
in  the  tabernacle  (Josh.  18:  1). 

The  book  of  Judges  records  the  testing  of  the 
nation  through  judgments  and  deliverances  by 
the  Angel  of  the  Covenant. 

The  government  of  the  church  then  became 
a  monarchy,  the  accounts  of  which  are  given 
in  the  books  of  Samuel,  Kings,  and  Chronicles. 
The  development  of  the  church  during  this 
period  centers  around  persons,  institutions,  and 
events,  which  may  be  grouped  under  five  heads: 
(1)  David,  the  founder  of  the  monarchy.  (2)  The 
temple,  which  became  the  center  of  sacrifice 
and  worship,  and  with  which  were  connected 
the  laws,  the  authority  of  rulers,  and  all  great 
public  events.  (3)  The  order  of  the  prophets,  which 
became  the  conscience  of  the  nation.  (4)  The 
union  of  the  state  and  the  church,  which  deter- 
mined the  constitution  of  the  kingdom.  (5)  The 
division  of  the  kingdom,  which  was  the  beginning 
of  its  downfall. 

The  further  biblical  history  of  the  Jewish 
church  is  the  record  of  the  destruction  of  both 
kingdoms,  the  removal  of  the  people  into  cap- 
tivity, and  the  restoration  of  the  remnant  to 
their  own  land.  During  the  four  centuries  pre- 
ceding the  Christian  era,  the  Jews  became  scat- 
tered throughout  the  world,  while  the  temple 
service  was  still  maintained  at  Jerusalem  as 
the  center  of  religious  influence.  Synagogues 
related  to  the  temple  and  its  worship  sprang 
up  in  heathen  nations  where  the  Jews  lived 
in  exile.  Prayer  in  them  became  a  substitute 
for  tlie  morning  and  evening  sacrifice,  and  the 
study  of  the  books  of  the  Law  became  universal. 
Heathen  religions  decayed  before  the  influence 
Of  the  Jewish  worship  of  one  God.  The  Jewish 
system  itself,  both  civil  and  religious,  gradually 
crumbled  into  fragments,  thus  preparing  the 
world  for  the  new  Christian  church. 

AVith  this  historical  development  of  the  de- 
vine  religion  through  the  Jewish  church,  the 
Bible  also  unfolds  its  growth  in  the  devotional  life 
of  the  people.  This  is  found  in  the  six  poetical 
books  and  in  those  of  the  prophets. 

The  prophetic  books  belong  with  the  historical, 
as  showing  the  development 'Of  the  life  of  the 
church  through  obedience  to  God,  and  its  declen- 
sion and  decay  through  disobedience  to  him. 



II.  The  Coming  Messiah.—  While  the  structure 
of  the  Jewish  church  was  growing  feeble,  and 
the  old  covenant  on  which  it  was  based  drew 
near  the  time  when  it  should  vanish  away 
(Heb.  8: 13),  the  coming  One  who  was  to  be  the 
foundation  and  source  of  life  to  the  Christian 
church  grew  more  distinct  and  commanding  in 
prophecy.  The  purpose  of  God  from  the  begin- 
ning, as  Paul  expressed  it,  was  "that  in  the 
dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times  he  might 
gather  together  in  one  all  things  in  Christ" 
(Eph.  1:  10).  This  purpose  appears  in  the  Old 
Testament  with  steadily  increasing  distinctness 
along  four  lines : 

1.  The  Sacrifices.— These  came  gradually  to 
mean,  in  the  ancient  church,  salvation  from  death 
through  sacrifice  ivith  blood;  and  found  fulfillment 
in  Christ  (I.  Cor.  5:  7;  John  1:  29).  The  new  cov- 
enant in  Christ's  blood  interpreted  the  meaning 
of  the  old  covenant.  (Compare  Ex.  24 :  3-8  with 
Heb.  9:  18-28.) 

2.  Types.— Old  Testament  types  exhibit  in  infe- 
rior forms  truths,  principles,  and  laws  which  are 
to  be  fulfilled  in  the  dispensation  which  Christ 
introduced,  and  of  which  he  is  the  life.  Promi- 
nent examples  are  the  tabernacle  and  temple, 
which  represent  the  Christian  church — the  body 
of  believers  (Eph.  2:  19-22;  I.  Peter  2:  4,  5). 

3.  The  Jewish  Kingdom,  which  is  represented 
in  the  Old  Testament  not  as  a  spontaneous  de- 
velopment of  humanity,  but  a  redeeming  power 
coming  down  from  God,  pointing  to  a  kingdom 
whose  essential  idea  was  the  spiritual  rulership 
of  the  Messiah  over  redeemed  souls.  It  was  by  the 
proclamation  of  this  kingdom  that  Christ  began 
his  ministry  (Matt.  4:  17). 

4.  Prophecy.— This  includes  institutions  and 
ordinances  pointing  to  Christ  and  the  Christian 
church,  as  the  sacrifices  and  the  priesthood; 
prophetic  types,  as  the  tabernacle  and  temple ; 
the  law  of  the  kingdom,  since  all  education  is 
prophetic  of  the  ends  aimed  at;  history  leading 
to  a  declared  end;  persons  related  to  the  king- 
dom, as  Abraham,  Moses,  and  David;  and  dis- 
tinct utterances,  as  found  in  the  sayings  and 
books  of  the  prophets. 

Thus  we  see  that  the  Messianic  idea  of  an 
everlasting  kingdom  under  the  reign  of  a  spirit- 
ual and  supreme  King  is  the  fundamental  idea 
of  the  Old  Testament.  This  Messianic  idea  grew 
with  the  Jewish  kingdom  till  it  reached  the 
height  of  its  prosperity;  but  as  the  kingdom 
declined  and  crumbled  away  the  idea  of  the 
coming  Messiah  grew  brighter  and  clearer  till 
it  was  realized  in  Jesus  Christ. 

III.  The  Messiah  the  Foundation  of  the  Church. 
—Jesus  Christ  became  the  corner-stone  of  the 
Christian  church  when  viewed  as  a  building 
(compare  Isa.  28: 16  with  I.  Peter  2:  6;  Eph.  2: 20). 
He  became  its  head  and  its  life  when  viewed  as 
a  living  organism  (Eph.  1:22,  23;  5:23,  30),  the 
source  of  its  power  (Eph.  4:  16).  He  originated 
the  Christian  church  through  his  works,  by 
which  he  created  the  gospel ;  through  his  teach- 
ings, by  which  he  proclaimed  it;  and  through 
his  person,  which  is  the  gospel. 

His  fundamental  doctrine  was  the  kingdom 
of  God,  created  through  the  allegiance  of  indi- 
vidual souls  to  himself  as  supreme  Lord  (Mark 
1: 14,  15;  Luke  14:  26,  33),  maintained  by  doing 
the  will  of  God  (Matt.  6:  10),  and  certified  by  the 
overthrow  of  the  kingdom  of  Satan  in  the  soul 
(Luke  11:  21,  22).  Like  the  Jewish  kingdom,  it  is 
based  on  a  covenant  in  Christ's  blood  (Ex.  24:  8; 
Luke  22:  20).  It  does  not  come  with  display,  for 
it  is  the  enthronement  of  Christ  in  the  individ- 
ual life  (Luke  17:20,  21;  John  14:23).  Its  con- 
summation will  be  the  perfect  love  and  perfect 
obedience  of  all  redeemed  souls  to  God. 

Jesus  taught  that  the  way  of  salvation  is  the 
way  of  entrance  into  his  kingdom,  which  is 
entered  through  confidence  in  himself  and  self- 
surrender  to  him  (Mark  8:  34;  10:15),  through 
repentance  and  renunciation  of  sin  (Matt.  4 :  17), 

and  appropriation  of  himself  as  the  sacrifice  for 
sin  (John  3:  14,  15;  12:  32).  He  taught  that  the 
new  birth  through  the  Holy  Spirit  is  the  con- 
dition of  entrance  into  his  kingdom  (John  3:3); 
for  the  unrenewed  heart  is  the  source  from 
which  all  evils  spring  (Matt.  12:  35).  But  who- 
ever renounces  his  sin  and  chooses  God  as  the 
supreme  object  of  worship,  obedience,  and  love 
is  renewed  by  the  Holy  Spirit  (John  6:  37;  3:  16). 

He  taught  that  the  law  of  love  is  the  law  of  his 
kingdom  (Mark  12:  29-31),  and  that  such  love 
centers  in  him  (John  14:  23;  Luke  14:  26).  He 
presented  himself  as  the  King  of  the  kingdom 
(Matt.  16:  28),  to  whose  sway  all  nations  must 
finally  yield  (Matt.  25:  31-46),  who  demanded  the 
same  devotion  to  himself  (Luke  14:  33)  as  is 
demanded  by  the  Father  (Luke  10:  27),  and  the 
same  honor  (John  5:  23). 

He  taught  that  his  kingdom  grows  through 
God's  providential  care  over  ail  his  children  (Matt. 
5:  45),  who  ought  therefore  to  trust  him  with- 
out anxiety  (Matt.  6:  31-34);  that  prayer  is  direct 
address  to  God  as  our  Father  (Matt.  6:  9),  who 
will  answer  (Matt.  6:  32;  7:  7,  8).  He  encouraged 
united  petitions  (Matt.  18:19);  declared  that 
prayer  should  be  offered  in  faith  (Matt.  21 :  22), 
in  submission  to  the  divine  will  (Matt.  6:  10),  in 
sincerity  (John  6:  23-26),  with  right  feeling  to- 
ward men  (Mark  11:  25,  26),  and  in  the  name  of 
Christ  (John  14:  13,  14). 

He  was  begotten  by  the  Holy  Spirit  (Luke  1 :  35), 
baptized  in  the  Holy  Spirit  (Luke  3:  21,  22), 
taught  (Luke  4:  14,  15)  and  wrought  miracles 
(Matt.  12:  28)  by  the  power  of  the  Spirit.  He 
declared  that  the  Holy  Spirit  would  guide  his 
disciples  into  all  the  truth  concerning  himself 
(John  16: 13,  14),  would  convict  sinners  (John 
16:  8-11),  would  be  given  to  believers  in  ansAver 
to  prayer  (John  14: 16),  and  would  abide  in  them 
forever  (John  14:  16, 17). 

He  taught  the  resurrection  from  death  (Luke 
20:  37,  38)  for  all  men  (John  5:  28,  29),  that  he  had 
power  to  raise  himself  (John  10:  18),  and  was 
himself  the  power  that  would  raise  others  to 
life  (John  11:  25).  He  taught  that  there  is  to  be 
a  final  judgment,  to  occur  at  a  definite  time  (John 
12:  48),  and  that  he  would  be  the  Judge  (Matt. 
25:31);  that  he  would  come  in  the  majesty  of 
the  Son  of  God  (John  5:  25),  but  that  he  holds 
the  position  of  Judge  because  he  is  the  Son  of 
man  (John  5:  27).  This  final  judgment  includes 
(1)  the  future  punishment  of  the  wicked  (Matt. 
7: 19,  23;  John  5:  29).  The  basis  of  judgment  will 
be  the  deeds  they  have  done  (Matt.  16:  27;  13: 
40-42).  (2)  The  future  blessedness  of  the  saints 
(Matt.  25:  34),  which  includes  the  constant  pres- 
ence with  them  of  Christ  in  glory  (John  14:  3; 
17:24).  The  separation  between  the  righteous 
and  the  wicked  is  to  be  formally  declared  (Matt. 
25:  32,  33),  and  final  (Matt.  25:  46). 

IV.  The  Christian  Church,  the  issue  of  the 
divine  life  in  the  world,  as  recorded  in  the  Bible. 
Having  taught  these  truths  as  the  laws  of  his 
kingdom,  the  processes  of  its  development  and 
its  final  consummation,  he  left  as  his  permanent 
instruction  to  his  disciples  that  they  should  go 
into  all  the  world  and  teach  all  nations  what  he 
had  commanded  as  the  law  of  their  life,  baptiz- 
ing them  into  the  one  name  of  the  Father,  Son, 
and  Holy  Spirit  (Matt.  28:  18-20).  In  this  way 
the  Christian  church  began,  as  a  union  of  believers 
in  Christ,  who,  through  faith  and  love,  are  members 
of  the  kingdom  of  God.  It  is  supernatural  in  its 
origin,  and  sustained  by  life  imparted  to  it  from 
God  (Eph.  2:  22). 

It  is  contrasted  ivith,  yet  is,  the  outgrowth  of  the 
Jewish  church. 

The  essential  elements  of  the  Christian  church 
are  (1)  repentance  for  sin,  (2)  supreme  allegiance  to 
Christ,  (3)  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Spirit  (Acts  2:  33), 
(4)  the  covenant  of  believers,  established  by  bap- 
tism and  the  Lord's  Supper  (I.  Cor.  11:23-26). 
The  history  of  the  Christian  church  is  given  in 
the  Acts  and  the  Epistles. 



Its  birthday  was  at  Pentecost  (Acts  2: 1-4),  and 
all  its  first  members  were  Jews.  The  first  act  in 
founding  it  was  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Spirit  to  believ- 
ers, which  Christ  had  promised  to  them  before  his 
ascension  (Acts  1:  4,  5).  Next  followed  the  offer 
of  salvation  through  Jesus  Christ  to  those  who 
would  repent  of  sin  and  believe  in  him  as  the 
Messiah  (Acts  2:  38-40).  Believers  were  baptized 
and  formed  into  a  distinct  community  (Acts  2:  41), 
which  took  the  character  of  a  family  (Acts  2: 44-47). 

The  new  church  soon  began  to  antagonize  Juda- 
ism. Next  it  spread  through  the  nations.  A  church 
was  organized  at  Samaria,  and  Peter  preached 
to  the  heathen  Cornelius.  The  gospel  was 
preached  to  Gentiles  at  Antioch  in  Syria,  where 
Paul  began  his  career  as  an  apostle,  and  here 
Gentiles  were  first  admitted  to  equal  piHvilegcs  with 
Jews  in  the  Chi^istian  church.  Henceforth  the 
keynote  of  Paul's  preaching  was,  "Christ  for  the 
world  and  the  world  for  Christ." 

The  leaders  in  the  churches  in  conference  at 
Jerusalem  formally  decided,  under  the  declared 
guidance  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  that  Gentiles  could 
become  Christians  without  observing  Jewish  ceremo- 
nial laws  (Acts  15:  1-20).  With  the  refusal  of  the 
Jews  of  Jerusalem  to  acknowledge  Paul's  com- 
mission to  the  Gentiles,  the  gospel  was  finally 
rejected  by  the  Jews  (Acts  22). 

So,  through  the  long  ages  of  the  history  of  the 
chosen  people,  the  Jewish  church  was  formed 
on  the  ancient  covenant,  and  nourished  within 
itself  the  idea  and  promise  of  the  coming  Mes- 
siah, till  the  covenant  and  the  organization  it 
sustained  waxed  old  and  disclosed  within  itself 
the  shining  glory  of  the  only  begotten  Son.  He 
manifested  God,  preached  his  truth,  gave  him- 
self in  the  new  covenant  by  which  his  church 
was  organized.  It  grew  in  Judaism  till  it  burst 
its  bonds,  and  its  members,  in  obedience  to  his 
command,  went  into  all  the  world  and  preached 
the  gospel  to  all  the  nations,  baptizing  them 
into  the  name  of  the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the 
Holy  Spirit.  Thus  the  Christian  church  is 
spreading  to-day  through  all  lands,  preparing 
for  that  perfect  society,  "the  holy  city,  new 
Jerusalem,  coming  down  out  of  heaven  from 
God,  made  ready  as  a  bride  adorned  for  her 
husband"  (Rev.  21:  2,  R.V.). 

Books  of  Reference:  Frey's  Scripture  Types; 
Fairbairn's  The  Typology  of  Scripture;  H,  C.  Trum- 
bull's The  Blood  Covenant;  W.  H.  Thomson's  The  Great 
Argument;  or,  Christ  in  the  Old  Testament;  Breed's 
History  of  the  Preparation  of  the  World  for  Christ; 
Westcott's  The  Bible  in  the  Church;  Oehler's  or  Weid- 
ner's  Biblical  Theology  of  the  Old  Testament.  See  article 
on  Messianic  Prophecies,  and  all  of  Part  IV. 


By  the  Late  REV.  PHILIP  SCHAFF,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  Professor  in  the  Union  Theo- 
logical Seminary,  New  York,  with  Notes  by  Key.  C.  H.  H.  Wright. 

The  Bible  a  Divine-human  Book.— The  Bible, 
which  contains  the  written  word  of  God,  is  a 
divine-human  book ;  as  Jesus  Christ,  who  is  the 
living  Word  or  revealer  of  God,  is  a  divine- 
human  person.  The  Word  became  flesh;  the 
divine  truth  was  embodied  in  human  thought 
and  speech.  This  is  the  keynote  of  the  doctrine 
of  inspiration. 

The  Bible  Like  and  Unlike  Other  Books.— In 
one  respect  the  Bible  is  like  any  other  book  or 
literary  production,  and  must  be  interpreted 
according  to  the  laws  of  human  thought  and 
human  speech.  In  another  aspect  it  is  different 
from  all  other  books,  and  must  be  handled  with 
peculiar  care  and  reverence.  It  has  a  double 
origin  and  double  character  melted  into  one.  It 
has  a  truly  human  soul  and  body,  but  the  ani- 
mating spirit  is  the  eternal  truth  of  God. 

Mistakes  of  the  Mechanical  and  Rationalistic 
Theories.— The  mechanical  theory  of  a  literal 
inspiration  (verbal  inspiration)  ignores  or  mini- 
mizes the  human  element-  it  confounds  inspi- 
ration with  dictation,  and  reduces  the  sacred 
writers  to  passive  organs,  or  clerks  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  contrary  to  the  dealings  of  God  with 
men  as  free  and  responsible  agents.  The  ration- 
alistic theory  ignores  or  minimizes  the  divine 
clement,  and  obliterates  the  specific  distinction 
between  biblical  inspiration  and  extra-biblical 
illumination.  The  former  ruled  in  the  seven- 
teenth century,  the  latter  in  the  eighteenth,  and 
was  a  natural  reaction  against  hyper-orthodoxy. 

The  Reformers  (Luther,  Zwingli,  Calvin)  had 
a  more  free  and  rational  view  of  the  form  of 
the  Bible  than  their  scholastic  followers,  and  yet 
had  all  the  more  reverence  for,  and  sympathy 
with,  its  contents.  "The  letter  killeth,  but  the 
spirit  giveth  life."  "The  words  that  I  speak 
unto  you,  they  are  spirit,  and  they  are  life." 

The  Relationship  of  the  Two  Elements.— As  to 
the  relationship  of  the  two  elements,  we  must 
avoid  a  confusion  on  the  one  hand,  and  a  me- 
chanical separation  on  the  other.  The  Bible  is 
both  divine  and  human  all  through,  but  with- 
out mixture,  and  without  separation. 

Hence  we  may  say  of  the  Bible,  with  Origen, 

iravra  &ela  kou  avd-puiniva  iravra  ("  all  are  divine  and 

all  are  human"). 

We  cannot  say  that  the  thoughts  only  are 
divine,  while  the  words  are  altogether  human. 
Both  thoughts  and  words,  contents  and  form, 
are  divine,  and  human  as  well.  They  constitute 
one  life,  which  kindles  life  in  the  heart  of  the 
believing  reader.  The  Spirit  of  God  dwelt  in 
the  prophets  and  apostles,  and  directed  them 
in  the  process  of  meditation  and  composition, 
but  in  a  free  way,  and  through  the  medium  of 
the  ordinary  mental  faculties.  Every  biblical 
writer  has  not  011I5'  his  own  style,  but  also  his 
own  conception  of  divine  truth,  his  own  mode 
of  reasoning,  and  used  his  memory  and  judg- 
ment and  all  available  means  of  information 
as  much  as  any  ordinary  writer  (compare  the 
preface  to  Luke  1: 1-4) ;  and  yet  it  is  equally  true 
that  the  prophets  "spake  from  God,  being 
moved  by  the  Holy  Spirit "  (II.  Pet,  1:  21,  R.  V., 
margin).  The  more  we  study  James,  Peter,  Paul, 
and  John,  and  the  four  Evangelists,  the  more 
we  find  the  prevailing  variety  of  human  indi- 
vidualities and  the  pervading  unity  of  divine 
truth  in  all  of  them,  and  in  their  thoughts  as 
well  as  in  their  style. 

The  Fact  of  Inspiration,  and  the  Mode  of  In- 
spiration.—The  fact  of  inspiration,  that  is,  the 
action  of  the  divine  mind  upon  the  prophets 
and  apostles,  is  as  clear  and  undeniable  as 
the  action  of  the  human  soul  upon  the  human 
body;  but  the  mode  of  inspiration  is  as  myste- 
rious as  the  mode  of  the  soul's  operation  upon 
the  body.  The  Christian  creeds  and  confessions 
assert  or  assume  the  fact,  but  wisely  refrain 
from  defining  the  mode,  of  inspiration,  and 
leave  that  an  open  question  for  theological 

The  Swiss  Consensus  Stands  Alone  in  Teaching 
the  Literal  Inspiration  of  the  Scriptures.— The 
only  exception  is  the  Helvetic  Consensus  .Formula 
(1675),  which  teaches  the  literal  inspiration  of  the 
Scriptures,  and  the  integrity  of  the  Masoretic 
text  of  the  Old  Testament,  including  vowels 
and  consonants;  but  that  document  had  only 
local  and  ephemeral  authority  in  Switzerland. 



Inspiration  and  Biblical  Criticism.— Biblical 
criticism  investigates  the  human  form  of  the 
Bible  and  does  not  interfere  with  its  divine  con- 
tents. It  is  twofold:  (1)  Verbal  or  textual  (also 
called  lower)  criticism  aims  to  restore  the  original 
text  of  the  Scripture  from  the  existing  sources 
(manuscripts,  ancient  versions,  and  patristic 
quotations).  (2)  Literary  or  historical  (also  called 
hie/her)  criticism  investigates  the  authorship, 
time  and  place,  historical  environments  and 
fortunes,  of  the  several  books  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testaments. 

The  Doctrine  of  Inspiration  Similar  to  the 
Doctrine  of  the  Person  of  Christ.— The  doctrine 
of  inspiration,  as  we  have  intimated,  runs  par- 
allel with  the  doctrine  of  the  person  of  Christ, 
and  the  false  theories  correspond  to  the  various 
Christological  errors,  which  must  be  carefully 
avoided.  These  errors  are:  (1)  Ebionism,  which 
denies  the  divine  nature  of  Christ;  (2)  Gnosticism 
and  Docetism,  which  deny  his  human  nature; 
(8)  Apollinarianism,  which  admits  only  a  partial 
incarnation,  and  denies  that  Christ  had  a 
juman  spirit  (the  divine  Logos  taking  the  place 
of  reason) ;  (4)  Nestorianism,  which  admits  both 
natures,  but  separates  them  abstractly;  (5) 
Eutychianism  and  Monophysitism,  which  con- 
found and  mix  the  two  natures,  or  absorb  the 
human  in  the  divine ;  (6)  the  modern  Kenosis 
theory,  which  suspends  or  paralyzes  the  divine 
nature  of  Christ  during  the  state  of  humiliation. 


It  is  necessary,  for  the  use  of  general  readers, 
to  explain  what  is  meant  by  the  terms  used  in 
the  last  paragraph.  We  therefore  explain  them 
from  Dr.  SchafT's  own  works. 

1.  Ebionism  was  the  doctrine  of  the  Ebionites, 
a  sect  of  heretical  Jewish  Christians  in  the  first 
and  second  centuries  of  Christianity. 

The  doctrine  of  the  common  Ebionites  as  to 
the  person  of  Christ  was  as  follows : 

"  Jesus  is  indeed  the  promised  Messiah,  the  son 
of  David,  and  the  supreme  lawgiver,  yet  a  mere 
man,  like  Moses  and  David,  sprung  by  natural 
generation  from  Joseph  and  Mary.  The  sense 
of  his  Messianic  calling  first  arose  in  him  at  his 
baptism  by  John,  when  a  higher  spirit  joined 
itself  to  him.  Hence  Origen  compared  this  sect 
to  the  blind  man  in  the  Gospel,  who  called  to 
the  Lord,  without  seeing  him,  'Thou  Son  of 
David,  have  mercy  on  me.'" — SchafT's  History 
of  Christianity,  vol.  ii.,  p.  433. 

The  rationalistic  theory  of  the  Bible,  ;\vhich 
empties  it  of  its  divine  contents,  corresponds  to 
the  Ebionitic  Christology. 

2.  Gnosticism  was  the  rationalism  of  the 
ancient  church,  and  was  mainly  of  heathen 
origin— partly  Greek,  partly  Eastern.  It  was  a 
combination  of  "Oriental  mysticism,  Greek 
philosophy,  Alexandrian,  Philonic,  and  Cabal- 
istic Judaism,  and  Christian  ideas  of  salvation, 
not  merely  mechanically  compiled,  but,  as  it 
were,  chemically  combined." 

Christ,  according  to  the  Gnostics,  was  an  ema- 
nation from  the  unfathomable  abyss  of  the 
Godhead,  an  emanation  for  the  purpose  of  lib- 
erating "  the  light-spirit  from  the  chains  of  dark 
matter.  .  .  .  Reduced  to  a  clear  philosophical 
definition,  the  Gnostic  Christ  is  really  nothing 
more  than  the  ideal  spirit  of  man  himself."— 
SchafT,  as  above,  p.  455. 

"  The  Docetists  taught  that  the  body  of  Christ 
was  not  real  flesh  and  blood,  but  merely  a  de- 
ceptive transient  phantom,  and  consequently 
that  he  did  not  really  suffer  and  die  and  rise 
again.  .  .  .  Docetism  was  a  characteristic  fea- 
ture of  the  first  anti-Christian  errorists,  whom 
St.  John  had  in  view  (I.  John  4:2;  II.  John  7)."— 
SchafT,  as  before,  p.  497. 

3.  Apollinaris,  bishop  of  Laodicea  in  Syria, 
died  a.d.  390.    "In  his  zeal  for  the  true  deity  of 


Christ,  and  his  fear  of  a  double  personality,  he 
fell  into  the  error  of  denying  his  integral 
humanity.  .  .  .  He  attributed  to  Christ  a 
human  body  and  a  human  (animal)  soul,  but 
not  a  human  spirit  or  reason;  putting  the  di- 
vine Logos  [Word]  in  the  place  of  the  human 
spirit.  .  .  .  He  held  the  union  of  a  full 
divinity  with  full  humanity  in  one  person, 
therefore  of  two  wholes  in  one  whole,  to  be 
impossible.  He  supposed  the  unity  of  the  per- 
son of  Christ,  and  at  the  same  time  his  sinless- 
ness,  could  be  saved  only  by  the  excision  of 
the  human  spirit."— SchafT,  History  of  Post- 
Nicene  Christianity,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  710-712.  Apol- 
linarianism was  condemned  in  the  Second  Gen- 
eral Council,  that  of  Constantinople,  in  a.d. 
381.  The  First  General  Council,  that  of  Nicsea, 
held  in  a.d.  325,  condemned  the  doctrine  of 
Arius,  which  denied  the  divinity  of  Christ. 

4.  Nestorius  was  originally  a  monk,  then 
presbyter  in  Antioch,  and  after  a.d.  428  patriarch 
of  Constantinople.  Whether  Nestorius  was  in 
reality  a  heretic  is  still  a  matter  of  some  dis- 
pute. He  objected  to  "the  certainly  very 
bold  and  equivocal  expression,  Mother  of  God 
[d-eoToicos,  theotokos],  which  had  been  already 
sometimes  applied  to  the  Virgin  Mary  by  Ori- 
gen .  .  .  and  others,  and  which,  after  the  Arian 
controversy,  and  with  the  growth  of  the  wor- 
ship of  Mary,  passed  into  the  devotional  lan- 
guage of  the  people. 

"  It  was  of  course  not  the  sense,  or  monstrous 
nonsense,  of  this  term,  that  the  creature  bore 
the  Creator,  or  that  the  eternal  Deity  took  its 
beginning  from  Mary,  which  would  be  the  most 
absurd  and  most  wicked  of  all  heresies,  and  a 
shocking  blasphemy;  but  the  expression  was 
intended  only  to  denote  the  indissoluble  union 
of  the  divine  and  human  natures  in  Christ, 
and  the  veritable  incarnation  of  the  Logos,  who 
took  the  human  nature  from  the  body  of  Mary, 
came  forth  God-man  from  her  womb,  and  as 
God-man  suffered  on  the  cross.  ..." 

Nestorianism  "  substituted  for  the  idea  of  the 
incarnation  the  idea  of  an  assumption  of 
human  nature,  or  rather  of  an  entire  man,  into 
fellowship  with  the  Logos,  and  an  indwelling  of 
Godhead  in  Christ.  Instead  of  God-man  we 
have  here  ths  idea  of  a  mere  God-fearing  man; 
and  the  personal  Jesus  of  Nazareth  is  only 
the  instrument,  or  the  temple  in  which  the 
divine  Logos  dwells.  The  two  natures  form, 
not  a  personal  unity,  only  a  moral  unity,  an  in- 
timate friendship  or  conjunction.  They  hold 
an  outward,  mechanical  relation  to  each  other, 
in  which  each  retains  its  peculiar  attributes."— 
SchafT,  Post-Nicene  Christianity,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  716, 
717,  719.  The  heresy  was  condemned  in  the 
Third  General  Council,  that  of  Ephesus,  a.d.  431. 

5.  Eutyches,  an  aged  and  respected  presbyter, 
an  archimandrite,  or  head  of  a  cloister,  of  three 
hundred  monks  at  Constantinople,  was  the 
representative  but  not  the  author  of  the  Mo- 
nophysite  heresy,  so  called  from  its  assertion  of 
one  nature  only  in  Christ.  "  Eutyches,  like 
Cyril  [patriarch  of  Alexandria,  who  died  a.d. 
444],  laid  chief  stress  on  the  divine  in  Christ, 
and  denied  that  two  natures  could  be  spoken  of 
after  the  incarnation.  .  .  .  Hence  it  may  and 
must  be  said :  God  is  born,  God  suffered,  God  was 
crucified  and  died.  He  asserted,  therefore,  on  the 
one  hand,  the  capability  of  suffering  and  death 
in  the  Logos-personality,  and  on  the  other  hand 
the  deification  of  the  human  in  Christ.  "—Schaff, 
Post-Nicene  Christianity,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  736,  737.  This 
heresy  was  finally  condemned  in  the  Fourth 
General  Council,  that  of  Chalcedon,  in  a.d.  451. 

6.  The  expression  Kenosis  (Greek  KeVtoo-i?, 
emptying)  is  taken  from  St.  Paul's  expression  in 
Phil.  2:  7  (eavrbv  eicevcoaev),  and  the  doctrine  of  the 
Kenosis,  as  explained  by  Hilary  of  Pictavium, 
a.d.  350,  means  that  the  divine  Logos  in  Christ 
did  not  all  at  once  in  its  fullness  enter  into  his 
humanity,  but,  being  in  the  man  Christ  Jesus, 



remained  in  a  stale  of  humiliation  until  the 
exaltation  of  the  Redeemer.    Hilary,  however, 

distinctly  maintained  that  the  Son  himself 
remained  the  same  all  throughout,  and  pos- 
sessed the  latent  power  to  take  up  and  use  this 
full  power  if  he  so  willed  it,  so  that  the  exinani- 
tion,  as  it  is  termed,  was  all  along  not  merely 
an  aet  of  self-humiliation  on  the  part  of  the 
God-man,  but  also  an  act  of  divine  power 
(cf.  John  10:  18).  See  Dorner  on  The  Person  of 
Christ,  English  translation,  div.  i.,  vol.  ii.,  pp. 
406  11'.  The  older  Protestant  divines  held  that 
<  Jhrist  laid  aside  merely  the  divine  majesty,  but 
not  the  conscious  possession  of  the  divine  na- 
ture. But  the  modern  theory  of  the  Kenosis 
supposes  Christ  to  have  been  subject  to  the  in- 
firmities and  shortcomings  of  human  knowl- 
edge, such  as  might  at  least  be  exhibited  by  a 

sinless  man.  In  its  extreme  form,  it  teaches 
a  complete  suspension  or  paralysis  of  the  divine 
nature  of  Christ  (and  of  the  trinitarian  process) 
during  the  whole  state  of  humiliation,  that  is, 
from  the  birth  to  the  resurrection.  See  Schaff, 
Christ  and  Christianity,  pp.  107-119. 

Books  of  Reference:  An  interesting  essay  may 
be  found  in  a  volume  of  essays  entitled  New  Wine  in 
did  Bottles,  by  Rev.  J.  B.  Heard,  M.A. ;  Schaff's  Creeds 
of  Christendom;  Ellicott's  Treatise  on  the  Inspiration  of 
the  Holy  Scriptures;  Gaussen's  Theopneustia;  Pattern's 
Inspiration  of  the  Scriptures;  Jamieson's  Insf)i ration  of 
the  Holy  Scriptures.;  F.  B.  Hobertson's  Sermons,  Inspi- 
ration; H.  B.  Smith's  Sermons,  Inspiration  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures;  W.  E.  Gladstone's  Impregnable  Rock  of 
Holy  Script-lire;  Wright's  Divine  Authority  of  the  JJible; 
Schaff's  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  vols,  i.,  ii.,  and 
hi.;  Schaff's  Christ  and  Christianity. 


By  WILBERT  W.   WHITE,  Ph.D.,  Associate   Director,    Biblical   Department   of 

The  Bible  Institute,  Chicago. 

Introductory.— To  interpret  is  to  explain;  to 
make  clear  the  meaning;  to  give  the  sense. 
Back  of  interpretation  lies  examination.  In 
the  study  of  the  Bible  the  first  question  to  ask 
is,  What  does  it  sai/f  Then  only  may  we  ask 
the  second,  What  does  it  mean?  If  more  atten- 
tion were  given  to  the  first,  there  would  often 
be  less  difficulty  in  answering  the  second  ques- 
tion. Who  has  not  heard  persons  attempt  to 
explain  what  the  Bible  means  by  what,  on 
closer  examination,  they  have  found  the  Bible 
does  not  say.  Perhaps  no  more  practical  advice 
can  be  given  on  this  subject  than  to  be  always 
first  sure  of  what  the  Bible  says.  This  demands 
study.  Familiarity  with  the  contents  of  the 
Bible,  secured  by  hard  study,  is  the  prime  requi- 
site of  the  interpreter.  AVhile  it  is  doubtless 
true  that  the  principle  that  the  Bible  should  be 
studied  like  any  other  book  has  been  abused, 
there  is  a  truth  here  which  needs  emijhasis  in 
many  minds.  Many  omit  to  study  the  Bible 
with  vigor  and  by  the  most  approved  methods 
because  of  supposed  reverence  lor  it.  They  feel 
that  it  is  so  unlike  other  books  that  its  meaning 
is  to  be  sought  by  special  means,  which  are 
often  no  means  at  all.  The  Bible  is  not  written 
in  cipher,  nor  will  any  wonderful  revelation 
come  to  the  one  who  reads  it  backwards  or  up- 
side down.  AVhile  the  Bible  is  unique  and  with- 
out a  peer  in  literature,  one  should  never  for- 
get that  it  is  literature.  It  is  so  like  other  books 
that  it  must  be  read  and  studied  in  the  same 
way  as  other  books  are  studied  to  be  under- 
stood. It  requires  more  than  other  books,  and 
because  it  requires  more  it  requires  as  much. 
There  is  a  helpful  analogy  between  the  incar- 
nate Word  and  the  written  Scriptures.  Both  are 
really  human  and  divine.  The  glory  of  the 
divine  is  emphasized  when  we  allow  for  the  full 
and  perfect  human  element.  The  reality  and 
truth  of  both  are  by  this  means  put  within  the 
reach  of  our  own  testing.  It  is  argued  that  the 
Bible  is  true  because  it  is  divine.  Its  truth  may 
also  be  argued  from  the  fact  that  it  is  human. 

The  Bible  should  not,  on  the  other  hand,  be 
regarded  as  a  book  which  only  a  scholar  may 
understand.  It  is  true  that  it  challenges  the 
most  profound  study.  It  is  inexhaustible,  be- 
cause it  contains  the  revelation  of  the  only  wise 
God,  who  is  ever  revealing  himself,  yet  is  never 
wholly  revealed.  But  the  plain,  everyday  per- 
son may,  with  ease,  discover  from  the  Word 
what  God  intended  he  should  find.  Many 
trouble  themselves  much  to  find  in  the  Bible 
what  God  never  intended  to  reveal  in  it.  The 
Bible  was  not  written  lor  an  intellectual  aristoc- 

racy. The  message  of  love  to  mankind  from  a 
gracious  God  and  Saviour  is  not  hid  in  enig- 
matic phrase  or  profound  philosophical  state- 
ment. In  attestation  of  this,  consider  the  pro- 
portion of  the  Bible  which  is  purely  biograph- 
ical. Truth  in  the  concrete  is  here  found  in 
very  large  measure.  We  meet  men,  women, 
and  children  under  circumstances  well  defined, 
and  hear  what  they  said,  how  they  thought  and 

Suggestions.— 1.  The  Bible  should  be  interpreted  in 
the  light  of  the  central  fundamental  teachings  of  Jesus 
Christ.  The  Gospels  may  be  denominated  the 
heart  of  the  Bible.  The  Gospel  by  John  we  may 
call  the  heart  of  the  heart.  We  may  expect  to 
feel  the  beat  of  the  heart  in  the  extremities. 
Changing  the  figure,  we  may  expect  outlying 
districts  to  be  dominated  by  the  capital  city. 
Jesus,  of  all  interpreters  who  ever  lived,  was 
capable  of  explaining  Scripture.  We  should  be 
on  guard  here  against  assuming  that  what  is  re- 
corded of  the  teaching  of  Jesus  is  more  trust- 
worthy than  that  of  apostles  and  prophets. 
Those  in  whom  the  Spirit  of  Jesus  testified  are 
of  equal  authority  with  Jesus.  Where,  however, 
there  is  difficulty  in  determining  the  meaning 
of  any  of  these  messengers,  we  are  bound  to  in- 
terpret in  the  light  of  the  unquestioned,  lumi- 
nous teaching  of  Jesus  Christ. 

2.  TJie  Bible  should,  be  interpreted  in  the  light  of 
its  oi vn  statement  of  the  object  of  its  existence.  Paul 
to  Timothy  writes:  "The  sacred  writings  .  .  . 
are  able  to  make  thee  wise  unto  salvation 
through  faith  which  is  in  Christ  Jesus.  .  . .  Scrip- 
ture ...  is  also  profitable  .  .  .  that  the 
man  of  God  may  be  complete,  furnished  com- 
pletely unto  every  good  work"  (II.  Tim.  3:  15, 
10,  R.  V.).  That  man  may  live  and  know  how 
to  live  more  abundantly  is  the  purpose  of  God 
in  giving  the  Bible.  Redemption  is  the  word  of 
all  words  which,  with  propriety,  might  be  writ- 
ten in  large  letters  over  the  pages  of  the  sacred 
volume.  The  Bible  is  neither  unhistorical  nor 
unscientific,  but  its  purpose  primarily  is  to 
teach  neither  history  nor  science.  It  is  sure 
enough  of  its  facts  to  trust  itself  sometimes  to 
a  partial  statement  of  details.  It  is  so  much  oc- 
cupied with  informing  man  how  to  go  to  heaven 
that  it  does  not  stop  to  explain  how  the  heavens 
go.  The  key  to  the  Gospel  by  John  is  the  key  to 
the  Bible.  "  Many  other  signs  therefore  did  Jesus 
.  .  .  which  are  not  written  in  this  book;  but 
these  are  written,  that  ye  may  believe  that  Jesus 
is  the  Christ,  the  Son  of  God;  and  that  believing 
ye  may  have  life  in  his  name"  (John  20:  30,  31, 
R.  V.).  We  should  not  omit  to  note  that  in  accom- 



plishing  the  second  part  of  its  purpose  the  Bible 
records  many  things  of  which  it  does  not  ap- 
prove. "  These  things  were  our  examples  to  the 
intent  we  should  not  lust  after  evil  things,  as 
they  also  lusted."  .  .  .  "Now  these  things 
happened  unto  them  by  way  of  example,  and 
they  were  written  for  our  admonition  "  (I.  Cor. 
10:  6,  11,  R.V.). 

3.  In  interpreting  the  Bible,  the  natural  meaning 
of  words  should  be  sought.  In  discovering  this, 
one  must  consider  the  words  in  themselves, 
and  as  used  in  the  language  of  the  times,  and  by 
the  writer.  One  must  be  on  guard  against  press- 
ing the  etymological  meaning  of  a  word  where 
such  was  not  intended.  The  etymological  mean- 
ing of  such  words  as  lunatic  and  enthusiasm  are 
not  usually  thought  of  by  writers  and  speakers 
to-day.  When  such  is  the  case,  it  is  in  some 
way  indicated.  In  studying  a  translation,  such 
as  the  Authorized  Version,  the  meaning  of 
words  current  when  the  translation  was  made 
should  be  sought;  e.g.,  thought,  in  Matt.  6:  25-34; 
careful,  in  Phil.  4:  6. 

4.  The  grammatical  construction  of  sentences 
should  be  consulted  in  interpreting  the  Bible.  We 
must  believe  that  it  says  what  it  means,  and 
means  what  it  says,  according  to  real  and 
natural  modes  of  thought  and  expression. 

5.  The  immediate  context  of  a  passage  should  be 
consulted  in  seeking  its  meaning ;  e.g.,  I.  Cor.  2:  9 
is  frequently  interpreted  as  referring  to  things 
to  be  revealed  after  this  life  in  heaven.  Verse 
10  shows  conclusively  that  the  apostle  refers  to 
what  has  been  already  revealed  to  himself  and 
his  fellow  Christians  by  the  Spirit. 

6.  An  over  emphasis  of  the  immediate  context  in 
interpretation  should  be  guarded  against;  e.g.,  some 
interpreters  allow  the  figure  of  the  shepherd  in 
Ps.  23:  1-4  to  lead  them  to  force  the  meaning  of 
the  verses  5,  6.  The  natural  method  is  to  allow 
the  two  figures  of  the  shepherd  and  the  host  to 
stand  side  by  side.  Fanciful  interpretations  of  a 
portion  of  Eccl.  12  have  resulted  from  forcing 
the  figure  of  the  aged  man  into  all  the  verses  in- 
stead of  allowing  for  a  mixture  of  this  figure 
with  others. 

7.  The  remote  context  of  a  passage  should  be 
consulted  in  seeking  its  meaning.  This  may  be  under- 
stood to  include:  (1)  The  character  of  the  lan- 
guage employed  in  the  paragraph,  or  section, 
or  book.  Such  questions  as:  Is  this  poetry? 
Is  this  allegory?  Is  this  parable?  are  proper. 
(2)  The  object  and  plan  of  the  book.  Such  diffi- 
culties as  the  one  connected  with  the  use  of 
the  words  faith  and  works  by  Paul  and  James 
would  be  thus  explained.  (3)  The  time  and  cir- 
cumstances of  the  writing.  (4)  The  person  or 
persons  addressed  in  the  writing.  (5)  The  place  of 
the  book  in  the  scheme  of  revealed  truth. 

To  interpret  correctly  the  remote  context,  the 
historical  imagination  should  be  cultivated.  By 
this  is  meant  the  ability  to  reproduce  vividly 
the  circumstances  and  enter  largely  into  the 
spirit  of  the  situation.  The  seeker  for  the  true 
meaning  of  a  passage  should  ask  himself: 
What  thought  did  the  writer  evidently  intend 
to  convey  to  the  one  addressed?  What  meaning 
would  the  one  addressed  naturally  gather  from 
these  words?  Of  one  interpreter  it  is  said, 
"  He  lives  in  every  person  who  comes  forward, 
either  speaking  or  acting,  in  the  wicked  as  well 
as  the  good;  and  explains  every  discourse  from 
the  circumstances,  and  from  the  soul  of  him 
who  speaks." 

8.  What  has  been  already  ivritten  involves  the  fact 
that  to  compare  scripture  ivith  scripture  is  a  princi- 
ple of  sound  biblical  interpretation.  The  Bible  is 
its  own  interpreter.  When  two  passages  appear 
to  contradict  each  other,  as  a  rule  a  third  may 
be  found  which  will  indicate  that  harmony 

9.  A  true  interpretation  of  a  passage  will  be  in 
harmony  with  the  first  principles  of  morals.  "  As 
the  end  of  all  Scripture  is  that  we  should  love 

God  and  our  neighbor,  any  interpretation  of 
Scripture  which  does  not  tend  to  promote  these 
feelings  cannot  be  true." 

10.  A  true  interpretation  of  Scripture  will  not  con- 
tradict scientific  truth.  Truth  cannot  be  more  true 
than  itself.  My  interpretation  may  be  wrong, 
or  the  conclusion  of  the  scientist  unfounded.  If 
both  are  correct  and  understood  they  will  har- 
monize. One  has  well  said:  "To  find  the  truth 
and  the  will  of  God  as  expressed  in  it,  to  stay  by 
it,  love  it,  make  it  our  own,  defend  it  to  the 
death— that  is  the  common  goal  of  religion  and 
of  all  true  science.  If  one  man  study  the  Bible 
religiously,  and  another  study  it  scientifically, 
still  they  are  friends  and  allies,  unless  the  one's 
religion  or  the  other's  science  is  somehow  at 
fault.  Indeed,  why  should  your  religion  ex- 
clude my  science  even  here,  or  my  science  your 
religion,  if  both  science  and  religion  possess  the 
teachableness  and  the  sweet  humility  of  the  lit- 
tle child,  to  which  was  made  the  promise  of  the 

11.  A  true  interpretation  of  Scripture  will  not 
always  result  in  the  removal  of  all  difficulties.  There 
will  sometimes  remain  apparent  contradictions. 
We  are  to  accept  the  plain  historico-grammat- 
ical  sense  of  a  passage,  and  not  to  attempt  to 
evade  its  plain  meaning  for  the  purpose  of  se- 
curing harmony  with  another  passage,  or  one's 
own  idea  of  what  is  truth.  There  may  be  a  plain 
contradiction  between  two  statements  so  far  as 
we  can  discern,  and  yet  both  may  be  true;  e.  g., 
"Before  Abraham  was,  I  am."  "Jesus  was  born 
in  Bethlehem  of  Judea,  in  the  days  of  Herod 
the  king."  One  of  the  most  unreasonable  de- 
mands is  made  by  the  human  reason,  viz.,  that 
all  things  should  appear  to  it  reasonable.  More- 
over, some  difficulties  of  interpretation  must 
remain  because  of  the  fragmentary  character  of 
the  record,  uncertainty  as  to  the  meaning  and 
use  of  certain  words,  variations  in  readings,  and 
the  like.  It  is  readily  admitted,  however,  by  all 
that  these  are  of  minor  importance  and  do  not 
affect  the  body  of  vital  saving  truth  revealed  in 
the  Scriptures. 

12.  A  real  Christian  experience  is  necessary  on 
the  part  of  one  who  would  understand  the  Scriptures 
fully.  The  Bible  contains  the  record  of  actual 
experience  of  hundreds  of  believers  and  unbe- 
lievers of  the  past.  It  is  intensely  human.  It 
was  not  written  in  heaven  and  sent  sailing 
down  through  the  air,  leaf  by  leaf;  nor  did  its 
writers  sit  down  and  listen  to  dictation  by  some 
angelic  messenger,  or  by  God  himself.  God  en- 
tered into  the  real  life  of  the  prophets  and 
apostles,  and  in  them,  and  in  his  Son,  our 
brother,  he  spoke.  As  one  progresses  in  the 
Christian  life,  will  one  grow  in  appreciation  and 
understanding  of  the  Bible.  We  read  it,  and 
find  it  reflected  in  us,  as  well  as  ourselves  re- 
flected in  it.  No  experience  is  possible  to  saint 
or  sinner  which  is  not  recorded  in  the  Bible.  It 
is  plain  that  some  portions  may  be  understood 
only  by  the  saint,  and  he  of  the  most  advanced 
type.  Of  one  eminent  interpreter  it  is  written, 
"  His  exegesis  breathes  everywhere  a  most  lively 
religious  feeling,  indicating  that  his  own  per- 
sonal experience  enabled  him  to  penetrate,  as 
by  intuition,  into  the  depths  of  meaning  treas- 
ured in  the  oracles  of  God." 

13.  The  successful  interpreter  of  the  Bible  must  be 
following  the  truth  wherever  it  leads.  Obedience  is  an 
organ  of  spiritual  knowledge.  "He  revealeth 
his  secret  unto  his  servants  the  prophets."  "He 
that  willeth  to  do  his  will  shall  know."  The 
Bible  thus  becomes  the  most  difficult  book  in 
the  world  to  study  scientifically.  It  deals  with 
morals.  When  one  comes  to  it  to  know  truth  it 
will  not  yield  its  treasures  unless  he  is  deter- 
mined to  do  the  truth.  The  illiterate  obedient 
person  will  therefore  be  a  better  interpreter  of 
the  Bible  than  the  profound  scholar  who  is  a 

14.  TJie  true  interpreter  will,  in  childlike  humility, 



depend  upon  the  illuminating  influence  of  the  Holy 
Spirit.  God  must  be  looked  to  to  interpret  his 
own  message.  Here  is  a  great  advantage  which 
the  student  of  the  Bible  may  have,  that  he  may 
enjoy  the  presence  of  the  Author  to  explain  the 
meaning  of  his  own  words.  He  is  not  depend- 
ent on  commentaries,  or  the  church,  for  inter- 

pretation. He  has  not  need  that  any  man 
teach  him.  He  may  consult  the  Holy  Spirit 
himself  and  receive  illumination.  His  constant 
prayer  will  be,  "  Open  thou  mine  eyes,  that  I  may 
behold  wondrous  things  out  of  thy  law." 

Books  of  Reference:   Farrar's  History  of  Inter- 
pretation; Terry's  Biblical  Hermeneutics. 

As  it  appears  mounted  in  the  British  Museum.    Consult  Plate  III. 



By  KEV.  C.  H.  H.  WRIGHT,  D.D.,  Ph.D.,  Grinfield  Lecturer  on 
the  LXX.,  Oxford. 

The  Editor.— The  careful  reader  of  the  Old 
Testament  will  not  fail  to  observe  that  a  reg- 
ular chain  of  quotations  of  the  earlier  Scrip- 
tures can  be  shown  to  pervade  the  Scriptures 
of  later  date,  extending  from  the  days  of  Joshua 
to  the  days  of  Malachi.  The  number  of  ref- 
erences to  the  Pentateuch  and  the  Prophets 
found  in  that  last  book  of  the  Old  Testament  is 
peculiarly  instructive.  It  cannot,  however,  be 
distinctly  proved,  though  it  is  probable,  that 
Ezra,  after  the  return  from  the  Babylonish 
captivity,  made  a  complete  collection  of  the 
sacred  writings  then  extant  among  the  Jews, 
authoritatively  separating  the  divinely  inspired 
writings  from  all  other  books. 

Early  Evidence.— There  is,  however,  very  early 
evidence  to  prove  that  there  was  such  a 
"  canon  "  or  rule  in  existence  centuries,  perhaps, 
prior  to  the  time  of  our  Lord.  It  is  spoken  of 
in  the  prologue  to  the  book  of  Ecclesiasticus  (a 
name  which  must  be  carefully  distinguished 
from  that  of  Ecclesiastes).  That  book  in  its 
present  form  is  assigned  by  most  modern  critics 
to  B.C.  120,  and  the  period  at  which  the  editor's 
grandfather  lived  cannot  have  been  later  than 
B.C.  170,  that  is,  shortly  before  the  great  Macca- 
bean struggle.  It  is  quite  possible  even  that 
those  dates  may  be  put  back  forty  or  fifty  years 
earlier,  for  various  different  opinions  have 
been  held  as  to  the  two  notes  of  time  given  in 
the  book  in  question.  The  prologue  or  preface 
referred  to  relates  how  "my  grandfather  Jesus, 
having  given  himself  up  more  and  more  to  the 
reading  of  the  Law  and  the  Prophets  and  the 
other  books  of  our  fathers,"  was  at  last  led 
himself  to  become  an  author.  This  allusion  to 
the  Jewish  Scriptures  as  forming  a  well-known 
collection  divided  into  three  parts,  afterwards 
distinguished  as  the  Law,  the  Prophets,  and 
the  Writings,  is  perfectly  clear.  The  third 
division  of  the  sacred  books  did  not  receive 
a  distinct  name  until  centuries  later.  That 
third  part  is  possibly  alluded  to  in  Luke  24 :  44 
under  the  name  of  the  book  which  stands  first 
in  the  collection,  namely,  the  Psalms. 

The  arguments  of  some  modern  scholars  that 
certain  books  were  added  to  the  Jewish  canon 
between  the  times  of  the  Maccabean  struggle 
and  the  days  of  our  Lord,  do  not  rest  upon  any 
historical  basis,  but  solely  on  critical  conjec- 
tures. It  may  be  safely  asserted  that  the  con- 
tests between  the  great  Jewish  sects,  the  Phari- 
sees and  the  Sadducees,  which  came  into  exist- 
ence at  the  close  of  the  Maccabean  revolt,  and 
the  suspicious  jealousy  with  which  those  sects 
watched  one  another,  rendered  it  absolutely 
impossible  to  attempt  to  introduce  any  new 
books  into  the  Jewish  canon  of  Holy  Scripture. 

At  the  Synod  of  Jamnia.  a.d.  90,  an  attempt 
was  made  to  strike  out  of  ihe  canon  the  books 
of  Ecclesiastes  and  the  Song  of  Songs,  and  also 
the  book  of  Ezekiel,  because  certain  passages  in 
it  were  supposed  to  contradict  the  books  of 
Moses.  It  is  well  to  note  this  fact,  for  some 
scholars  have  drawn  conclusions  therefrom  un- 
favorable to  the  idea  of  the  closing  of  the 
Jewish  canon  before  that  time.  Prior  to  that 
date,  our  Lord  had,  by  his  teaching,  endorsed 
as  a  whole  the  Jewish  canon  known  to  us ;  and 

Josephus'  testimony  (see  below)  on  the  point, 
and  that  of  Philo  (probably  born  B.C.  20,  and 
died  after  a.d.  41),  are  perfectly  conclusive  on 
that  matter. 

Contents.— In  II.  Maccabees  2  mention  is  made 
also  of  the  threefold  division  of  the  sacred 
writings.  In  that  chapter,  in  verses  2  and  3,  the 
Law,  or  the  Pentateuch,  is  spoken  of,  and  later, 
in  verses  13  and  14,  the  other  two  divisions  are 
alluded  to.  The  third  division  of  the  Jewish 
Scriptures  is  alluded  to  in  II.  Maccabees  as  "the 
(writings)  of  David,"  so  called,  as  in  Luke  24: 
44,  from  the  Psalms  having  been  placed  first  in 
that  division. 

Josephus'  statement  in  relation  to  the  Jewish 
canon  is  clear.  It  is  contained  in  his  work 
Against  Apion,  book  i.,  sec.  8,  which  was  written 
about  a.d.  100.  He  says:  "We  have  not  myr- 
iads of  books  differing  with  and  opposing  one  an- 
other, but  twenty-two  books  only,  containing 
the  history  of  all  past  time,  which  are  justly  be- 
lieved to  be  divine,  and  of  These  five  are  those  of 
Moses,  which  contain  the  laws  and  the  tradition 
concerning  the  generation  of  men  down  to  his 
own  death.  This  period  of  time  embraces  nearly 
3,000  years.  But  from  the  death  of  Moses  to  the 
reign  of  Artaxerxes,  the  king  of  the  Persians 
after  Xerxes,  the  prophets  who  came  after 
Moses  wrote  the  events  which  occurred  in  their 
time  in  thirteen  books ;  but  the  four  remaining 
contain  hymns  to  God,  and  precepts  of  life  for 
man.  But  from  the  time  of  Artaxerxes  down 
to  our  own  time  all  events  have  indeed  been 
written;  but  they  (the  books)  are  not  deemed 
worthy  of  the  same  credit  as  those  before  them, 
because  there  was  not  the  exact  succession  of 
the  prophets." 

The  thirteen  books  referred  to  by  Josephus  are 
(1)  Joshua,  (2)  Judges,  with  Ruth,  (3)  I.  and  II. 
Samuel,  (4)  I.  and  II.  Kings,  (5)  Job,  (6)Isaiah,  (7) 
Jeremiah  and  the  Lamentations,  (8)  Ezekiel,  (9) 
the  twelve  Minor  Prophets,  always  counted  as 
one  book  by  the  Jews,  (10)  Daniel,  (11)  Ezra  and 
Nehemiah,  also  counted  as  one,  (12)  I.  and  II. 
Chronicles,  (13)  Esther.  This  was  the  Alexan- 
drian method  of  reckoning.  The  four  books  of 
hymns  and  ethics  are  Psalms,  Proverbs,  Eccle- 
siastes, and  Canticles. 

Arrangement.— The  ordinary  arrangement  of 
the  Hebrew  Bible  is  as  follows :  (1)  The  Penta- 
teuch or  "the  Law"  {Torah).  .  (2a)  Joshua, 
Judges,  Samuel,  and  Kings.  The  title  given  to 
this  first  part  of  the  second  division  is  "the 
Former  Prophets."  (26)  Isaiah,  Jeremiah,  and 
Ezekiel,  with  the  Minor  Prophets,  form  the 
second  portion  of  the  second  division,  which  is 
entitled  "the  Later  Prophets."  The  division  of 
the  books  of  Samuel,  Kings,  and  Chronicles, 
each  into  two  books,  is  of  comparatively  late 
date.  The  twelve  Minor  Prophets  were  origi- 
nally regarded  as  one  volume  (Ecclesiasticus 
49:10).  The  title  "Greater  or  Lesser  Prophets" 
alludes  to  the  size  of  the  books  and  not  to  any 
inferiority  in  authority.  The  designation 
"Former  and  Later  Prophets"  only  points  to 
the  position  in  the  canon.  (3)  The  Kethubim 
( Writings),  more  commonly  termed  Hagiographa 
in  Latinized  Greek,  meaning  "holy  writings." 
These  are  Psalms,  Proverbs,  Job,  Song  of  Solo- 




mon,  Ruth,  Lamentations,  Ecclesiastes,  Esther, 
Daniel,  Ezra,  Nehemiah,  and  Chronicles.  Of 
these,  the  Song  of  Solomon,  Ruth,  Lamenta- 
tions, Ecclesiastes,  Esther,  are  termed  the  rive 
Megilloth,  or  Molls,  and  are  appointed  to  be  pub- 
licly read  in  the  synagogue  on  certain  special 
occasions  in  the  year. 

The  Old  Testament  in  the  English  Bible  is 
composed  of  thirty-nine  books:  The  Penta- 
teuch, 5;  the  historical  books,  12,  commencing 
with  Joshua  and  ending  with  the  book  of 
Esther;  the  poetical,  5— Job,  Psalms,  Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes,  Song  of  Solomon ;  the  prophetical, 
16— Isaiah.  Jeremiah,  Ezekiel,  Daniel,  with  the 
twelve  Minor  Prophets;  and  Lamentations,  1, 
which  follows  Jeremiah.  The  order  of  the 
books  in  our  English  Bible  follows  in  the  main 
the  order  adopted  in  the  old  Greek  version 
(Tilled  the  Septuagint  (and  generally  known  as 
the  LXX.).  That  order  has  no  claim  whatever 
to  be  regarded  as  authoritative,  although  the 
claim  has  sometimes  been  strangely  put  for- 
ward.  In  the  LXX.  version,  Isaiah,  Jeremiah, 
Lamentations,  Ezekiel,  and  Daniel  are  placed, 
however,  after  the  twelve  Minor  Prophets,  and 
the  apocryphal  books  are  dispersed  among  the 
other  books  (see  Old  Testament  Apocrypha),  The 
arrangement  in  the  Latin  Vulgate  is  practically 
the  same  as  in  the  English,  with  the  exception 
of  the  apocryphal  books,  regarded  by  the 
Roman  Church  as  canonical.  In  the  LXX.  and 
Vulgate,  the  books  of  Samuel  and  of  Kings  are 
designated  the  "four  books  of  Kings." 

In  the  Talmud  the  order  of  the  Greater 
Prophets  is:  Jeremiah,  Ezekiel,  Isaiah*  but 
the  reason  assigned  for  that  order  in  the  Talmud 
is  more  ingenious  than  convincing.  It  is,  how- 
ever, probable  that  Isaiah's  original  place  in 
the  canon  may  have  been  after  Ezekiel,  and 
that  the  book  was  afterwards  placed,  for  chron- 
ological reasons,  in  its  present  position.  In  the 
Talmud,  Ruth,  as  the  first  book  of  the  Hagiog- 
rapha,  is  mentioned  as  if  it  stood  before  the 
Psalms.  The  place,  however,  assigned  to  Ruth 
in  the  LXX.,  Vulgate,  and  English  version  is 
probably  its  proper  position,  although  it  was 
afterwards  placed,  as  one  of  the  Megilloth, 
among  the  Hagiographa.  The  number  of  books 
in  the  Old  Testament  is  variously  given  in 
ancient  authorities.  The  Talmud  and  the 
Palestine  Jews  reckon  twenty-four  books, 
Samuel.  Kings,  Chronicles,  Ezra,  and  Nehemio  h, 
and  the  twelve  Minor  Prophets,  being  each 
regarded  as  forming  one  book ;  Josephus,  Origen, 
and  others  give  the  number  as  twenty-two, 
uniting  Ruth  with  Judges,  and  Lamentations 
with  Jeremiah.  The  number  of  books  thus 
corresponds  with  the  number  of  letters  in  the 
Hebrew  alphabet,  and  some  assume  from  this 
fact  that  the  shorter  enumeration  is  older  than 
the  longer.  Jerome  mentions  both  methods  of 
numbering  the  books,  but  states  that  the  num- 
ber twenty-two  was  the  more  usual. 

The  triple  division  of  the  Jewish  Scriptures, 
which  has  already  been  mentioned,  is  generally 
thought  to  have  been  referred  to  by  our  Lord 
under  the  name  of  "the  Law  of  Moses,  and  the 
Prophets,  and  the  Psalms"  (Luke  24:  44).  It  is, 
however,  by  no  means  certain  that  all  the  books 
of  the  third  division  in  general  are  necessarily 
included  under  the  heading  "Psalms."  Our 
Lord  may  have  referred  to  the  book  of  the 
Psalms  as  the  most  important  book  of  the 
third  division,  and  the  one  in  which  the  most 
numerous  Messianic  prophecies  are  found.  It 
should  also  be  noted  that  in  the  New  Testament 
the  Jewish  Scriptures  as  a  whole  are  usually 
spoken  of  as  the  "  Law  and  the  Prophets,"  or  as 
"Moses  and  the  Prophets,"  even  in  cases  in 
which  quotations  arc  made  from  the  book  of  the 
Psalms,  which  are  included  in  the  third  divi- 
sion, or  Hagiographa  (Matt.  5:  17;  7:  12;  11:  13; 
22:  40;  Luke  16:  hi,  29,  31;  John  1:  45;  Acts  13:  15, 
39,  40 ;  24 :  14 ;  28 :  23 ;  Rom.  3 :  21).    All  the  books  of 

the  Old  Testament  are  also  sometimes  spoken 
of  under  the  title  of  "the  Law"  (John  10:34; 
12:  34;  15:25;  I.  Cor.  14:21),  although  the  Mosaic 
writings  are  usually  referred  to  by  our  Lord  as 
the  sayings  of  that  great  lawgiver. 

Preservation.— In  the  Old  Testament  distinct 
statements  are  made  as  to  the  preservation  of 
the  sacred  books  from  the  earliest  period.  Moses 
directed  "the  book  of  the  Law"  to  be  placed  in 
the  side  of  the  ark  (Deut.  31:26),  probably  in 
some  chest  attached  thereto.  Joshua  is  said  to 
have  added  to  that  book  (Josh.  24:  26).  It  is 
not  at  all  surprising  that  in  the  terrible  perse- 
cution of  Manasseh  (II.  Ki.  21:  1G;  24:  4)  it 
should  have  been  found  necessary  to  conceal 
the  sacred  books;  so  there  is  nothing  whatever 
improbable  in  t lie  book  of  the  Law  of  the  Lord, 
or  some  portion  of  the  same,  being  rediscovered 
in  the  house  of  the  Lord  in  the  days  of  Josiah 
(II.  Ki.  22:  8  ff.).  Prior  to  that  reign,  mention 
is  made  of  "the  men  of  Hezekiah,"  a  body  who 
appear  to  have  had  the  duty  of  the  editing  of 
the  sacred  writings,  and  who  added  consider- 
ably to  the  book  of  the  Proverbs  (Pro v.  25:  1). 
The  references  in  the  Talmud  and  elsewhere 
to  that  body  of  scribes  are  numerous. 

Transmission.— "The  men  of  the  Great  Syna- 
gogue" form  an  important  link  in  the  trans- 
mission of  the  sacred  books  from  the  time  of 
Ezra  down  to  the  period  of  the  Maccabees.  They 
are  spoken  of  as  such  a  link  in  the  well-known 
treatise  of  the  Talmud  termed  Aboth,  or  Pirke 
Aboth  (Chapters  of  the  Fathers).  JNo  doubt  the 
later  legends  ascribed  much  to  them  which  can- 
not be  sustained.  But  the  story  of  "the  men  of 
the  Great  Synagogue "  is  not  to  be  wholly 
relegated  to  the  region  of  fable.  The  statements 
with  regard  to  their  numbers  being  120  or  85  can, 
indeed,  be  traced  to  an  erroneous  interpretation 
of  passages  in  Ezra  and  Nehemiah.  But  the 
commission  given  by  Artaxerxes  to  Ezra  (Ezra 
7 :  25)  authorized  him  to  establish  some  such  body. 
It  was  the  real  governing  body  of  the  Jews,  and 
corresponded  to  the  seventy  elders  appointed  by 
Moses.  They  not  only  took  care  of  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  sacred  books,  but  probably  drew  up 
petitions  and  eulogies,  which  are  still  retained 
in  the  Jewish  liturgy.  They  were  the  civil  and 
ecclesiastical  authorities  which  corresponded  to 
the  Sanhedrin  of  later  days,  which  seems,  indeed, 
to  have  been  a  re-formation  of,  the  old  arrange- 
ment introduced  later— after  the  irregularities 
consequent  upon  the  tyranny  of  Antiochus 
Epiphanes  and  the  Maccabean  revolt. 

The  "Great  Synagogue,"  important  as  was  its 
work,  left  behind  no  distinct  record  of  its  ac- 
tions. This  evidently  was  because  it  was  strictly 
forbidden  to  commit  to  writing  religious  laws 
and  ordinances  not  contained  in  the  Scriptures. 
Even  in  later  days,  it  was  long  before  such  a  scru- 
ple was  overcome.  The  Talmud  itself  was  only 
by  degrees  committed  to  writing.  The  existence 
and  authority  of  "the  men  of  the  Great  Syna- 
gogue" were  none  the  less  important. 

Books  of  Reference:      Dr.  C.  H.  H.  Wright's 

Ecclesiastes  in  Relation  to  Modern  Criticism  and  Modern 
Pessimism  (1883)  (regarding  the  questions  of  the  testi- 
mony of  the  Talmud  to  the  Old  Testament  Scriptures 
and  of  the  men  of  the  Great  Synagogue);  Davidson's 
Canon  of  the  Bible;  Byle's  Canon  of  the  Old  Testament; 
Alexander's  Canon  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament 
Ascertained;  Stuart's  Old  Testament  Canon. 

On  Part  II.  in  General  Consult:  Barrows'  Com- 
panion to  the  Bible;  Briggs'  Biblical  Study;  S.  Green's 
Introduction  to  the  Knowledge  of  the  Holy  Scripture; 
Harman's  Introdiuiion  to  the  Study  of  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures; Blake's  The  Book:  When  and  by  Whom  the  Bible 
Was  Written;  Home's  Introduction;  Dean  Alford's 
Greek  Testament;  Scrivener's  Plain  Introduction  to  the 
Criticism  of  the  New  Testament;  Warfield's  Introduction 
to  the  Textual  Criticism  of  the  New  Testament;  Schaff ' s 
Propa'dcutic;  Bice's  Our  Sixty-Six  Sacred  Books;  Book 
by  Book,  by  Archdeacon  Farrar  and  others;  Merrill's 
The  Parchments  of  the  Paith.  See 'articles  on  How  to 
Study  the  Biele  and  Books  of  the  Bible, 



By  REV.  A.  PLUMMER,  D.D.,  Master  op  University  College,  Durham. 

Definition. — By  the  canon  of  Scripture,  or  the 
canon  of  the  Scriptures,  is  meant  the  measure 
of  the  contents  of  the  Bible.  "  Canon  "  is  a  rod 
which  has  been  measured  and  tested,  and  which 
then  becomes  a  standard  for  measuring  and 
testing  other  things.  The  word  is  easily  applied 
in  a  figurative  sense  to  any  kind  of  standard. 
In  the  case  of  Scripture  those  books  are  called 
canonical  which  have  been  tested  and  admitted 
by  rule,  and  then  have  themselves  become  a 
rule  or  standard  by  which  to  test  doctrine  and 
practice.  A  list  of  the  inspired  books  was  called 
a  canon,  and  then  the  word  canon  was  applied 
to  the  collection  of  books  included  in  the  list.  It 
thus  comes  to  mean  the  collection  of  books 
which  forms  the  original  rule  of  Christian 
life  and  belief. 

Origin,— The  early  history  of  the  canon,  both 
of  the  Old  Testament  and  the  New  Testament, 
is  involved  in  obscurity.  We  know  very  little 
about  the  way  in  which  the  books  of  the  New 
Testament  were  gradually  collected  into  one 
volume;  but  what  we  do  know  is  satisfactory 
and  reassuring ;  for  it  was  done  cautiously  and 
jealously  by  the  testing  experience  of  the 
churches,  and  not  by  external  authority.  St. 
Paul  knows  nothing  of  written  Gospels,  but  ap- 
peals to  tradition  (I.  Cor.  15:3).  Barnabas  (c. 
a.d.  70-100)  is  the  first  to  quote  from  the  Gospels 
with  the  formula,  "  It  is  written."  Papias  (c.  130) 
is  the  first  to  speak  of  "  books  "  from  which  the 
teaching  of  the  Lord  may  be  known.  In  Justin 
Martyr  (c.  140-160)  the  "Memoirs  of  the  Apos- 
tles "  are  primitive  historical  documents,  prob- 
ably identical  with  our  four  Gospels,  which 
were  read  in  the  Sunday  services  of  the  church, 
as  an  alternative  to  the  Old  Testament  Prophets, 
and  as  a  substitute  for  the  living  voice  of  an 
apostle.  Justin  shows  no  knowledge  of  a  canon 
even  of  the  Gospels,  although  he  quotes  them 
as  of  final  and  perhaps  exclusive  authority. 
But  about  the  same  time  as  Papias  and  Justin, 
the  heretic  Marcion  had  formed  a  canon  to 
suit  his  own  views,  consisting  of  the  Gospel  of 
St.  Luke,  much  abbreviated,  and  ten  epistles  of 
St.  Paul;  i.e.,  he  excluded  the  Pastoral  Epistles 
and  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews.  It  is  unlikely 
that  he  was  the  first  to  form  a  collection  of 
Pauline  writings.  During  the  third  quarter 
of  the  second  century  we  have  very  little  evi- 
dence ;  but  from  near  the  end  of  it  to  the  close  of 
the  century  (a.d.  170-200),  the  evidence  becomes 
full,  and  the  gradual  formation  of  the  canon  is 
a  process  which  is  approaching  completion,  as 
is  shown  by  the  testimony  of  the  Syriac  version 
in  the  East,  of  the  Muratorian  Canon  in  the 
West,  and  of  the  writings  of  Irenseus,  Clement 
of  Alexandria,  Tertullian,  and  others  in  very 
different  parts  of  Christendom. 

Independent  Decisions,— All  this  testimony 
tends  to  show  that  Christians  of  that  age  had 
almost  the  same  New  Testament  that  we  have 
now,  and  regarded  it  as  divinely  inspired,  and 
equal  in  authority  to  the  Old  Testament.  But  it 
must  be  carefully  noticed  that  they  had  not 
quite  the  same  New  Testament  that  we  have; 
and  that  different  parts  of  Christendom  at  that 
period  had  not  quite  the  same  New  Testament 
that  other  parts  had.  Not  only  did  some 
churches  accept  as  authoritative  certain  books 
of  our  New  Testament  which  other  churches 
rejected  or  did  not  as  yet  know,  although  they 
were  afterwards  accepted  by  all,  but  some 
churches  accepted  a  few  books  which,  two 
hundred  years  later,  were  rejected  by  all.  This 
want  of  unanimity  respecting  a  portion  of  the 

books  to  be  admitted  to  the  New  Testament  is 
an  unquestionable  fact  in  the  history  of  primi- 
tive Christianity,  and  at  first  sight  we  are  in- 
clined to  lament  it.  We  should  have  liked  to 
know  that  from  the  first  all  Christians  through- 
out the  world  were  absolutely  agreed  as  to 
what  documents  were  inspired  and  what  were 
not.  But,  in  reality,  the  partial  disagreement 
which  prevailed  for  two  or  three  centuries  is 
an  immense  advantage,  for  which  we  ought  to 
be  very  thankful.  It  proves  the  great  inde- 
pendence with  which  the  different  churches 
acted  in  this  matter.  Each  settled  its  New 
Testament  for  itself,  and  accepted  or  rejected 
books  according  to  the  evidence  for  or  against 
them.  In  each  center  of  Christian  activity 
there  was  a  tribunal,  which  decided,  independ- 
ently of  other  tribunals,  what  writings  were  to 
be  regarded  as  Scripture.  When,  therefore, 
these  independent  tribunals  agreed  in  their 
decisions,  the  force  of  their  cumulative  testi- 
mony was  overwhelming:  and  from  the  first 
they  agreed  about  two-thirds  of  our  New  Testa- 
ment. The  fact  that  for  a  time  they  differed 
somewhat  respecting  the  remaining  third, 
proves  that  their  separate  decisions  were  inde- 
pendent. The  consensus  of  opinion  which  we 
find  towards  the  close  of  the  second  century 
respecting  the  greater  part  of  the  books  in  the 
New  Testament,  is  a  fact  of  the  greatest  im- 
portance, and  gives  us  all  the  security  that  we 

The  Books  Accepted.— Out  of  twenty-seven 
books  which  form  our  New  Testament,  the 
whole  of  Christendom  was  quite  agreed  about 
twenty,  and  probably  no  church  rejected,  or 
was  doubtful  about,  or  was  ignorant  of,  all  the 
remaining  seven ;  but  as  yet  there  was  no  unan- 
imous decision  respecting  them.  If  we  reckon 
the  contents  of  the  books,  then  the  churches  were 
agreed  about  more  than  five-sixths  of  the 
whole,  and  doubtful  about  less  than  one-sixth. 
Moreover,  it  was  precisely  the  most  important 
books,  viz.,  the  four  Gospels,  the  Acts,  the 
thirteen  epistles  of  St.  Paul,  with  I.  John  and  I. 
Peter,  that  were  universally  accepted.  There 
is  reason  for  believing  that  the  epistles  of  St. 
Paul  were  collected  into  one  volume  at  an  early 
date:  and  this  collection  was  commonly  called 
"the'  Apostle."  Similarly  the  four  Gospels 
were  spoken  of  collectively  as  "the  Gospel." 
With  these  two  collections,  the  Acts,  I.  Peter, 
and  I.  John  soon  became  associated. 

The  doubts  which  were  felt  in  some  quarters 
respecting  some  of  the  remaining  seven  books 
(Hebrews,  James,  II.  Peter,  II.  and  III.  John, 
Jude,  Revelation)  prove  how  jealously  the  first 
Christians  watched  the  growth  of  the  New  Tes- 
tament, and  how  unwilling  they  were  to  admit 
any  writing  to  the  position  of  Scripture,  to  give 
the  rule  in  matters  of  doctrine  and  discipline, 
until  its  claims  to  such  a  position  were  made 
good.  In  those  centuries  there  were  many 
spurious  gospels,  which  soon  were  rejected.  Be- 
fore the  close  of  the  fifth  century  all  question 
respecting  any  of  the  present  books  had  ceased, 
and  doubts  Avere  not  revived  until  the  Refor- 
mation ;  indeed,  long  before  the  fifth  century  all 
of  th  em  were  accepted  by  most  Christians.  And 
it  is  not  difficult  to  see  how  doubts  arose  in  the 
first  instance.  Owing  to  their  brevity  and  want 
of  general  interest,  such  books  as  Jude  and  II. 
and  III.  John  would  circulate  very  slowly,  and 
a  church  which  had  never  heard  of  such  a  writ- 
ing until  long  after  its  author  was  dead  would 
naturally  be  suspicious.  The  Epistle  of  St.  James 



is  addressed  to  Jewish  Christians,  and  for  that 
reason  would  remain  comparatively  unknown 
in  Gentile  churches.  Moreover,  with  regard  to 
all  four  of  these  documents,  the  writers  did  not 
seem  t<>  be  apostles;  and,  if  they  were  not  apos- 
tles, what  authority  did  they  possess  ?  The  same 
doubt  could  be  raised  respecting  the  Epistle  to 
the  Hebrews,  the  author  of  which  gave  no  clue 
to  his  identity.  Respecting  II.  Peter  and  the 
Revelation  there  was  doubt,  not  only  as  to  their 
apostolic  authority,  but  as  to  their  genuineness. 
They  were  both  of  them  so  unlike  the  other 
works  of  t  he  apostle  whose  name  they  bore,  that 
they  looked  like  forgeries.  Revelation  was  in 
some  quarters  charged  with  being  heretical,  so 
extravagant  were  some  of  the  doctrines  which 
certain  teachers  professed  to  deduce  from  it, espe- 
cially respecting  the  millennium.  Hebrews  and 
Revelation  almost  form  a  class  by  themselves, 
for  they  seem  to  have  been  generally  received 
before  any  serious  doubts  arose,  in  the  West 
about  Hebrews,  in  the  East  about  Revelation. 
But  in  both  cases  the  doubts  led  to  the  book's 
being  more  thoroughly  accepted  than  before. 

The  Books  Rejected.— The  books  which  were 
for  a  time  regarded  in  some  parts  of  Christen- 
dom as  inspired,  and  treated  as  Scripture  by 
being  read  in  public  worship  and  quoted  as  of 
authority,  were  principally  the  following:  The 
Epistle  of  Barnabas,  the  Epistle  of  Clement 
(with  Avhich  an  ancient  homily  became  asso- 
ciated under  the  erroneous  title  of  the  Second 
Epistle  of  Clement),  and  the  Shepherd  of 
Hernias,  with  perhaps  the  Gospel  according  to 
the  Hebrews  and  the  Revelation  of  Peter. 
Nevertheless,  no  one  can  read  these  venerable 
documents  without  feeling  that  the  church  has 

been  rightly  guided  in  excluding  them  from 
the  canon  of  Scripture.  Edifying  as  they  are, 
the  difference  between  them  and  the  books 
of  the  Bible  is  immense;  but  their  partial  recog- 
nition in  certain  churches  is  a  fact  of  great 
value,  as  showing  how  general  agreement  was 
reached  at  last.  Agreement  was  not  the  out- 
come of  subservience  to  one  central  authority, 
but  of  independent  investigations,  gradually 
ending  in  one  and  the  same  result. 

Final  Decisions.— A  loyal  Christian,  therefore, 
who  desires  to  "  know  the  certainty  concerning 
the  things  wherein  "  he  has  been  "instructed," 
may  rely  with  confidence  upon  the  judgment 
which  was  so  patiently  reached  towards  the 
end  of  the  fourth  centurv,  when  the  Coun- 
cils of  Hippo  (A.n.  393)  and  of  Carthage  (397) 
summed  up  the  results  of  all  this  concurrent 
testimony  and  investigation  and  published  the 
list  of  books  which  form  our  New  Testament. 
This  list  was  in  the  next  century  universally 
adopted,  not  because  the  Councils  had  drawn  it 
up,  but  because  all  Christians  were  satisfied 
that  it  was  correct;  and  we  must  remember 
that  in  that  age  very  important  evidence  was 
in  existence  which  has  not  come  down  to  us. 
Therefore  this  final  decision  is  entitled  to  the 
very  highest  respect;  all  the  more  so,  because 
the  subsequent  experience  of  Christendom  has 
shown  that  the  books  thus  selected  surpass  all 
other  literature  in  spiritual  power  and  inex- 
haustible adaptability  to  the  needs  and  aspira- 
tions of  human  nature. 

Books  of  Reference:  Charteris'  Canonicity;  West- 
cott's  History  of  the  Canon  in  the  New  Testament.  Con- 
sult article  on  Summary  of  Books  of  the  New  Tes- 


By  REV.  J.  P.  LANDIS,  D.D.,  Ph.D.,  Professor  of  Old  Testament  Theology  and 
Exegesis,  Union  Biblical  Seminary,  Dayton,  Ohio. 


The  languages  of  the  world  are  classified  under 
three  great  families:  (1)  The  Aryan,  or  Indo- 
European;  (2)  the  Semitic;  (3)  the  Turanian. 
The  Semitic,  or  Shemitic,  with  which  we  are 
here  concerned,  includes  most  of  the  languages 
spoken  by  the  descendants  of  Shem  and  part 
of  those  of  the  descendants  of  Ham;  namely, 
Hebrew,  Aramaic  or  Chaldee,  Syriac,  Phenician, 
Assyrian,  Arabic,  Himyaritic,  Ethiopic,  and 
Samaritan,  the  last  three  being  less  important 
dialects.  These  languages  are  probably  all  sisters 
of  one  common  mother  tongue,  now  lost,  as  the 
Italian,  French,  Spanish,  and  Portuguese  are 
descendants  from  the  Latin.  There  is  remark- 
able similarity  among  these  tongues,  both  in 
the  grammar  and  the  vocabularies.  They  all 
read  from  right  to  left  excepting  the  Assyrian, 
which  reads  from  left  to  right.  They  have  a 
considerable  number  of  guttural  letters,  there 
being  at  least  six  in  the  Arabic  and  four  in 
the  Hebrew,  Aramaic,  and  Syriac.  The  entire 
body  of  the  words  consists  of  consonants,  no 
vowels  being  originally  written,  certain  vowels 
being  indicated  by  certain  consonants  when 
there  was  liability  of  confusion  without  them. 
Later,  marks  to  denote  the  vowels  were  invented 
and  placed  under  or  over  the  consonants — in  the 
Hebrew  and  Aramaic  nine,  in  the  Syriac  five, 
and  in  the  Arabic  three,  which  number  is 
doubled  by  what  is  called  nunation.  The  root 
words  consist  throughout  of  three  consonants. 
There  are  but  two  genders,  masculine  and  femi- 
nine, and  two  tenses,  the  perfect,  to  denote  com- 
pleted action,  the  imperfect,  to  denote  incomplete 
action.    In  pronouns  the  oblique  cases  are  des- 

ignated by  short  forms  (suffixes)  appended  to 
other  words.  There  are  almost  no  case  endings, 
and  scarcely  any  compound  words  (except  in 
proper  names),  the  genius  of  these  tongues  being 
averse  to  long  words. 

Hebrew.— Almost  the  whole  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment was  written  in  Hebrew.  The  name  is  often 

derived  from  the  word  ^D>  >  to  pass  over,  contain- 
ing a  reminiscence  of  Abram's  passing  over  the 
Euphrates  in  going  to  Canaan.  Others  derive  it 
from   Eber,   or   Heber,    the   great-grandson   of 

Shem.    Abraham  is  called  ^DJ/H  (Gten.  14: 13), 

which  almost  all  the  ancient  and  modern  ver- 
sions translate  "  the  Hebrew,"  excepting  the  Sep- 
tuagint,  which  gives  it "  the  passer,"  and  Luther, 
who  translates  it  "the  foreigner."  It  is  now 
pretty  generally  held  by  scholars  that  Hebrew 
was  not  the  language  which  Abram  brought 
with  him,  but  that  he  and  his  descendants 
adopted  the  language  of  the  Canaanites,  among 
whom  they  sojourned.  We  no  doubt  have  but 
a  fragment  of  the  literature  of  the  ancient 
Hebrews,  and  thus  the  full  wealth  and  capacity 
of  their  language  have  not  come  down  to  us, 
but  quite  enough  to  reveal  the  genius  of  the 
language.  The  Hebrew,  like  the  other  Semitic 
languages,  is  not  adapted  to  science  and  philos- 
ophy, but  well  suited  to  the  expression  of  emo- 
tional, poetic,  and  religious  sentiment.  The 
languages  of  Europe  have  borrowed  from  the 
Hebrew  a  number  of  religious  terms  for  which 
they  had  no  equivalents.  What  the  Hebrew 
lacks  in  grace  it  makes  up  in  grandeur.  While 
far  less  adapted  than  the  Greek  for  the  more 



philosophical  and  dialectical  discussions  of  the 
doctrinal  epistles,  it  was  well  adapted  by  its 
simplicity,  directness,  and  grandeur  to  be  the 
vehicle  and  repository  of  the  earlier  revelations 
of  God  to  mankind.  It  is  natural,  childlike, 
picturesque,  poetical,  forcible,  and  majestic.  Its 
sentences  are  never  long  and  involved.  There 
is  but  little  of  transposition,  of  involution.  The 
learned  Herder  said  of  it,  "The  Hebrew  lan- 
guage is  full  of  the  soul's  breath;  it  does  not 
resound  like  the  Greek,  but  it  breathes,  it  lives." 
"  It  is  more  simple,  indeed,  than  others,  but 
majestic  and  glorious,  direct  and  of  few  words, 
which,  however,  involve  much  that  is  below 
the  surface;  so  that  none  other  is  capable  of 
imitating  it."  It  enshrines  the  most  important 
of  the  literatures  of  the  world;  it  surpasses  all 
others  in  that  unique  species  of  literature,  pro- 
phetic oratory. 

The  Hebrew  was  spoken  by  the  Jews  until  the 
destruction  of  Jerusalem,  when  it  became  greatly 
tinged  with  Aramaic,  and  presently  was  super- 
seded by  that  tongue,  though  it  continues  to 
this  day  to  be  the  sacred  language,  and  the  Law 
and  Prophets  are  still  read,  as  also  their  prayers, 
and  the  Psalms  are  chanted  in  the  synagogue 
services,  in  the  original  Hebrew.  In  some  places 
the  language  is  still  spoken  by  learned  Jews, 
and  some  periodicals  are  printed  in  that  tongue. 
For  the  thorough  exposition  of  both  Testaments 
a  knowledge  of  Hebrew  is  essential. 

Aramaic— In  the  Old  Testament  Dan.  2:  4- 
7:  28;  Ezra  4:  8-6:  18;  7:  12-26,  and  Jer.  10:  11,  are 
written  in  Aramaic,  formerly  called  Chaldee. 
After  the  Babylonian  captivity  the  Aramaic 
displaced  the  Hebrew  in  Palestine,  and  contin- 
ued to  be  the  language  of  the  Hebrews  until 
their  final  national  overthrow.  It  was  the 
native  language  of  the  Saviour  and  his  apostles. 
A  few  Aramaic  expressions  are  found  in  the 
New  Testament,  where  it  is  called  "Hebrew." 
(Matt.  5:22;  6:24;  Luke  16:9,  13;  Matt.  16:17; 
Matt.  27 :  46 ;  Mark  5 :  41 ;  7 :  34 ;  14 :  36 ;  John  1 :  43 ; 
19:  13;  Acts  1: 19;  I.  Cor.  16:  22.)  This  language 
was  spoken  in  Mesopotamia,  Syria,  and  later  in 

The  New  Testament  Greek.— With  the  con- 
quest of  Alexander  the  Great,  about  332  B.C.,  the 
Greek  language  began  to  be  spoken  over  all  the 
East  as  far  as  Babylon.  The  Jews  extensively 
used  it.  The  writings  known  as  the  Jewish 
Apocrypha,  and  the  works  of  the  two  eminent 
Jewish  writers,  Philo  and  Josephus,  were  com- 
posed in  Greek,  and  the  Old  Testament  Scrip- 
tures themselves  were  translated  into  the  same 
language  and  used  everywhere  in  the  synagogues. 
Naturally  enough,  the  language  as  spoken  and 
written  by  the  Jews  was  not  the  pure  idiom  of 
the  classical  Greek.  Indeed,  the  language  ac- 
quired certain  marked  peculiarities  which  easily 
differentiate  it  from  all  the  classical  dialects. 
To  this  Jewish  Greek  there  has  been  given  the 
name  Hellenistic  Greek.  Jewish  ideas  and 
idioms  are  expressed  in  Greek  words.  This  is 
the  basis  of  the  Christian  Greek,  in  which  all 
the  twenty-seven  books  of  the  New  Testament 
were  written.  Dr.  Schafl"  well  says  of  it,  "  It  is 
trie hotoniic :  it  has  a  Greek  body,  a  Hebrew 
soul,  and  a  Christian  spirit."  As  many  as  eight 
characteristics  have  been  pointed  out:  (1)  The 
adoption  of  foreign  words,  e.g.,  Aramaic  and 
Latin.  (2)  Words  of  peculiar  orthography  and 
pronunciation.  (3)  Peculiar  flexions  of  nouns 
and  verbs.  (4)  Heterogeneous  use  of  nouns.  (5) 
Peculiar  forms  of  words.  (6)  Words  peculiar  to 
ancient  dialects  or  entirely  new.  (7)  New  signi- 
fications given  to  words,  of  which  there  are 
numerous  examples.  (8)  Hebrew  idioms,  the 
adoption  of  a  variety  of  grammatical  construc- 
tions peculiar  to  the  Hebrew.  A  number  of 
words  are  adopted  directly  from  the  Hebrew  or 
Aramaic.  It  partakes  in  some  measure  of  the 
simplicity  of  style  and  structure  of  the  Hebrew 
sentence.     "In  its  Hellenistic  style  and  New 

Testament  form  we  admire  the  divine  wisdom, 
the  deep  philosophy  and  judgment,  which  ap- 
propriated the  common  dialect  of  a  world-wide 
civilization,  and  consecrated  its  formulas  of 
thought  to  preserve  and  perpetuate  the  gospel." 


The  autograph  manuscripts,  both  of  the  Old 
Testament  and  of  the  New  Testament,  have,  of 
course,  long  since  perished,  and  those  extant 
are  copies  of  preceding  copies.  The  MSS.  of  the 
Old  Testament  do  not  date  as  far  back  as  those 
of  the  New  Testament.  Only  a  few  date  beyond 
the  twelfth  century  of  our  era,  while  a  few 
New  Testament  MSS.  are  as  old  as  the  fifth  and 
fourth  centuries,  and  a  considerable  number 
anterior  to  the  tenth.  The  oldest  known 
Hebrew  MS.  is  the  "MS.  of  the  Prophets," 
discovered  in  the  Crimea,  now  in  the  Imperial 
Library  of  St.  Petersburg,  dated  916  a.d.  The 
oldest  MS.  of  the  entire  Old  Testament  is  dated 
1010  a.d.  A  MS.  of  the  Pentateuch  at  Odessa, 
bearing  the  date  of  580,  cannot  be  regarded  as 
trustworthy  as  to  date.  A  few  others  bear  date 
of  the  ninth  century,  but  it  is  thought  wrongly 
so.  The  whole  number  of  MSS.  collated  by 
Kennicott  was  about  630,  and  those  of  DeRossi 
479.  A  few  others  have  since  been  discovered. 
The  MSS.  of  the  New  Testament  are  more  nu- 
merous and  of  higher  antiquity.  There  are  more 
than  seventeen  hundred  of  them.  Mention  can 
here  be  made  of  only  the  four  or  five  best.  They 
are  known  by  the  letters  of  the  alphabet. 

$  or  the  Sinaitie  Codex,  discovered  by  Tiseh- 
endorf  at  Mt.  Sinai  in  1S59.  It  is  in  the  Imperial 
Library  at  St.  Petersburg.  It  was  printed  at 
Leipsic  at  the  expense  of  the  Czar,  several  copies 
of  which  were  sent  to  America.  It  contains  all 
of  the  New  Testament,  parts  of  the  Septuagint, 
and  the  Epistle  of  Barnabas.  It  is  from  the 
middle  of  the  fourth  century. 

A,  the  Alexandrian  Codex,  now  in  the  British 
Museum,  comes  down  from  the  fifth  century.  It 
contains  almost  the  whole  New  Testament,  a  part 
of  the  Septuagint  version  of  the  Old  Testament, 
and  one  of  the  apocryphal  epistles. 

B,  the  Vatican  Codex,  from  the  middle  of  the 
fourth  century,  is  in  the  Vatican  Library  in 
Rome.  It  contains  the  whole  Bible,  with  the 
exception  of  parts  of  Genesis  and  some  of 
the  Psalms  and  the  Pastoral  Epistles,  Philemon, 
Revelation,  and  part  of  the  Epistle  to  the 
Hebrews.  It  is  less  complete  than  the  Sinaitie, 
but  more  accurately  written.  This  and  the 
Sinaitie  are  the  best,  the  most  complete,  and  the 
oldest  MSS.  extant. 

C,  the  Ephraem  Codex,  a  palimpsest  ( another 
work  having  been  written  over  the  first  on  the 
same  vellum),  from  the  fifth  century,  contains 
about  two-thirds  of  the  New  Testament.  It  is 
in  the  National  Library  in  Paris. 

D,  the  Codex  Bezae,  of  the  sixth  century,  once 
belonged  to  the  eminent  reformer  Beza.  It  is 
in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  England,  and 
contains  only  the  Gospels  and  Acts  in  Greek  and 
Latin  and  a  few  verses  of  the  Third  Epistle  of 
John  in  Latin. 

MSS.  are  divided  into  two  classes— uncials, 
written  in  capital  letters,  and  cursives,  those 
written  in  a  running  hand.  Those  here  named 
are  all  uncials,  the  oldest  and  best;  but  there 
are  a  number  more  which  are  quite  fragmen- 
tary. The  cursives  are  much  more  numerous, 
and  although  later  than  the  uncials,  some  of 
them  are  of  great  value. 

Books  of  Eeperence:  Articles  on  Semitic  lan- 
guages in  Smith's  Bible  Dictionary;  McClintock  & 
Strong's  Cyclopaedia  of  Biblical  and  Theological  Litera- 
ture; Encyclopaedia  Britannica;  Gesenius'  Hebreiv  Gram- 
mar, Introduction;  Green's  Hebrew  Grammar;  SchafP  s 
Companion  to  the  Study  of  the  Greek  New  Testament; 
Westcott  &  Hoist's  Greek  New  Testament,  vol.  ii.,  Intro- 
duction and  Appendix. 






President  of  the  University 

of  Chicago. 

The  value  of  the  ancient  versions  varies 
greatly.  Doubtless  all  have  a  certain  use,  but 
some  are  of  the  greatest  importance  to  the  bibli- 
cal student,  and  at  least  an  intelligent  idea  of 
the  most  important  of  them  is  necessary  for  any 
one  who  would  read  the  Scriptures  understand- 
ingly.  Each  version  has  its  own  peculiar  value, 
whether  that  is  much  or  little,  and  we  shall 
therefore  consider  them,  separately. 

I.  The  Septuagint.— After  the  fall  of  Jerusa- 
lem in  586  n.c,  the  Jews  were  scattered  to  almost 
every  country  of  southwestern  Asia,  to  Egypt, 
and  indeed  to  many  other  lands.  Egypt  and 
Babylon,  however,  were  the  chief  seats  of  their 
activity— outside  of  Palestine— in  the  post-exilic 
times.  The  world-wide  conquests  of  Alexander 
had  contributed  to  make  the  Greek  language  the 
medium  of  communication.  A  Greek  version 
therefore  became  necessary.  It  is  generally 
agreed  that  the  Septuagint,  or  LXX.  as  it  is 
often  written,  was  made  at  Alexandria,  that  it 
was  begun  in  the  time  of  Ptolemy,  who  reigned 
284-217  B.C.,  and  that  the  translation  of  the  Law 
was  made  first. 

Though  there  was  nothing  miraculous  about 
the  origin  of  the  LXX.,  though  it  represents  a 
growth  of  perhaps  two  centuries,  though  made 
by  many  different  hands,  though  in  many  re- 
spects very  imperfect  and  inadequate  as  a  repre- 
sentation of  the  original,  that  version  did  a 
vast  amount  of  good  in  bringing  the  Hebrew 
Scriptures  to  large  communities  of  men  who 
would  otherwise  have  been  practically  deprived 
of  them.  Not  only  the  Jews  of  Egypt,  but  those 
of  Palestine  as  well,  used  it  regularly  in  the 
time  of  our  Lord.  Greek  was  spoken  every- 
where, while  Hebrew  was  not  widely  known. 
The  quotations  from  the  Old  Testament  which 
we  rind  in  the  New  Testament  were  taken  from 
the  Septuagint,  not  from  the  Hebrew. 

The  text  of  the  LXX.  is  very  corrupt.  Both 
the  Hebrew  and  the  Greek  must  have  departed 
from  their  original  form,  and  early  in  the  Chris- 
tian era  the  two  differed  from  each  other  in 
many  important  respects. 

The  most  important  MSS.  of  the  Septuagint 
are  the  Vatican,  the  Sinaitic,  and  the  Alexan- 
drine. Of  these  the  Vatican  is  the  best  and  the 
Alexandrine  the  poorest;  for  it  shows  on  every 
page  a  systematic  alteration  to  bring  it  into 
greater  conformity  to  the  Hebrew.  Swete's  is 
the  best  critically  edited  text,  though  Lagarde's 
edition  of  the  recension  of  Lucian  is  also  impor- 

The  value  of  the  LXX.  for  the  biblical  student 
is,  in  the  main,  threefold:  (1)  For  textual  criti- 
cism. Our  Hebrew  text  is  far  from  pure.  The 
oldest  MSS.  only  go  back  to  about  1000  A.D.  (2) 
For  interpretation.  No  translation  can  help 
reflecting  the  ideas  of  the  translators.  The 
LXX.  is  often  very  valuable  in  showing  the  in- 
terpretations of  passages  by  the  Jews,  which  we 
may  fairly  suppose  were  those  generally  received 
at  the  time.  (3)  For  the  study  of  biblical  Greek. 
The.  New  Testament  writers  not  only  used  the 
LXX.  as  the  source  of  their  quotations,  but  it 
was  the  mold  in  which  their  thought  was  cast. 

II.  The  Targums.— At  what  time  the  Jews 
lost  the  use  of  their  language  is  a  disputed  point; 
but  when  the  mass  of  the  people  could  no  longer 
understand  their  native  tongue,  the  Law  was 
publicly  read  as  described  in  ISTeh.  8.  The  reader 
read  a  passage,  and  the  Mcturgcman,  or  inter- 

preter, gave  the  sense  in  the  Aramaic.  For  this 
custom  in  New  Testament  times  see  Luke  4: 16, 
et  seq.  There  was  great  strictness  enforced  in 
regard  to  the  exegesis  of  the  Law  by  the  Metur- 
geman,  but  greater  liberty  was  allowed  in  the 
interpretation  of  the  prophetical  writings  and 
the  Hagiographa.  The  writing  down  of  these 
interpretations  gave  rise  to  the  Targums.  They 
are,  therefore,  free  paraphrases  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, and  were  never  intended  to  be  strict 
translations.  They  were  compiled  by  different 
authors  at  different  ages,  long  after  the  oral  tra- 
ditions had  become  fixed. 

(1)  The  Targum  of  Onkelos  covers  the  Penta- 
teuch, and  in  the  main  is  closer  to  the  Hebrew 
text  than  those  on  the  other  books.  Onkelos 
was  probably  a  Babylonian  Jew,  though  his 
Targum  was  made  in  Palestine,  for  it  uses  the 
Palestinian  dialect,  which  differed  from  that  of 
Babylon.  The  date  is  very  uncertain,  though  it 
was  probably  about  the  middle  of  the  second 
century,  (2)  The  Targum  of  Jonathan  on  the 
Pentateuch  was  made  up  from  that  of  Onkelos 
and  another  which  has  not  survived.  It  is  at 
least  as  late  as  the  seventh  century.  (3)  The 
Targum  of  Jonathan  on  the  Prophets  is  likewise 
a  Palestinian  product,  though  Jonathan  may 
have  been  a  Babylonian  Jew.  The  date  is  quite 
undeterminable.  (4)  The  Targum  on  the  Hagi- 
ographa has  come  down  without  any  name,  and 
was  not  as  important  as  the  rest.  No  Targum 
covers  the  books  of  Ezra  and  Nehemiah.  The 
text  of  the  Targums  is  very  corrupt,  and  their 
chief  value  to  the  biblical  student  is  the  mate- 
rial they  afford  for  the  study  of  the  traditional 
exegesis  of  the  Jews  in  the  early  centuries  of 
our  era. 

Notes.—  Samaritan  Pentateuch.— The  Bible  stu- 
dent should  also  notice  that  under  the  name  of 
the  Samaritan  Pentateuch  two  distinct  things 
are  referred  to:  (1)  The  Samaritan  Codex,  i.  e., 
the  Hebrew  Pentateuch  in  Samaritan  charac- 
ters; and  (2)  the  Samaritan  Targum  or  version, 
based  on  that  Samaritan  text,  possibly  of  the 
second  or  third  centuries  of  our  era. 

The  three  other  Greek  versions  alluded  to 
above  by  President  Harper  are  (1)  that  of  Aquila, 
which  was  made  under  Jewish  influences  in  the 
reign  of  Hadrian,  probably  for  polemical  pur- 
poses, and  of  which  only  fragments  are  now 
extant.  It  is  very  literal.  (2)  That  of  Theodo- 
tion,  who  was  a  Jewish  proselyte,  was  made  in 
the  second  century.  It  also  only  exists  in  frag- 
ments, with  the  exception  of  his  translation  of 
Daniel,  which  was  preferred  to  the  LXX.  text. 
(3)  That  of  Symmachus,  which  was  later  than 
that  of  Theodotion,  and  seems  to  have  been 
clearer,  but  also  exists  only  in  fragments. 

The  Talmud  is  the  body  of  Jewish  law  not 
included  in  the  Pentateuch.  It  consists  of  the 
Mishna,  which  is  "a  digest  of  the  Jewish  tradi- 
tions," reduced  to  writing  at  Tiberias  in  the 
second  century,  and  the  Gamaras,  or  commenta- 
ries, of  which  there  are  two— the  Palestine  (or 
Jerusalem),  of  the  fourth  century,  and  the  Baby- 
lonian, completed  in  the  sixth  century. 


I.    The  Syriac,  or  Peshitto,  as  it  is  commonly 

called.  This  version  had  its  origin  in  the  needs 
of  the  Syrian  Christians  for  the  sacred  Scrip- 
tures, which  were  from  the  first  much  used  by 
the  Christians,  whether  Jew  or  Gentile,  in  their 
native  tongue.  This  version  was  therefore  made 
by  Christians,  and  it  is  perhaps  the  first  made 
by  them.    It  arose  probably  in  the  early  part  of 



the  second  century-  The  translation  shows 
evidence  of  different  hands  and  different  periods. 
Scholars  are  not  agreed  whether  it  was  made 
from  the  Hebrew,  from  the  LXX.,  or  from  both. 
The  Pentateuch  and  the  book  of  Job  show  rela- 
tionship to  the  Hebrew,  while  the  Prophets 
show  affinities  to  the  LXX.  The  canon,  how- 
ever, agrees  for  the  most  part  with  the  Hebrew, 
the  Apocrypha  being  found  only  in  late  recen- 
sions. The  New  Testament  version  is,  without 
much  doubt,  from  other  hands  than  those  which 
made  the  Old,  but  it  may  have  appeared  at  about 
the  same  time.  It  does  not  contain  II.  and  III. 
John,  II.  Peter,  Jude,  and  Revelation.  The  chief 
value  of  this  version  is  for  the  purposes  of  tex- 
tual criticism,  and  it  is  probably  more  useful  for 
the  New  Testament  than  for  the  Old,  but  it  can- 
not be  fully  used  until  more  critical  investiga- 
tions are  made.  If  it  shall  prove  possible  to  get 
an  original  text  of  the  Syriac,  it  will  be  very 

II.  The  Old  Latin  and  the  Vulgate.— The  Vul- 
gate was  preceded  by  the  Old  Latin  version,  or 
the  Itala,  which  originated  in  Africa  in  the 
second  century,  and  was  used  by  the  early  Latin 
fathers,  as  Tertullian,  Cyprian,  and  Augustine. 
It  has  been  preserved  only  in  fragments,  so  far 
as  is  now  known,  and  its  full  character  and 
value  are  therefore  uncertain.  The  variations 
are  so  great  that  some  regard  it  as  a  sort  of 
patchwork  rather  than  a  systematic  translation. 
It  is  a  rendering  of  the  LXX.,  not  of  the  Hebrew. 
But  a  version  in  a  rude  provincial  dialect  would 
not  serve  the  purpose  of  the  great  Latin  church 
of  the  fourth  century,  and  to  supply  this  need 
Jerome  made  his  famous  Latin  translation— the 
Vulgate.  Jerome  began  the  great  task  at  the 
request  of  the  Bishop  of  Rome.  The  New  Tes- 
tament was  corrected  first.  In  the  Old  Testa- 
ment he  first  revised  the  Psalms  after  the  Greek 
text  of  his  time.  A  second  revision  of  the 
Psalter  was  made,  along  with  other  books,  and 
this  edition,  called  the  Gallican  Psalter,  was 
never  displaced  by  his  later  and  more  accurate 
work,  and  is  in  the  Vulgate  to  this  day.  Jerome 
found  that,  to  make  his  version  thorough,  he 
must  follow  the  original.  This  task  was  not 
finished  till  a.d.  405. 



Languages.— Christ's  command  to  "make  dis- 
ciples of  all  the  nations"  (Matt. 28: 19,  R.V.)  and 
the  events  of  the  day  of  Pentecost  brought  into 
the  Christian  church  such  a  variety  of  converts 
that  before  the  last  book  of  the  New  Testament 
was  written  there  were  many  believers  who  could 
not  understand  the  Christian  Scriptures  when 
they  were  read  to  them,  in  the  original  Greek. 
In  the  first  age,  the  largest  numbers  of  Christians 
who  could  not  understand  Greek  would  be  found 
in  the  countries  round  about  the  two  primitive 
Christian  centers,  Jerusalem  and  Antioch,  and 
hence  the  need  of  a  Syriac  version  would  soon 
become  very  pressing.  We  are  therefore  pre- 
pared to  learn  that  probably  quite  the  oldest 
translation  of  books  of  the  New  Testament  that 
was  made  was  into  Syriac.  But,  seeing  that  it 
was  in  countries  which  were  under  Roman  rule 
that  the  gospel  mostly  spread,  a  translation  into 
Latin  would  become  a  necessity  almost  as  soon 
as  a  translation  into  Syriac;  and  we  have  good 
reason  for  believing  that  both  these  ancient 
versions  were  made  before  the  end,  and  perhaps 
long  before  the  end,  of  the  second  century. 
After  these  followed  translations  into  Egyptian 
(of  which  the  Memphitic  and  Thebaic  versions 
may  be  as  old  as  the  second  century),  into 
Gothic,  Armenian,  and  Ethiopic;  while  new 
versions  in  Syriac  and  Latin  were  made,  which 
were  partly  independent  translations,  partly 
revisions  of  the  original  versions.    Of  these  the 

Latin  Vulgate  is  far  the  most  famous  and  influ- 
ential. Later  on  we  have  translations  into  Geor- 
gian in  the  fifth  or  sixth  century,  into  Anglo- 
Saxon  in  the  eighth,  and  into  Slavonic  in  the 
ninth.  Arabic  versions  seem  to  have  existed 
since  the  eighth  century,  but  to  have  been  made 
from  the  Latin  Vulgate,  not  from  the  original 
Greek,  as  was  the  case  with  the  first  English  Bible 
made  by  WyclifTe,  and  also  the  Rhemish  version, 
which  is  used  by  English  Roman  Catholics. 

Contents.— Not  all  these  early  translations 
contained  the  whole  of  the  books  of  our  New 
Testament.  We  may  reasonably  conjecture 
that  the  Gospels  were  the  first  books  to  be  trans- 
lated; and  books  which  were  as  yet  unknown 
or  regarded  with  suspicion  would  not  be  trans- 
lated at  all.  But  the  portions  of  these  oldest 
translations  which  have  come  down  to  us  (Old 
Syriac,  Old  Latin,  Memphitic,  and  Thebaic)  are 
of  very  great  value  as  witnesses  to  the  antiquity 
of  the  books  which  were  thus  early  translated, 
and  also  to  the  respect  in  which  they  were  held. 
No  one  takes  the  trouble  to  translate  a  book 
unless  he  believes  it  to  be  of  considerable  impor- 
tance, and  this  was  specially  the  case  in  an  age 
in  which  a  knowledge  of  foreign  languages  was 
rather  a  rare  accomplishment,  and  in  which 
neither  grammars  nor  dictionaries  existed. 

Value.— Besides  being  witnesses  to  the  antiq- 
uity and  importance  of  our  Scriptures,  these 
ancient  versions  are  of  immense  assistance  in 
determining  the  true  text.  The  apostolic  auto- 
graphs soon  perished,  and  corruptions,  caused 
by  frequent  copying  and  editing,  soon  began  to 
appear,  so  that  in  not  a  few  cases  there  was  room 
for  doubt  as  to  what  the  original  writer  had  said. 
Although  none  of  our  Greek  MSS.  are  older  than 
the  fourth  century,  and  most  of  them,  are  of 
considerably  later  date,  yet  some  of  the  versions, 
like  the  best  Greek  MSS.,  represent  Greek  texts 
of  the  second  and  third  centuries;  and  where 
the  evidence  of  the  best  Greek  authorities  is 
divided,  the  evidence  of  the  versions  helps  us  to 
decide  between  them.  They  are  specially  help- 
ful in  deciding  questions  of  insertion  or  omis- 
sion. A  translation  may  easily  be  so  loose  as  to 
leave  us  in  doubt  as  to  what  the  precise  wording 
of  the  original  was;  but  this  laxity  is  less  likely 
to  extend  to  the  omission  or  insertion  of  whole 
clauses,  or  even  of  important  words.  But  our 
MSS.  of  versions  are  not  older  than  our*  Greek 
MSS.,  and  they  both  alike  have  been  much  cor- 
rupted by  frequent  copying  and  editing.  It  not 
unfrequently  happens  that  nearly  all  the  ver- 
sions support  a  reading  which  other  authorities 
show  to  be  certainly  wrong;  and  it  is  worth 
remarking  that  translations  which  are  the  best 
as  versions  are  by  no  means  the  best  as  evidence 
of  the  original  Greek.  That  translation  is  the 
best  version  which,  while  faithfully  reproduc- 
ing the  substance  of  the  original,  is  most  suita- 
ble for  being  read  aloud.  A  good  version  must 
have  the  thoughts  of  the  original  in  the  idioms 
of  the  new  language.  If  the  idioms  of  the  origi- 
nal are  too  faithfully  preserved,  the  translation 
becomes  unreadable,  and  at  times  may  become 
almost  unintelligible;  but  a  slavishly  faithful 
translation  is  for  that  very  reason  a  valuable 
witness  as  to  the  wording.  The  Philoxenian  or 
Harclean  Syriac  version,  made  for  Philoxenus, 
Bishop  of  Hierapolis,  in  508,  and  revised  by 
Thomas  of  Harkel  in  616,  "is  probably  the  most 
servile  version  of  Scripture  ever  made";  but 
this  very  fault  makes  its  testimony  respecting 
the  text  all  the  more  trustworthy;  whereas  our 
excellent  Authorized  Version  is  all  but  useless 
as  a  witness  to  the  original  wording,  not  only 
because  it  was  made  so  late,  but  because  the 
nervous  and  idiomatic  English  might  represent 
more  than  one  reading  in  the  Greek. 

Books  of  Eefeeence:  Prof.  Swete's  The  Old  Tes- 
tament in  Greek,  According  to  the  Sepluagint;  Hatch  & 
Kedpath's  Concordance  to  the  Septuagint;  Gregory's 
Prolegomena;  books  on  Part  II.  in  general. 




By  EEV.  HENRY  EVANS,  D.D.,  H.  M.  Commissioner  of  National  Education, 


The  whole  Bible  was  never  translated  into 
Anglo-Saxon.  Csedmon of  Whitby  (d.  676)  made 
a  metrical  paraphrase  of  Genesis  1,  which  he 
called  the  "Origin  of  Things."  He  also  para- 
phrased the  more  prominent  events  of  Old 
Testament  history. 

Bede,  commonly  called  the  Venerable  (6.  672 
— d.  735),  translated  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  the 
Gospel  of  John  into  Anglo-Saxon.  He  died 
gloriously  after  finishing  the  last  sentence  of 
the  Gospel. 

An  interlinear  translation  into  Anglo-Saxon 
of  the  four  Gospels  in  Latin  was  made  by 
Aldred,  about  a.  d.  900.  Farmen  and  Owen, 
priests  of  Harewood,  also  rendered  the  four 
Gospels  into  Anglo-Saxon.  Their  work  is  called 
the  "Rushworth  Gloss." 

Alfred  the  Great  (b.  $19— d.  901)  prefixed  an 
Anglo-Saxon  translation  of  the  Ten  Command- 
ments to  his  book  of  laws,  to  which  he  added 
selections  from  Exodus  21,  22,  23.  He  also  under- 
took an  Anglo-Saxon  rendering  of  the  Psalms, 
but  died  before  the  work  was  finished. 

An  Anglo-Saxon  translation,  in  excellent  lan- 
guage and  style,  of  the  Pentateuch,  Joshua, 
Judges,  Esther,  Job  (with  parts  of  Judith  and 
Maccabees),  was  made  by  ^Ifric,  who  became 
archbishop  of  Canterbury  about  9GG.  His  ren- 
dering of  Genesis  shows  the  existence  of  previ- 
ous translations,  of  which  he  made  use. 

After  the  Norman  Conquest,  in  10G6,  consider- 
able portions  of  the  Bible  were  translated,  chiefly 
in  a  metrical  form.  One  of  these  was  a  metrical 
paraphrase  of  the  Gospels  and  Acts  by  a  monk 
named  Orm,  or  Ormin.  The  work  is  called 
Ormulum,  after  the  name  of  its  author. 

The  earliest  rendering  of  any  book  of  Scrip- 
ture into  English  prose  was  a  translation  of 
the  Psalms  by  William  of  Shoreham,  about  1327. 
The  next  prose  rendering  was  also  a  version  of 
the  Psalter,  by  Richard  Rolle  of  Hampole,  near 
Doncaster.  He  died  1349.  All  these  versions 
were  made  from  the  Vulgate. 

In  1382-83,  a  version  of  the  Holy  Bible,  contain- 
ing the  apocryphal  books,  was  made  from  the 
Vulgate  by  John  Wycliffe  {b.  1324— d.  1384),  aided 
by  his  friend  Nicholas  de  Hereford,  who  trans- 
lated a  large  part  of  the  Old  Testament.  A 
revised  version  of  Wycliffe 's  Bible  was  made  in 
1388,  four  years  after  WTycliffe's  death,  by  his 
faithful  coadjutor,  John  Purvey.  This  edition 
is  less  literal,  but  smoother  and  more  idiomatic, 
than  the  earlier  version.  Both  were  made  from 
the  Latin  Vulgate,  and  not  from  the  original 
Hebrew  and  Greek.  Still,  their  value  was  great. 
Wycliil'e's  Bible  gave  a  strong  impulse  to  sacred 
study;  it  stimulated  desire  for  the  Scriptures 
in  the  language  of  the  people,  and  left  an  im- 
press traceable  in  every  later  version.  Many  of 
the  changes  in  the  Revised  Version  of  1881  are 
simply  a  return  to  the  rendering  of  Wycliffe. 

In  1484,  a  century  after  Wycliffe 's  death,  Wil- 
liam Tyndale  was  born.  With  his  labors  in 
translating  the  Scriptures  the  direct  history  of 
the  English  Bible  begins.  The  publication  of 
Tyndale's  New  Testament  was  begun  in  Cologne 
in  1525,  and  finished  at  Worms  in  1526.  In  1534 
he  published,  at  Antwerp,  a  revised  edition, 
with  a  translation  of  extracts  from  the  Old 
Testament.  In  1530  his  translation  of  the  Pen- 
tateuch appeared,  and  in  1531  the  book  of  Jo- 
nah. A  Bible  published  a  year  after  his  mar- 
tyrdom contains  a  translation  by  him  of  all 
the  books  from  Genesis  to  II.  Chronicles  inclu- 

sive. For  five  centuries  his  version  has  shaped 
the  diction,  phraseology,  and  style  of  every 
other.  Its  spirit  pervades  all  its  successors.  The 
simple,  sublime,  and  pure  language  of  the  Au- 
thorized Version  is  due  to  it.  Its  influence  may 
be  said  to  have  informed  and  consecrated  the 
English  language  itself. 

Miles  Cover  dale's  Version  in  1535  was  the  first 
publication  of  the  whole  Bible  in  English.  It 
is  not,  strictly  speaking,  an  original  version, 
but  a  compilation  from  five— the  Vulgate,  Tyn- 
dale's, Luther's,  the  German-Swiss  version  of 
Zurich,  and  Pagninus'  Latin.  The  Prayer-Book 
version  of  the  Psalms  is  in  essence,  and  for  the 
most  part  in  words,  Coverdale's  version.  Many 
of  the  happiest  renderings  of  the  Psalms  in  the 
Authorized  Version  are  due  to  Coverdale. 

Matthew's  Bible  was  published  in  1537.  The 
name  Matthew  is  a  pseudonym  for  John  Rogers, 
the  real  author,  who  was  the  first  martyr  in 
Queen  Mary's  reign.  Rogers  was  born  about 
1500  and  burnt  alive  at  Smithfield  in  1555.  Mat- 
thew's Bible  is  not  an  independent  translation. 
The  Pentateuch  and  New  Testament  are  re- 
printed from  Tyndale ;  the  Old  Testament  books 
from  Ezra  to  Malachi  (with  the  apocryphal) 
are  copied  from  Coverdale ;  only  the  books  from 
Joshua  to  II.  Chronicles  are  a  new  translation. 
Having  been  published  by  the  authority  oi 
Henry  VIII.,  this  was  the  first  "authorized 

In  1539  a  revised  edition  of  Matthew's  Bible 
was  published  by  Richard  Taverner  (b.  1505— d. 
1575),  a  layman. 

The  Great  Bible— so  called  because  of  its  size, 
being  fifteen  inches  long  and  nine  inches  wide 
—appeared  in  1539,  the  same  year  as  Taverner's. 
It  is  essentially  a  revision  of  Matthew's  Bible, 
by  Coverdale,  with  the  aid  of  Miinster's  Latin 
version,  in  the  Old  Testament,  and  of  Erasmus' 
Latin  version,  in  the  New.  The  publication 
was  carried  out  under  Cromwell's  auspices, 
although  Coverdale  was  editor.  In  1540  a  re- 
vised edition  of  the  Great  Bible  was  issued,  with 
an  introduction  by  Cranmer.  This  version  is 
known  as  Cranmer's  Bible,  but  without  suffi- 
cient reason,  for  Coverdale  was  editor  as  before. 

The  Geneva  Bible  was  published  in  J5G0.  It 
was  the  work  of  eminent  scholars  exiled  from 
England  by  the  persecutions  which  raged  dur- 
ing the  reign  of  Mary.  Among  these  were  John 
Knox,  Miles  Coverdale,  William  Whittingham, 
and  other  men  largely  equipped  with  sacred 
learning.  They  settled  in  Geneva,  and  there, 
with  the  aid  of  Calvin  and  Beza,  after  two 
years'  labor,  completed  the  New  Testament  in 
1557.  Three  years  later  the  whole  Bible  was 
published.  It  was  dedicated  to  Q,ueen  Eliza- 
beth, went  through  at  least  eighty  editions,  and 
for  sixty  years  was  the  most  popular  of  all  the 
versions.  It  anticipated  many  of  the  happiest 
renderings  in  the  Authorized  Version.  It  was 
the  first  English  Bible  divided  into  verses,  and 
the  first  to  print  in  Italics  all  the  words  not 
in  the  original. 

The  Bishops'  Bible  was  published  in  1568.  Its 
promoter  was  Archbishop  Parker,  who,  with 
eight  bishops,  several  deans  and  professors, 
highly  reputed  for  learning,  set  himself  to  pro- 
duce "one  other  special  Bible  for  the  churches." 
The  basis  of  this  version  is  obviously  the 
Great  Bible.  The  Bishops'  Bable  adopted  the 
division  into  verses  which  had  been  made 
in  the  Geneva  Bible.    It  continued  to  be  the 



standard  version  until  the  appearance  of  the 
Authorized  in  1611. 

The  Rhemish  Version  of  the  New  Testament 
is  an  English  translation  published  in  1582,  at 
Rheims  in  France.  It  was  executed  by  Roman 
Catholic  scholars.  By  the  same  translators  an 
English  rendering  of  the  Old  Testament  was 
published  at  Douai  in  1610.  This  version  and 
a  revised  edition  of  the  Rhemish  Testament 
constitute  the  "Doway  Bible,"  used  by  Roman 
Catholics.  As  a  version,  the  Douai  Bible  is 
simply  the  common  and  not  the  genuine  Latin 
text  of  Jerome,  in  an  English  dress. 

The  Authorized  Version  was  published  in  1611. 
It  was  the  work  of  forty-seven  scholars  ap- 
pointed by  James  I.  These  revisers  were  divided 
into  six  companies,  to  each  of  which  a  specified 
portion  of  Scripture  was  assigned.  The  render- 
ings of  the  several  companies  were  finally  re- 
viewed by  the  entire  body.  Seven  years  were 
spent  on  the  work.  Directly  or  indirectly,  every 
prior  version  influenced  their  translation.  The 
spirit  of  Tyndale  especially  prevades  it.  Always, 
however,  and  in  everything,  the  revisers  exer- 
cised independent  judgment.  The  dialect  of 
the  Authorized  Version  is  nearer  men's  minds 
than  their  own  speech.  Its  influence  has  made 
the  English  language  what  it  is,  and  has  cre- 
ated our  literature. 

The  Revised  Version  declares  itself  "the  ver- 
sion set  forth  a.d.  1611  compared  with  the  most 
ancient  authorities  and  revised  a.d.  1881."  It 
originated  in  the  Convocation  of  Canterbury, 
May  6,  1870,  by  the  appointment  of  a  commit- 
tee, with  whom  should  be  associated  other 
learned  men  representing  the  churches  using 
the  Authorized  Version.  A  similar  committee 
was  formed  in  America  to  cooperate  with  the 
British  company  of  revisers.  Thus  was  started 
the  first  international  and  inter-denomina- 
tional effort  to  bring  the  Authorized  Version 
into  accord  with  the  present  standard  of  bib- 
lical knowledge. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  New  Testament  Com- 
pany was  held  June  22,  1870;  the  last  meeting 
was  held  on  November  11,  1880.  The  Revised 
Version  of  the  New  Testament  was  published 
on  the  17th  of  the  following  May.  The  Old 
Testament  Company  held  its  first  meeting  June 
30,  1870;  its  last  meeting  was  held  on  the  20th  of 
June,  1884.  The  Revised  Version  of  the  Old 
Testament  was  published  May  19,  1885. 

The  Revised  Version  of  the  New  Testament 
retains  the  titles  of  the  several  books  as  they 
stood  in  the  Authorized  Version,  but  some 
changes  have  been  made  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment. The  several  books  of  the  Pentateuch 
are  described  as  "commonly  called"  instead 
of  "called."  In  I.  and  II.  Samuel,  the  second 
titles  are  omitted.  The  same  has  been  done 
in  the  book  of  Kings.  The  Psalter  is  simply 
called  "The  Psalms,"  and  is  presented  in  five 
books,  which  is  the  true  arrangement.  "The 
Song  of  Solomon  "  is  called  "  The  Song  of  Songs." 
All  poetry  is  printed  as  such,  and  not  as  prose. 

In  matters  of  diction  and  locution  the  Re- 
vised Version  of  the  Old  Testament  differs  less 
from  the  Authorized  Version  than  does  the 
Revised  Version  of  the  New ;  but  in  both  Testa- 
ments the  English  rendering  is  brought  into 

nearer  correspondence  with  the  originals  than 
had  ever  been  reached  before.  Distinctions  in 
the  Hebrew  and  Greek  which  were  not  repro- 
duced in  the  Authorized  Version  have  been 
set  forth  in  the  Revised;  on  the  other  hand, 
where  the  Authorized  Version  made  distinc- 
tions in  English  to  which  there  was  no  corre- 
sponding variation  in  the  originals,  these,  for 
the  most  part,  have  been  effaced  in  the  Revised 
Version.  The  Revised  greatly  excels  in  the  pre- 
cision with  which  it  reproduces  the  true  force 
of  the  tenses  and  of  compound  verbs.  It  seizes 
the  distinctive  senses  of  prepositions,  and  ex- 
hibits them  with  a  fidelity  never  before  at- 
tained in  English.  Throughout,  difficult  pas- 
sages have  been  much  simplified.  By  substi- 
tuting modern  terms  for  obsolete  and  archaic 
ones,  great  gain  in  clearness  has  been  effected. 
Whether  it  will,  or  will  not,  ever  take  the  place 
of  the  Authorized  Version  in  general  use,  the 
Revised  Version  is  indispensable  and  invalu- 
able to  Bible  students. 


In  Holland  the  work  of  revision  was  taken 
up  in  1854  by  a  large  company  of  scholars.  As 
the  result,  a  revised  translation  of  the  New 
Testament  was  issued  in  1868  by  the  authority 
of  the  General  Synod. 

In  Denmark  a  revised  translation  of  the 
Danish  New  Testament  was  made  in  1819.  The 
revision  of  the  Old  Testament  appeared  in  1871. 
It  was  the  work  of  Kolkar,  Rothe,  and  Bishop 

A  revised  version  of  the  Swedish  New  Testa- 
ment was  issued  in  1885.  It  keeps  very  close 
to  the  Received  Text,  no  variations  therefrom 
being  accepted  unless  sustained  by  at  least  two 
of  the  most  ancient  manuscripts.  The  Old 
Testament  is  in  preparation. 

In  France,  Ostervald's  version  was  revised  by 
M.  Frossard  in  1869.  A  revision  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament, by  a  committee  of  four,  was  published 
in  1879.  This  version  is  adopted  by  the  British 
and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  and  by  the  Ameri- 
can Bible  Society. 

In  Switzerland  a  new  translation  of  the  Old 
Testament,  by  Dr.  Segond,  reached  its  third 
edition  in  1879,  in  which  year  the  same  scholar 
published  a  new  translation  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment. This  version  has  been  accepted  by  the 
Oxford  University  Press. 

Luther's  German  Bible  has  been  under  revi- 
sion for  many  years,  more  with  a  view  towards 
improving  and  modernizing  the  language  than 
making  a  new  version.  The  result,  under  the 
name  of  "Probe-Bibel,"  has  been  privately  but 
widely  circulated. 

Books  of  Reference:  Mombert's  Handbook  of  the 
English  Versions  of  the  Bible;  Freeman's  Short  His- 
tory of  the  English  Bible;  Stough ton's  Our  English 
Bible:'  Its  Translations  and  Translators;  Eadie's  The 
English  Bible;  Westcott's  General  View  of  the  History 
of  the  English  Bible;  Chambers'  Companion  to  the  Re- 
vised Old  Testament;  Schaif  s  Revision  of  the  New  Tes- 
tament; Scrivener's  The  Authorized  Edition  of  the 
English  Bible:  Its  Subsequent  Reprints  and  Modern 


^  TtyrtbSi  y^r     «m  %      *>*%? l^     tofrd***  &¥&  \fir 

Specimen  of  Anglo-Saxon  version  from  the  Rush  worth  Gospels.    John  13:  2.    The  line  in  large 
letters  is  Latin,  with  the  Anglo-Saxon  equivalents  in  the  line  above. 



By  GEORGE  J.  SPURRELL,  M.A.,  of  Balliol  College,  Oxford;  Late  Examiner  in 
Hebrew  and  New  Testament  Greek,  University  of  London; 


REV.  CHARLES  H.  H.  WRIGHT,  D.D.,  Ph.D.,  Grinfield  Lecturer  on  the 

Septuagint,  University  of  Oxford,  and  Examiner  in  Hebrew  and 

New  Testament  Greek,  University  of  London. 

A  "summary  of  the  books  of  the  Bible"  in- 
cludes not  only  an  analysis  of  each  book,  more 
or  less  extended,  but  a  discussion  of  the  literary 
questions  which  suggest  themselves — the  au- 
thorship, characteristics,  date,  place,  and  cir- 
cumstances of  writing.  It  has  been  said  that 
"God  has  revealed  himself  through  human 
eyes  and- ears,  intellect  and  hearts,  tongues  and 
pens"  (p.  8).  The  investigation  of  these  questions 
so  related  to  the  human  element  is  largely  a 
matter  of  literary  interest,  which  should  em- 
phasize and  stimulate  the  Christian's  belief  in 
the  divine  inspiration  and  historical  credibility 
of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  the  authority  of 
those  books  in  all  matters  of  faith  and  practice. 
Such  a  summary  as  is  here  given  will,  it  is 
hoped,  aid  the  devout  student  to  a  clearer  con- 
ception of  the  truth  and  to  a  stronger  belief  in 
the  divine  word  as  given  in  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures. (Consult  the  articles  in  Part  I.  of  these 

The  Books  of  the  Old  Testament  are  grouped 
under  four  divisions:  (1)  The  Pentateuch,  or 
Five  Books  of  Moses.  (2)  TJie  Historical  Books, 
twelve  in  number,  from  Joshua  to  Esther.  (3) 
T7ie  Poetical  Books,  five  of  them,  Job  to  Song  of 
Songs.  (4)  Tfie  Prophets,  including  the  Major, 
five  in  number,  from  Isaiah  to  Daniel,  and  the 
twelve  Minor,  from  Hosea  to  Malachi. 


Name.— The  name  Pentateuch  comes  from  the 
Greek,  and  means  the  five-volumed  (book).  Its 
Hebrew  designation  is  "the  Law,"  or  "the  book  of 
the  law  of  Moses,"  or,  by  the  later  Jews,  "the  five- 
fifth  parts  of  the  lata." 

Author.— Jewish  tradition  ascribed  the  entire 
work  to  Moses,  sometimes  even  asserting  that 
the  last  verses  of  Deuteronomy  were  the  pro- 
duction of  that  lawgiver.  The  Pentateuch  is 
referred  to  by  Christ  and  his  apostles  as  the 
work  of  Moses.  That  he  was  the  author  or  com- 
piler is  sustained  also  by  the  record  itself.  The 
Pentateuch  ascribes  to  Moses  the  following  por- 
tions: (1)  Ex.  20-23  (cf.  Ex.  24:  4,  7),  The  book  of  the 
covenant.  (2)  Ex.  34 :  10-28,  The  renewal  of  the  cove- 
nant. (3)  Ex.  17:  14,  God's  commands  about  the 
utter  destruction  of  Amcdek.  (4)  The  journeys  of  the 
children  of  Israel,  which  must  have  been  based 
on  Mosaic  records  (cf.  Num.  33:  2).  (5)  Tlie  "  law" 
alluded  to  in  Deul.  SI:  9,  11,  2!r26,  although  the 
extent  of  that  "  law  "  is  not  certain.  ((>)  The 
song  of  Moses,  Deut.  32  (cf.  31:  19-22);  and  (7)  The 
blessing  of  Moses,  Deut.  33.  Investigation  in  the 
present  century  led  to  the  conjecture  that  in  the 
Pentateuch  the  inspired  author  made  use  of 
earlier  documents,  and  contemporaneous  rec- 
ords preserved  by  the  patriarchs,  distinguished 
one  from  the  other  by  various  differences  in 

their  vocabulary,  and  by  other  peculiarities. 
It  should,  however,  not  be  forgotten  that, 
though  the  use  of  different  documents  in  the 
composition  of  the  Pentateuch  be  admitted,  the 
books  are  properly  ascribed  to  Moses,  and  that 
the  result  is  a  work  remarkable  for  its  unity 
of  purpose. 

The  name  Jehovah,  or  JaJiveh,  is  employed  in 
certain  portions  of  Genesis,  and  the  name 
Elohim  (God)  in  others,  whence  the  titles  Elo- 
histic  and  Jehovistic,  or  Jahiislic.  This  variation 
in  the  use  of  the  divine  names  only  extends  as 
far  as  Ex.  6,  but  other  indications  of  the  use  by 
Moses  of  earlier  documents  extend  throughout 
the  whole  work.  If  the  Pentateuch  were  com- 
posed after  the  exile,  it  would  be  impossible 
satisfactorily  to  account  for  the  knowledge  of 
Egyptian  customs  which  is  exhibited  in  Genesis 
and  Exodus.  Those  portions  of  Genesis  which 
show  a  marked  similarity  to  the  literature  of 
Assyria  and  Bahylonia  contain  also  indications 
of  a  far  earlier  date. 

Reference  is  also  made  in  Scripture  to  a  liter- 
ature in  existence  long  before  the  time  of 
Moses.  The  art  of  writing,  and  consequently 
the  existence  of  a  written  literature,  at  an  early 
age,  was  denied  by  the  earlier  assailants  of  the 
Pentateuch.  But  that  fact  is  now  universally 
acknowledged  by  scholars  of  all  schools  of 
thought.  Kirjath-sepher  {the  dtp  of  the  book) 
was  a  name  given  to  Debir  long  before  the  in- 
vasion of  the  Israelites  (Josh.  15:  15;  Judg.  1:  11), 
and  the  discovery  of  the  Tell-amarna  or  Tel-el- 
Amarna  tablets  (see  Plate  I.)  tends  to  confirm 
this  opinion. 

Its  Laws.— Numerous  references  to  the  histo- 
ries and  laws  of  the  Pentateuch  are  found  in 
most  of  the  books  of  the  Old  Testament.  Some 
laws  in  the  Pentateuch  were  suitable  only  for  a 
nomadic  people  like  Israel  in  the  wilderness; 
and  many  laws,  designed  for  that  nation  when 
in  possession  of  the  Holy  Land,  became  obsolete 
when  the  territorial  limits  of  each  tribe  had  un- 
dergone changes,  and  the  directions  of  the  Pen- 
tateuch, as  to  individual  or  ecclesiastical  prop- 
erty, could  no  longer  be  carried  out.  It  was 
impossible  after  the  exile  to  carry  out  fully  the 
laws  regarding  the  day  of  atonement,  or  those 
concerning  the  building  and  removal  of  the 
tabernacle.  Many  laws  originally  of  Mosaic 
origin  underwent  modifications  to  suit  the  con- 
ditions of  the  Israelites,  for  the  Pentateuch  was 
a  guide  to  the  nation  in  all  matters  of  religious 
and  civil  life. 


Name  and  Author.— The  word  Genesis,  signify- 
ing generation  or  origin,  is  the  title  the  book  bears 
in  the  LXX.  version,  evidently  with  an  allusion 
to  its  contents.  Its  Hebrew  name  is  Bereshith 
{in  the  beginning).  The  book  exhibits  clearly 
throughout  a  definite  plan  and  purpose,  and 




though  there  are  difficulties,  there  is  a  unity  and 
harmonious  agreement  of  the  whole,  which 
serves  to  emphasize  the  fact  that  there  is  no  rea- 
son to  doubt  that  the  book,  substantially  in  its 
present  form,  was  written  and  compiled  by 

Contents.— Genesis  narrates  the  history  of 
Israel  from  the  creation  until  the  death  of 
Joseph.  It  may  be  divided  into  two  parts:  (1) 
Introductory  (1-11 :  9)— the  history  of  the  crea- 
tion of  the  earth  and  mankind,  down  to  the 
dispersion  of  Noah's  descendants  over  the 
world.  (2)  The  special  history  (9:  10-50:  26)  of 
God's  chosen  people  Israel,  from  Abram's  birth 
and  call  till  the  death  of  Joseph.  In  this  portion 
the  lives  of  the  patriarchs  Abraham,  Isaac,  and 
Jacob  are  treated  with  considerable  fullness  of 
detail,  and  much  information  is  given  as  to  the 
fortunes  of  Joseph  in  Egypt,  the  narrative  con- 
cluding with  Jacob's  death  and  burial  at  Mach- 
pelah,  and  Joseph's  decease. 


Name  and  Character.— The  name  {departure, 
in  reference  to  the  great  event  in  the  book ;  cf . 
Heb.  11:  22)  is  derived  from  the  Greek  title  in  the 
LXX.,  through  the  Latin  version.  The  Hebrew 
title  is  Shemoth  {names)  or  Eleh  Shemoth  (these  are 
the  names),  from  the  beginning  of  verse  1.  The 
book  is  full  of  suggestions  of  haste,  of  sojourn- 
ing, of  camp  and  camp  life,  and  of  the  wilder- 
ness, while  the  minute  details  of  the  deliver- 
ance from  Egypt  and  the  sojourn  about  Sinai 
indicate  that  the  author  was  familiar  with  all 
the  life  which  he  describes. 

Contents.— The  book  continues  the  history  of 
Israel,  from  the  death  of  Joseph  down  to  the 
giving  of  the  law  at  Sinai,  and  the  erection  of 
the  tabernacle.  It  may  be  divided  into  two 
parts:  (1)  Chs.  1-18  describe  the  oppression 
of  the  Israelites  in  Egypt,  the  history  of  Moses 
and  his  dealings  with  Pharaoh,  the  plagues,  the 
exodus,  the  overthrow  of  the  Egyptians,  and 
the  arrival  at  Sinai.  (2)  Chs.  19-40  contain  an  ac- 
count of  the  sojourn  at  Sinai,  the  giving  of  the 
law,  the  directions  respecting  the  tabernacle 
and  its  services,  the  story  of  the  sin  of  the 
golden  calf  and  the  subsequent  punishment,  the 
giving  of  the  new  tables,  and  the  erection  and 
dedication  of  the  tabernacle. 


Name  and  Peculiarity.— The  name  Leviticus  is 
a  Latinized  form  of  the  Greek  title  in  the  LXX. 
In  Hebrew  it  is  called  Wayyikra  (and  he  called). 
from  the  first  word.  The  details  present  great 
difficulties,  which  fact  tends  to  prove  antiquity. 
The  book  contains  for  the  most  part  laws,  or 
collections  of  laws,  but  very  little  historical  mat- 
ter. Details  as  to  sacrifices,  etc.,  may  have  been 
modified  under  divine  direction  in  times  after 
Moses.  The  legislation  contained  in  Leviticus 
is  often  alluded  to  in  Ezekiel.  This  book,  though 
not  referred  to  more  than  two  or  three  times  in 
the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews  (Heb.  9 : 7  ff. ;  13 :  10-13), 
virtually  underlies  a  considerable  portion  of 
that  epistle.  All  the  references  and  inferences 
lead  up  to  the  great  fact  dwelt  on  in  the  epistle 
concerning  the  sacrifice  of  Christ,  namely,  that 
that  sacrifice  was  alone  efficacious  to  remove 
sin,  a  sacrifice  once  offered  never  to  be  repeated. 

Contents. — It  may  be  divided  into  four  parts : 

(1)  Chs.  1-7,  laws  relating  to  sacrifices  in  general. 

(2)  Chs.  8-10,  Aaron  and  his  four  sons  consecrated 
to  the  priesthood ;  the  transgression  and  punish- 
ment of  Nadab  and  Abihu.  (3)  Chs.  11-16,  laws 
concerning  clean  and  unclean  beasts;  personal 
uncleanliness,  with  especial  reference  to  leprosy ; 
the  day  of  atonement.  (4)  Chs.  17-27,  various  laws 
to  be  observed  by  Israel,  God's  chosen  people, 
relating  to  sacrifices,  chastity,  marriage,  religious 
and  civil  life;  ordinances  as  to  the  priests,  holy 

gifts  and  offerings,  laws  respecting  festivals,  the 
lighting  of  the  sanctuary,  and  showbread;  the 
story  of  a  blasphemer  and  his  punishment;  the 
sabbatical  year;  the  jubilee  year;  a  chapter  of 
blessings  and  cursings,  and  an  appendix  contain- 
ing laws  relating  to  vows,  things  devoted  to  Jeho- 
vah, and  tithes. 


Name.— The  title  Numbers  is  a  translation  of 
the  name  found  in  the  Greek  version,  and  the 
book  is  so  called  from  the  two  numberings  of 
the  people  described  therein.  In  the  Hebrew 
Bible  its  name  is  Bemidhbar  (in  the  ivilderness), 
from  the  fifth  word  of  verse  1,  or  Wayyedabber 
(and  he  said)  from  the  initial  word.  The  book 
consists  of  historical  matter,  interspersed  with 
various  laws  and  ordinances. 

Contents.— It  may  be  divided  into  four  parts: 

(1)  Chs.  1-10  contain  the  census,  laws  relat- 
ing to  purity  and  Nazarite  vows,  Aaron's  bless' 
ing,  the  gifts  presented  by  the  tribal  princes  at 
the  dedication  of  the  altar,  the  consecration 
and  duties  of  the  Levites,  a  special  ordinance  as 
to  the  celebration  of  the  Passover,  and  the  pillar 
of  cloud  to  regulate  the  journeying  of  the 
Israelites.  (2)  Chs.  11-19  carry  on  the  history 
from  the  second  year  to  the  beginning  of  the 
fortieth  year  after  the  exodus,  narrating  with 
much  detail  the  events  of  the  journey  from 
Sinai  to  Moab,  including  the  survey  of  the  land, 
the  refusal  of  the  people  to  enter  it,  their  vari- 
ous acts  of  disobedience,  and  the  different  laws 
published  during  this  period.  (3)  Chs.  20-24 
describe  what  happened  during  the  first  ten 
months  of  the  fortieth  year,  including  Edom's 
refusal  to  allow  the  Israelites  to  pass  through 
their  land,  the  death  of  Miriam  and  of  Aaron, 
the  conquest  of  the  land  of  the  Amorites  and  of 
Bashan,  and  the  story  of  Balaam  and  his  deal- 
ings with  the  children  of  Israel.  (4)  Chs. 
25-36  narrate  the  sin  of  Baal-peor,  the  second 
census,  the  appointment  of  Joshua  as  Moses' 
successor,  the  war  of  revenge  against  Midian, 
the  settlement  of  Reuben,  Gad,  and  half  of 
Manasseh  on  the  eastern  side  of  Jordan,  and 
the  directions  as  to  the  cities  of  refuge.  Various 
ordinances  concerning  the  division  of  the  land 
of  Canaan,  sacrifices,  vows,  etc.,  are  also  in- 
cluded in  this  section. 


Name.— The  name  Deuteronomy  is  derived  from 
the  incorrect  rendering  of  the  LXX.  translator 
of  the  expression  in  ch.  17: 18,  which  is  correctly 
rendered  in  the  A.  V.  a  copy  of  the  law.  This 
phrase  was  erroneously  supposed  to  refer  to  the 
whole  book.  In  the  Hebrew  Bible  its  title  is 
Eleh  Haddebharim  (these  are  the  ivords),  or  Debha- 
rim  (words),  from  ch.  1: 1,  with  an  allusion  to  the 
contents  of  the  book. 

Contents. — Deuteronomy  was  intended  for  the 
use  of  the  people,  and  not  for  the  priests  alone. 
It  commences  with  a  continuation  of  the  his- 
tory narrated  in  the  closing  chapters  of  Num- 
bers, and  contains  for  the  most  part  legal  matter. 
New  laws  and  directions  are  given,  and  old  laws 
repealed  (cf.,  for  example,  ch.  12:  5-14  and  Ex. 
20:  24),  so  that  there  is  an  apparent  intention  to 
remodel  the  previous  legislation  and  to  adapt  it 
to  the  requirements  of  the  people  at  a  later 
time.  The  book  is  almost  entirely  made  up  of 
addresses  delivered  by  Moses  to  the  people,  it 
may  be  divided  into  five  parts:  (1)  Chs.  1-4: 
43,  a  resume  of  the  history  of  Israel  during  the 
journey  through  the  wilderness,  to  which  is  at- 
tached^ an  impressive  admonition  to  obey  the 
law,  and  an  account  of  the  appointment  of 
cities  of  refuge  on  the  eastern  side  of  Jordan. 

(2)  Chs.  4:  44-20,  the  second  address,  partly  deliv- 
ered by  Moses,  i.e.,  chs.  5-11,  and  partly  added  to 
in  writing,  i.e.,  chs.  12-26:  15.    This  speech  com- 



mences  with  a  recitation  of  the  decalogue,  with 
various  warnings  and  exhortations  based  on 
this,  and  concludes  with  several  special  direc- 
tions. (3)  Chs.  27  and  28,  the  concluding  speech, 
containing  directions  as  to  the  writing  down 
of  the  law  after  the  crossing  of  the  Jordan, 
and  the  delivery  of  blessings  and  cursings  from 
Mount  Gerizim  and  Mount  Ebal  respectively. 

(4)  Chs.  29-31,  Moses'  farewell  speech  and  warn- 
ing to  the  people,  and   his  charge  to  Joshua. 

(5)  Chs.  32-34,  the  song  of  Moses  and  the  an- 
nouncement of  his  death;  the  blessing  of  Moses 
and  his  death  and  burial. 


Name.— The  book  of  Joshua  derives  its  name 
from  Joshua,  who  led  the  Israelites  into  Canaan. 
In  the  Hebrew  canon  it  is  the  first  of  the  four 
books  entitled  the  "Former  Prophets"  and  is  sep- 
arated from  the  Pentateuch,  of  which  it  is  in 
reality  the  concluding  portion. 

Author  and  Date.— The  older  commentators, 
both  Jewish  and  Christian,  regarded  Joshua  as 
the  author.  This  theory  is  supported  by  the 
main  contents  of  the  book,  though  it  involves 
the  subsequent  insertion  of  events  which  oc- 
curred after  the  death  of  Joshua.  In  all  prob- 
ability other  documents  belonging  to  the  time 
of  Joshua  were  made  use  of,  and  in  ch.  10: 13  a 
reference  occurs  to  the  book  of  Jashar.  Refer- 
ences to  the  events  narrated  in  the  book  of 
Joshua  are  frequent  in  the  later  books. 

Contents.— The  work  may  be  divided  into 
three  parts:  (l)Chs.  1-12  describe  the  conquest 
of  the  promised  land,  Canaan.  (2)  Chs.  13-22 
record  the  division  by  lot  of  the  land  of  Canaan 
among  the  nine  tribes  and  the  half  tribe  of  Ma- 
nasseh.  (3)  Chs.  18  and  24  contain  Joshua's  last 
speeches  and  his  death. 


Name.— The  book  of  Judges— called  in  the 
Hebrew  Shofetim  (judges),  a  term  identical  with 
the  Carthaginian  Sufetes,  although  the  two  offices 
were  not  of  the  same  nature— derives  its  name 
from  the  histories  contained  therein. 

Date  and  Authorship.— The  author  is  uncer- 
tain. The  book  has  been  ascribed  to  Samuel, 
but  others  must  have  continued  it.  The  song  of 
Deborah  (ch.  5)  was  composed  in  all  probabil- 
ity shortly  after  the  occurrence  of  the  event  de- 
scribed therein.  The  writer's  thorough  acquaint- 
ance with  the  topography  of  Palestine  is  suffi- 
cient to  prove  that  the  book  was  composed  by  an 
inhabitant  of  the  country  prior  to  the  period  of 
the  exile.  Allusions  are  found  in  Ps.  77  and  83  to 
some  of  the  events  narrated  in  Judges,  and  the 
sin  of  Gibeah  is  referred  to  in  Hos.  9:  9  and  10:  9. 

Contents.— The  book  may  be  divided  into 
three  parts:  (1)  Chs.  1-2:5  are  introductory, 
and  contain  an  account  of  the  conquest  of  cer- 
tain portions  of  the  land,  and  a  list  of  the 
towns  that  were  not  then  subdued,  concluding 
willi  the  rebuke  administered  to  the  Israelites 
at  Bochim  by  the  angel  of  Jehovah,  or  (as  others 
think)  by  a  man  of  God,  because  they  had  not 
destroyed  the  Canaanites,  but  followed  their 
idolatries.  (2)  Chs.  2:  0-1G  contain  the  main  por- 
tion of  the  narrative,  from  the  death  of  Joshua 
until  that  of  Samson,  and  are  closely  connected 
with  Josh.  24:  28.  This  part  begins  with  an  in- 
troduction explaining  the  spiritual  significance 
of  the  events  subsequently  narrated.  This  is  fol- 
lowed by  the  history  of  twelve,or  fifteen  judges, 
about  the  majority  of  whom  little  is  told.  It  is 
impossible  to  determine,  from  the  contents  of  the 
book  itself,  whether  the  judges  named  therein  as 
the  leaders  of  Israel  ruled  consecutively  or  con- 
temporaneously.   (3)  Chs.  17-21  contain  two  ap- 

pendices. The//>.s-£  describes  the  introduction  of 
image  worship  by  the  Ephraimite  Micah,  and 
the  conquest  of  Laish(Dan)by  theDanites.  The 
second  records  the  shameful  deed  of  the  men  of 
Gibeah,  and  the  subsequent  war  which  nearly 
annihilated  the  tribe  of  Benjamin. 


Historical  Character.— The  writer's  object  was 
to  narrate  an  episode  from  the  history  of  King 
David's  ancestors,  and  to  keep  in  remembrance 
the  descent  of  that  monarch.  The  events  nar- 
rated occurred  about  a  century  before  David. 
The  genealogical  table  (although  incomplete), 
and  the  fact  that  no  writer  Would  invent  a  Mo- 
abitish  ancestress  for  the  house  of  David,  prove 
its  historical  character.  In  post-exilic  times  in- 
termarriage with  a  Moabitess  would  have  been 
regarded  as  highly  discreditable  to  a  pious 

Author  and  Place.— The  book  was  probably 
composed  after  the  clays  of  David.  In  the  He- 
brew canon  the  book  is  one  of  the  five  Rolls,  or 

Contents.— (1)  The  sojourn  of  Elimelech  and 
Naomi,  with  their  sons,  in  Moab,  and  the.death 
of  the  father  and  sons  (1:  1-5).  (2)  The  return  of 
Naomi  and  her  daughter-in-law,  Ruth,  to  Beth- 
lehem (1:  6-22).  (3)  Ruth  gleans  in  the  fields  of 
her  kinsman,  Boaz,  and  finds  favor  (2:  1-23);  (4) 
Boaz  recognizes  her  kinship  and  its  rights  (3: 
1-18),  and  (5)  protects  her  "by  marriage,  from 
which  marriage  David  is  descended  (4 : 1-22). 


Name.— In  Hebrew  MSS.  the  two  books  of 
Samuel  are  regarded  as  one.  In  the  LXX.  and 
Vulgate  they  are  entitled  the  first  and  second 
books  of  Kings.  The  present  division  into  two 
books  was  adopted  from  those  two  versions 
after  the  introduction  of  printing.  The  books 
are  so  called  because  Samuel  is  the  most  im- 
nortant  character  in  the  opening  portion. 
~  Author.— In  the  Talmud,  Samuel  is  stated  to 
have  written  the  books  that  bear  his  name,  also 
Ruth  and  Judges.  No  doubt  much  material  was 
gathered  by  him.  The  composition  belongs  to 
an  early  date,  probably  shortly  after  the  separa- 
tion of  the  kingdoms  of  Judah  and  Israel  (cf.  I. 
Sam. 27:6).  In  its  present  form,  however,  the 
work  appears  to  have  undergone  considerable 

Contents.— Whatever  the  date,  the  books  are 
based  on  the  records  of  the  prophets  contempo- 
rary with  these  kings.  The  books  relate  the  his- 
tories of  Samuel,  Sard,  and  David,  and.  may  be 
divided  into  three  parts:  (1)  I.  Sam.  1-12,' the 
history  of  Samuel  until  he  retires  from  his  posi- 
tion as  judge,  Eli's  history  being  narrated  so  far 
as  connected  with  that  of  Samuel.  (2)  I.  Sam. 
13-11.  Sam.  1,  the  history  of  Saul  from  his  ac- 
cession, until  his  death.  (3)  II.  Sam.  2-24,  the 
reign  of  David.  Three  important  songs  are  in- 
cluded in  these  two  books,  viz.,  (a)  the  song  of 
Hannah,  I.  Sam.  2:  1-10;  (b)  David's  lament,  II. 
Sam.  1;  (c)  II.  Sam.  22,  which  appears,  with  cer- 
tain modifications,  in  the  Psalter  as  Ps.  18.  Ref- 
erence is  also  made  in  II.  Sam.  1:  18  to  the  book 
of  Jashar.  In  I.  Ohr.  27:  2i  and  2!):  29  the  author- 
ities mentioned,  for  the  time  of  David,  are  "the 
chronicles  of  King  David,"  "the  histories  of  Samuel 
the  Seer,"  of  "Nathan  the  Prophet,"  and  of  "Gad 
the  Seer."  In  I.  Sam.  10 :  25  allusion  is  made  to  a 
work  by  Samuel,  which  contained  at  least  the 
law  of  the  kingdom.  In  all  probability  these 
sources  were  employed  by  the  compiler  of  the 
books  of  Samuel. 


Name  and  Date.— These  two  books  in  Hebrew 
MSS.  are  regarded  as  one.  In  the  editions  of  the 


LXX.  and  Vulgate  they  are  entitled  the  third 
and  fourth  Kings.  The  present  division  into 
two  books  is  of  comparatively  modern  origin. 
The  work  was  probably  composed  during  the 
second  half  of  the  Babylonian  captivity  (after 
Evil-Merodach  had  ascended  the  throne;  cf.  II. 
Ki.  25 :  27  ft.).  The  author  professes  to  have  made 
use  of  the  following  sources  in  composing  his 
book :  (1)  "The  book  of  the  acts  of  Solomon  "  (I.  Ki. 
11:  41);  (2)  "the  annals  of  the  kings  of  Judah,11  up 
to  the  death  of  Jehoiakim  (I.  Ki.  14:  29);  (3)  "the 
annals  of  the  kings  of  Israel,11  up  to  the  death  of 
Pekah  (I.  Ki.  14:19,  etc.). 

Object.— The  writer's  object  appears  to  have 
been  not  merely  to  communicate  historical  facts, 
but  also  to  point  out  their  bearing  on  matters  of 
religion.  The  books  of  Kings  contain  the  only 
record  of  the  history  of  the  northern  kingdom 
after  the  separation  from  Judah,  for  the  book 
of  Chronicles  only  records  the  history  of  the 
northern  kingdom  in  so  far  as  connected  with 
that  of  Judah. 

Divisions.— The  books  may  be  divided  into 
three  parts :  (1)  I.  Ki.  1-11,  the  reign  of  Solomon. 
(2)  I.  Ki.  12-11.  Ki.  17,  a  parallel  account  of 
the  kingdoms  of  Judah  and  Israel  until  the  de- 
struction of  the  kingdom  of  Israel.  (3)  II.  Ki.  18- 
25,  the  history  of  the  kingdom  of  Judah  until 
the  Babylonian  exile. 


Name.— In  Hebrew  MSS.  the  books  are  re- 
garded as  one.  The  present  division  into  two 
books  is  adopted  from  the  LXX.  and  Vulgate. 
The  Hebrew  title,  "Acts  of  the  Days,11  is  a  general 
term  indicating  the  historical  character  of  the 
work.  In  the  LXX.  (and  similarly  in  the  Vul- 
gate) the  books  are  called  Paraleipomena  (things 
omitted),  since  the  translators  viewed  the  Chron- 
icles as  a  supplement  to  the  other  historical 

Author.— According  to  Jewish  tradition  Ezra 
was  the  author;  but  this  seems  inconsistent 
with  the  genealogy  in  I.  Chr.  3:  19-24,  which  is 
brought  down  to  several  generations  after  Ne- 
hemiah  and  Ezra.  The  work  may  have  been 
written,  if  not  by  Ezra,  by  a  Levite  connected 
with  the  musical  services  of  the  second  temple. 

Sources.— The  author  made  use  of  the  follow- 
ing: (1)  "  The  book  of  the  kings  of  Israel  and  Judah,11 
a  work  quoted  under  four  somewhat  different 
titles;  (2)  "the  history  of  Samuel  the  Seer,11  possibly 
our  books  of  Samuel ;  (3  and  4)  "  the  histories  of  Gad 
the  Seer,11  and  of  "Natlian  the  Prophet11;  (5)  "the 
prophecy  of  Ahijah  " ;  (6)  "  the  vision  of  Iddo  " ;  (7)  the 
history  of  Shemaiah  ;  (8)  that  of  Jehu  the  son  of  Ha- 
nani;  (9)  the  Midrash  (perhaps  OommmZar^/,  but  the 
meaning  of  the  word  is  doubtful)  on  the  book 
of  Kings;  (10  and  11)  IsaiaWs  vision,  and  another 
work  of  the  same  prophet  relating  to  Uzziah  ; 
and  (12)  the  Jdstory  of  Hozai  or  the  Seers  (cf.  I. 
Chr.  29:  29;  II.  Chr.  9:  29;  12: 15;  20:  34;  24:  27;  26: 
22;  32:  32;  33: 19).  The  existence  of  Samuel  and 
Kings  is  presupposed;  e.  g.,  in  II.  Chr.  21:  12-15, 
the  history  of  Elijah  is  treated  as  known  to  the 

Object.— The  author's  object  appears  to  be  not 
merely  to  write  a  supplement  to  the  already  ex- 
isting historical  books,  but  to  compose  an 
independent  work,  from  a  Levitical  and  reli- 
gious standpoint.  He  omitted  much  that  was 
not  connected  with  the  object  in  view,  such  as 
the  period  of  the  judges,  and  the  history  of 
Saul,  and  that  of  the  northern  kingdom,  which 
is  only  related  in  as  far  as  it  is  connected  with 
that  of  the  southern. 

Contents.— The  two  books  may  be  divided  into 
four  parts:  (1)  I.  Chr.  1-10,  an  outline  of  the 
history  from  Adam  to  David,  mainly  consist- 
ing of  genealogical  lists.  (2)  I.  Chr.  11-31,  the 
reign  of  David.  (3)  II.  Chr.  1-9,  the  reign  of 
Solomon.  (4)  II.  Chr.  10-36,  the  history  of  the 
southern  kingdom  down  to  the  Babylonian  cap- 

tivity.  The  genealogical  tables  agree  in  the 
main  with  those  found  in  the  other  books  of 
the  Bible.  They  sometimes,  however,  contain 
enlargements  and  variations,  and  in  certain 
cases  names  unknown  to  us  are  added.  In  the 
historical  matter  the  Chronicles  give  many  nar- 
ratives in  common  with  the  books  of  Samuel 
and  Kings,  sometimes  agreeing  verbatim,  at 
others  making  important  additions  and  omis- 
sions. Special  attention  is  given  to  all  that  re- 
lates to  the  Levites,  many  details  being  inserted 
that  are  not  found  in  the  books  of  Samuel  and 


Position.— These  books  were  regarded  in  an- 
cient times  as  one.  In  the  LXX.  (second  Ezra 
and  Nehemiah)  and  Vulgate  (first  and  second 
Ezra)  and  in  later  editions  of  the  Hebrew  Bible 
they  are  divided  into  two  books.  In  the  Hebrew 
canon  they  immediately  precede  the  Chronicles, 
and  probably  originally  formed  with  these  one 
great  historical  work. 

Authorship.  —  Both  books  undoubtedly  con- 
tain large  portions  of  the  original  works  of  Ez- 
ra and  Nehemiah  (Ezra  7:  27-9: 15;  Neh.  1:1-7: 
5;  Neh.  12:  31-42;  Neh.  13:  4-31).  In  their  pres- 
ent form  the  books  were  probably  edited  and  re- 
vised by  a  later  hand  (Neh.  12 :  10,  11,  22). 

Contents.— They  may  be  divided  into  four 
parts:  (1)  Ezra  1-6  describes  the  first  return  of 
the  Jews  under  Sheshbazzar  or  Zerubbabel  and 
Joshua,  the  high  priest,  in  the  first  year  of 
Cyrus  (536  B.C.),  and  the  rebuilding  of  the  tem- 
ple, completed  in  the  sixth  year  of  Darius  (516 
B.C.).  (2)  Ezra  7-10  narrates  the  second  migra- 
tion from  Babylon  under  Ezra,  in  the  seventh 
year  of  Artaxerxes  Longimanus.  (458-457  B.C.), 
and  includes  Ezra's  prayer  and  confession  (ch.  9) 
and  the  expulsion  of  foreign  wives.  (3)  Ne- 
hemiah 1-7  relates  how  Nehemiah  came  to  Je- 
rusalem in  the  twentieth  year  of  Artaxerxes 
(445-444  B.C.),  and  rebuilt  the  walls  of  the  city  in 
spite  of  the  hostility  of  Sanballat,  the  Horonite, 
and  Tobiah,  the  Ammonite.  (4)  Neh.  8-13  de- 
scribes the  combined  efforts  of  Ezra  and  Nehe- 
miah to  effect  the  restoration  of  religion,  in- 
cluding the  solemn  reading  of  the  Law,  the  cele- 
bration of  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles,  the  con- 
fession of  the  Levites,  the  sealing  of  the  cove- 
nant by  the  people,  a  list  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Jerusalem  and  of  other  cities,  the  dedication  of 
the  walls,  and  the  removal  of  certain  abuses. 


Name  and  Author.— The  book  of  Esther  forms 
one  of  the  five  Megilloth,  or  Rolls,  and  is  so 
called  from  the  principal  character  in  the  nar- 
rative. The  date  of  its  composition  is  uncertain. 
The  Talmud  ascribes  the  book  to  the  "Great 
Synagogue,"  supposed  to  be  the  successors  of 
"the  men  of  Hezekiah "  (see  under  Proverbs), 
and  the  rabbis  and  many  Christian  expositors 
to  Mordecai.  The  writer's  knowledge  of  the 
character  of  Xerxes  (which  is  historically  ac- 
curate) and  his  familiarity  with  Persian  man- 
ners and  customs  (1:3;  4:  11;  8:8)  show  that  the 
work  has  an  historical  basis. 

Object.— The  object  of  the  book  is  manifestly 
to  explain,  from  history,  the  origin  and  motive 
of  the  feast  of  Purim,  or  "lots."  The  historical 
character  of  the  narrative  has  been  questioned, 
but  there  must  have  been  some  adequate  cause, 
similar  to  that  described  in  the  book,  to  account 
for  the  Purim  feast. 

Contents.— The  book  relates  how  Esther,  a  Jew- 
ish maiden,  dwelling  in  Susa,  the  Persian  cap- 
ital, became  queen  of  Ahasuerus,  or  Xerxes  (485- 
465  B.C.),  and  was  instrumental  in  rescuing  her 
compatriots  from  the  destruction  prepared  for 
them  by  Haman,  the  king's  favorite.  The 
name  of  God  occurs  nowhere  in  the  book.    The 



omission  is  perhaps  intentional,  in  order  to 
avoid  irreverence,  for  the  book  was  designed  to 
be  read  in  the  Jewish  houses  during  the  festive 
banquets  customary  at  the  celebration  of  Purim 
(9:  27).  l\\  later  times  the  book  attained  a  great 
popularity  among  the  Jews,  who  considered  it 
superior  to  the  writings  of  the  prophets,  and  the 
other  parts  of  the  Hagiographa. 



Character  of  the  Book.— The  book  is  so  called 
from  Job,  whose  history  and  sayings  it  records. 
Job  was  a  non-Israelite,  a  dweller  in  the  land  of 
Uz  (probably  near  Eclom,  pn  the  east  or  north- 
east), a  man  of  wealth  and  exemplary  piety. 
That  Job  was  an  historical  character  is  clear 
from  Ezek.  11:  14,  where  he  is  mentioned  with 
Noah  and  Daniel.  Whether  the  contents  of  the 
book  are  also  historical  is  not  so  clear.  Some 
have  regarded  it  as  historical.  Others  affirm  that 
it  is  unhistorical,  purely  poetical,  and  composed 
for  a  didactic  purpose.  The  view  commonly 
adopted  is  that  the  book  is  an  inspired  poem, 
based  on  actual  occurrences. 

Author  and  Date.— Nothing  can  be  affirmed 
wit  h  certainty  as  to  the  authorship  or  date  of  the 
poem.  Job  is  represented  as  living  in  the  days 
of  the  early  patriarchs.  This  has  led  some  to 
suppose  that  the  work  was  composed  by  Moses. 
The  writer's  allusions  to  contemporary  history 
are  slight,  but  from  his  familiarity  with  eastern 
Palestine  he  seems  to  have  been  an  Israelite.  His 
knowledge  of  Egypt  is  displayed  in  his  vivid  de- 
scription of  the  crocodile  and  the  hippopotamus. 

Object.— Scholars  hold  different  opinions  as  to 
the  object  of  the  book.  It  may,  perhaps,  be  de- 
scribed as  an  attempt  to  solve  the  problem. 
why  the  righteous  suffer.  To  the  ordinary  He- 
brew suffering  and  misfortune  seemed  to  be  the 
punishment  of  special  sin.  But  since  the  un- 
godly are  not  always  punished  for  their  offenses, 
while  the  righteous  are  frequently  visited  with 
grievous  trials,  a  serious  difficulty  presented 
itself.  The  book  of  Job  seems  written  to  point 
out  that  such  suffering  is  often  permitted  as  a 
test  of  faith  and  a  means  of  grace. 

Contents.— The  book  may  be  divided  into  five 
sections:  (1)  Chs.  1  and  2,  the  prologue,  writ- 
ten in  prose,  describe  the  piety  and  prosperity 
of  Job.  The  insinuation  of  Satan  was  that  the 
patriarch's  piety  was  merely  the  result  of  his 
prosperous  condition.  The  overthrow  of  Job's 
prosperity  was  permitted  in  order  to  test  that 
point,  and  Job's  continued  trust  in  God  in  spite 
of  overwhelming  sorrows  is  then  narrated. 
There  follows  an  account  of  the  visit  of  three 
friends,  Eliphaz,  Bildad,  and  Zophar,  who,  hav- 
ing heard  of  his  affliction,  come  to  condole  with 
him.  (2)  Chs.  3-31  describe  a  discussion  be- 
tween Job  and  his  friends,  written  in  poetry. 
Ch.  3  contains  Job's  passionate  complaint,  which 
gives  the  friends  the  opportunity  of  point- 
ing out  to  him  that  affliction  was  the  result  of 
previous  sin.  The  discussion  consists  of  three 
sets  of  speeches,  (a)  chs.  4-14,  (6)  chs.  15-21,  and 
•  (c)  chs.  22-31,  each  set  containing  six  speeches, 
one  by  each  of  the  three  friends,  with  Job's 
reply.  In  their  speeches  the  friends  urge  their 
point  with  ever  increasing  vehemence.  Job, 
however,  remains  the  victor  in  the  contest. 
He  strongly  maintains  his  righteousness,  in 
spite  of  their  attacks,  and,  when,  hard  pressed 
by  his  adversaries,  questions  God's  justice.  His 
friends  having  been  silenced,  Job  again  takes 
up  "his  parable"  and  protests  his  innocence  of 
all  the  offenses  insinuated  against  him,  while 
he  implores  the  Almighty  to  make  known  the 
cause  of  his  affliction.  (3)  The  speeches  of  Elihu, 
chs.  32-37,  are  also,  with  the  exception  of  the 
opening    verses  (32 :  l-(i),  in    poetry.     Elihu,    a 

youthful  bystander,  who  had  listened  to  the 
debate,  now  intervenes,  and,  after  apologiz- 
ing for  entering  into  the  discussion,  criticises 
the  views  of  both  Job  and  his  three  friends. 
Elihu  advocates  the  view  that  affliction  is. de- 
signed to  purge  and  prove  the  alllicted  person. 
No  reply  IS  made  by  Job  to  the  speech  of  Elihu, 
and  no  allusion  is  made  to  him  in  the  epilogue, 
where  the  other  three  friends  are  mentioned.  (4) 
Chs.  38-12:  G  arc  also  poetical.  Jehovah,  in 
his  speech  out  of  the  storm,  makes  no  allusion 
to  Job's  case,  accuses  the  patriarch  of  no  hidden 
crimes,  and  does  not  explain  the  cause  of  his 
misfortunes.  "The  intellectual  solution  of  such 
problems  can  never  be  a  question  between  Je- 
hovah and  his  servants;  the  question  is  the  state 
of  their  hearts  towards  himself.  He  asks  of 
Job,  'Who  am  I?'  and  'What  art  thou?'  In  a 
series  of  splendid  pictures  from  inanimate  crea- 
tion and  the  world  of  animal  life,  he  makes  all 
the  glory  of  his  being  pass  before  Job."— David- 
son, Job,  p.  12.  The  answer  of  the  Lord  is  suffi- 
cient for  Job.  He  humbly  confesses  that  God 
is  omnipotent  and  omnipresent,  and  repents  his 
former  utterances  and  demeanor  "in  dust  and 
ashes."  (5)  The  book  concludes  with  the  epilogue, 
ch.  42:  7-17,  written  in  prose.  In  this  the  con- 
duct of  the  three  friends  is  condemned  by  the 
Almighty,  who  restores  Job  to  greater  pros- 
perity than  he  had  enjoyed  before. 


Name  and  Formation.— The  Hebrew  title  of  this 
treasury  of  "prayer,  praise,  and  adoration"  is 
Sephcr  Tehillim,  the  Book  of  Praises.  Our  name  is 
the  Anglicized  form  of  the  Greek  title,  ^aA/aot 
(Luke  24:  44;  20:  42).  The  early  Christian  fathers 
called  it  the  Psalter.  It  is  the  first  book  of  the 
third  division  of  the  Old  Testament,  the  Hagiog- 

The  "  Psalms  of  David  "  is  simply  a  popular 
form  of  reference  because  of  David's  promi- 
nence in  the  collection.  The  poet-king  w7as  prob- 
ably the  founder  of  the  Psalter,  but  the  collec- 
tion was  formed  gradually  and  perhaps  collect- 
ed and  arranged  in  Ezra's  time. 

Divisions,  Peculiarities,  and  Authors.— In  the 
Hebrew  and  in  the  Revised  Version  the  Psalter 
is  divided  into  five  books.  This  division  was 
probably  due  to  the  similar  division  of  the  Pen- 
tateuch, and  dates  back  to  a  period  before  the 
LXX.  translation. 

Book  I.  contains  Ps.  1-41.  Thirty-seven  of  the 
psalms  in  this  book  are  ascribed  in  the  titles 
to  David.  Ps.  1  and  2  are  without  titles.  Ps.  33 
has  no  superscription  in  the  Hebrew,  but  in  the 
LXX.  is  ascribed  to  David.  Ps.  2,  10,  and  22  are 
Messianic,  and  probably  Ps.  8  (see  Heb.  2);  so 
also  Ps.  40.  In  this  book  the  usual  title  of  God 
is  Jehovah;  Elohim  is  rarely  used. 

Book  II.  comprises  Ps.  42-72.  In  this  book  Ps. 
42-49  are  ascribed  to  the  sons  of  Korah,  Ps.  50  to 
Asaph,  and  Ps.  51-65  and  68-30  to  David.  Ps.  06,  67, 
and  71  are  without  titles,  and  Ps.  72  is  headed 
"A  Psalm  of  Solomon."  Ps.  67  is  ascribed  in  the 
LXX.  to  David.  Ps.  43  probably  forms  part  of 
Ps.  42;  the  former  is  without  a  title,  and  in 
some  Hebrew  MSS.  is  united  with  Ps.  42.  In 
the  majority  of  the  psalms  in  this  book  the 
divine  title  Elohim  is  used,  Jehovah  being  em- 
ployed only  thirty  times.  Two  psalms  which 
are  in  Book  I.  Jehovistic  (Ps.  14  and  40:  13-17)  are 
here  Elohistic,  viz.,  Ps.  53  and  70.  The  Messianic 
Psalm  is  Ps.  72,  but  the  New  Testament  recog- 
nizes Messianic  elements  in  Ps.  45,  68,  and  69. 

Book  III.  consists  of  Ps.  73-89.  Ps.  73-83  inclu- 
sive are  ascribed  to  Asaph ;  Ps.  84, 85,  and  87  to  the 
sons  of  Korah.  Ps.  86  is  entitled  "A  Prai/cr  of 
David."  Ps.  88  is  assigned  both  to  the  sons  of 
Korah  and  to  Reman  the  Ezrahite;  and  Ps.  89 
to  Ethan  the  Ezrahite.  Ps.  89  is  applied  to  the 
Messiah  in  the  New  Testament. 

Book  IV.  contains  Ps.  90-106.    Ps.  90  is  ascribed 



in  the  title  to  "Moses  the  man  of  God,"  and  Ps.  101 
and  103  to  David.  All  the  others  are  anonymous, 
though  the  LXX.  assigns  91,  93-99,  and  104  to 
David.  Ps.  91  is  applied  to  the  Messiah  in  the 
New  Testament. 

Book  V.  comprises  Ps.  107  to  end.  Fifteen  of 
these  are,  according  to  the  Hebrew  titles,  Da- 
vidic.  One  (Ps.  127)  is  Solomonic.  Ps.  116  and 
147  are  each  divided  into  two  psalms  in  the 
LXX.  version.  The  titles  prefixed  to  the  psalms 
in  this  book  in  the  LXX.,  Syriac,  and  Vulgate 
versions  differ  considerably  from  those  in  the 
Hebrew.  Ps.110  is  an  important  Messianic  psalm, 
and  Messianic  elements  are  recognized  in  the 
New  Testament  in  Ps.  113.  The  fifteen  psalms 
120-134  are  entitled  "Songs  of  Degrees."  These 
psalms  were  probably  intended  to  be  sung  by 
the  pilgrims  on  their  way  to  Jerusalem. 

At  the  end  of  each  of  the  first  four  books  of 
the  Psalter  a  doxology  is  inserted,  which  in 
each  case  serves  to  conclude  the  book.  Those 
doxologies  are  found  in  all  the  ancient  versions, 
and  are  an  evidence  of  the  antiquity  of  the  five- 
fold division. 

In  the  Hebrew,  the  book  of  Psalms  contains 
150  psalms.  The  same  number  is  also  found  in 
the  LXX.,  but  it  is  obtained  in  that  version  by 
uniting  Ps.  9  and  10,  and  114  and  115,  and  by  sep- 
arating Ps.  116  and  147  each  into  two  psalms. 
The  oldest  Jewish  tradition  gives  the  number 
of  psalms  as  147,  corresponding  to  "  the  years  of 
the  life  of  our  father  Jacob"  (Jer.  Talmud,  Shab- 
batJi,  16:  1).  In  old  Hebrew  MSS.  a  lower  num- 
ber than  150  is  often  found,  two  psalms  being 
united  into  one,  e.  g.. Ps.  42  and  43,  and  others. 
The  LXX.  adds  after  Ps.  150  an  additional  psalm, 
stated  in  the  title  to  be  "outside  the  number,"  and 
ascribed  to  David,  "when  he  fought  in  single  com- 
bat with  Goliath." 

The  Titles.— Only  thirty-four  psalms  are  with- 
out titles.  The  superscriptions  of  the  others  in- 
dicate : 

1.  The  liturgical  character  of  the  psalm,  e.g., 
"For  the  precentor,"  or  "chief  musician,"  or  the 
musical  or  religious  features  of  the  psalm, 
"a  maschil,"  "a  shiggaion,"  "a  michtam,"  "a 
prayer,"  "  a  song  of  praise." 

2.  The  instrument  to  be  used  in  playing  the 
accompaniment  to  the  psalm. 

3.  The  measure  or  melody  to  which  it  was 
to  be  sung. 

4.  The  event  which  prompted  the  composi- 
tion of  the  psalm,  or  the  occasion  on  which  it 
was  to  be  used  (e.g.,  the  "Songs of  Degrees";  see 
above).  In  some  cases  the  psalm  is  provided 
with  two  titles  {e.g.,  Ps.  88). 

5.  The  author;  the  following  being  named, 
in  the  superscriptions  in  the  Hebrew  Bible,  as 
authors  of  the  Psalms:  Moses  (one),  Solomon 
(two),  Asaph  (twelve),  Heman  the  Ezrahite  (one), 
Ethan  the  Ezrahite  (one),  the  sons  of  Korah  (ten), 
and  David  (seventy-three,  thirty-seven  of  which 
are  found  in  the  first  book).  The  value  of  these 
titles  is  variously  estimated.  Those  relating 
to  the  musical  and  liturgical  directions  proba- 
bly date  from  the  period  of  the  second  temple. 
The  titles  containing  historical  notices  are  also 
probably  of  late  date,  and  are  not  decisive  as  to 
the  authorship,  though  they  may  in  some  cases 
embody  reliable  information. 

Characteristics.— The  subject-matter  of  the 
Psalter  is  varied.  It  contains  prayers,  songs  of 
praise,  lamentations,  reflections  on  God's  prov- 
idence and  his  moral  government  of  the 
world,  expressions  of  faith,  resignation,  joy  in 
God's  presence;  psalms  referring  to  the  personal 
circumstances  of  the  psalmist;  national,  histor- 
ical, and  royal  psalms  (many  of  Messianic  im- 
port); others  of  a  didactic  character,  referring 
to  matters  of  religion  or  morality.  The  theol- 
ogy of  the  Psalter  does  not  differ  from  that  of 
the  prophetical  books.  The  psalms  were  used 
both  in  the  public  services  of  the  Israelites  and 
also  in  their  private  devotions,  and  afford  a 

striking  picture  of  the  religious  life  and  thought 
of  the  pious  portion  of  Israel. 


Name.— The  Hebrew  title  of  the  book  is  Mishle, 
the  singular  of  which  is  mashal,  usually  trans- 
lated "proverb."  The  word  really  signifies  "  like- 
ness," and  then  a  similitude  or  parable.  It  is 
frequently  employed  for  short  maxims  or  sen- 
tentious sayings,  which  often  consist  in  com- 
parisons, or  for  longer  or  shorter  didactic  poems. 

Authorship  and  Date.— The  authorship  and 
date  of  the  various  parts  of  the  book  of  Proverbs 
are  a  matter  of  uncertainty.  The  book  seems  to 
have  been  gradually  formed.  According  to  the 
commonly  accepted  view,  chs.  10-22:  16  are  the 
oldest  collection,  and  may  (cf.  the  title)  contain, 
in  the  main,  proverbs  by  Solomon.  Chs.  1-9 
seem  to  be  the  work  of  an  unknown  author, 
who  probably  composed  this  section  as  an  intro- 
duction to  chs.  10-22:  16.  Some  consider  that  the 
writer  of  this  portion  (chs.  1-9)  was  the  editor 
of  the  whole  book,  and  fix  the  date  a  short 
time  prior  to  the  exile.  Chs.  22:  17-24:  22  and 
24:  23-34  are  both  anonymous.  Their  date  is 
uncertain,  but  it  is  considered  by  many  to  be  in 
the  time  of  Hezekiah.  Chs.  25-29  are  assigned 
to  Solomon.  Some  suppose  this  collection  was 
made  at  the  time  of  Hezekiah.  Of  the  remain- 
ing three  chapters  the  first  two  are  assigned  to 
Agur  and  Lemuel  respectively;  the  third  is 
anonymous.  The  date  at  which  these  several 
sections  were  put  together  cannot  be  definitely 
ascertained.  Several  proverbs  are  extant  in  the 
LXX.  version  which  do  not  occur  in  the  Hebrew 
text.  The  order  of  the  chapters  in  that  transla- 
tion is  also  different. 

Contents.— The  book  falls  into  eight  parts: 
(1)  Chs.  1-10.  Ch.  1:  1-7  contains  the  title, 
"The  proverbs  of  Solomon  the  son  of  David,"  etc., 
and  is  of  the  nature  of  a  preface,  indicating  the 
aim  and  object  of  the  book.  The  remaining  por- 
tion of  the  section  forms  a  connected  poem  in 
praise  of  wisdom.  (2)  Chs.  10-22 :  16  bear  the  title, 
"The  proverbs  of  Solomon,"  and  form  the  first  col- 
lection of  Solomonic  sayings.  Each  mashal,  or 
proverb,  is  contained  in  one  verse,  consisting 
of  two  clauses,  of  which  the  second  generally 
forms  the  contrast,  or  antithesis,  of  the  first. 
This  section  consists  of  ethical  maxims,  but 
loosely  connected  with  one  another.  (3)  Chs. 
22 :  17-24 :  22  form  a  better  connected  whole  than 
the  preceding  section,  and  consist  of  pre- 
cepts and  admonitions  relating  to  justice  and 
prudence.  (4)  Ch.  24 :  23-34  forms  an  appendix  to 
(3)  and  is  entitled,  "These  things  also  belong  to 
the  wise."  (5)  Chs.  25-29  form  the  second  col- 
lection of  Solomonic  sayings,  and  have  the  su- 
perscription, "These  are  also  proverbs  of  Solomon, 
which  the  men  of  Hezekiah  king  of  Judah  copied 
out."  The  "men  of  Hezekiah  "  were  probably  a 
band  of  scribes  or  a  literary  college,  established 
by  that  monarch,  to  whose  care  were  entrusted 
the  sacred  writings  of  the  nation  and  the  task 
of  editing  them.  The  proverbs  in  this  part  are 
contained  in  verses  consisting  of  two  to  five 
lines.  The  section  also  includes  a  short  poem  in 
ten  lines  (27:  23-27)  on  the  value  of  industry. 
With  this  may  be  compared  the  poems  in  ch. 
23:29-35  (on  drunkenness),  and  in  ch.  24:30-34 
(on  the  sluggard).  (6)  Ch.  30  is  the  first  of 
three  appendices  which  form  the  conclusion 
of  the  book.  The  proverbs  in  this  chapter  are 
attributed  to  "Agur  the  son  of  Jakeh."  (7)  Ch. 
31 : 1-9  forms  the  second  appendix,  and  bears  the 
title,  "The  words  of  King  Lemuel,  the  prophecy  that 
his  mother  taught  him."  We  know  nothing  about 
these  two  writers.  (8)  Contains  the  third  appen- 
dix, ch.  31:  10-31,  a  didactic  poem,  the  verses 
of  which  are  arranged  alphabetically,— whose 
theme  is  the  praise  of  a  virtuous  woman.  Many 
proverbs  in  the  book  are  repeated  in  an  identi- 
cal form,  or  with  but  slight  variations  (e.  g.,  14: 



12  and  16:  25  ;  25:24  arid  21:  9;  19:24  and  26: 15;  12: 
11  and  28: 19,  etc.);  in  other  cases  a  part  of  the 
proverb  is  repeated  (e.  g.,  10: 15  and  18:  11;  12:  14 
and  13:  2,  etc.);  and  in  others  the  wording  of  the 
proverb  is  similar,  but  the  subject  different  {e.  g., 
13: 14  and  14:  27;  17: 15&  and  20: 10b). 


The  Title.— The  book  of  Ecclesiastes,  like  Prov- 
erbs, is  one  of  the  class  of  didactic  compositions, 
or  mashals  (see  on  Proverbs).  It  does  not,  however, 
like  that  work,  consist  of  a  number  of  maxims 
loosely  connected  with  one  another,  but  forms  a 
continuous  soliloquy  on  the  vanity  of  human 
wishes,  put  by  the  author  into  the  mouth  of  Solo- 
mon, the  wise  king  of  Israel.  The  title  assigned  to 
the  king  in  the  book  is  Koheleth.  In  the  LXX.  it  is 
Ecclesiastes,  in  the  English  A.V.  it  is  The  Preacher, 
while  the  R.V.  (margin)  gives  it  The  Great  Orator. 

Author.— The  common  opinion  in  ancient 
times  was  that  the  author  of  the  book  was  King 
Solomon.  That  opinion  was  not  entirely  ac- 
cepted by  Jewish  scholars.  The  language  of 
Ecclesiastes  is  unique.  In  many  of  its  features 
it  bears  a  strong  resemblance  to  the  later  books 
of  the  Old  Testament;  in  others  it  approximates 
to  the  language  of  post-biblical  literature. 

Contents.— The  book  is  a  discussion  of  the  prob- 
lem, Can  the  world  without  God  meet  man's 
need?  can  man  truly  live  without  God?  The 
conclusion  is,  "All  is  vanity,"  unless  man  "fears 
God  and  keeps  his  commandments."  In  chs. 
1  and  2  the  writer  demonstrates  the  "  vanity 
of  all  things  "  by  illustrations  drawn  from  the 
fields  of  human  activity;  man's  labor,  the  pur- 
suit of  wisdom,  or  pleasure,  or  riches,  are  all  of 
no  avail,  for  the  end  of  the  wise  and  foolish 
is  the  same,  and  riches,  amassed  with  toil  and 
care,  bring  no  satisfaction.  In  ch.  3:1-15  he 
indicates  that  everything  has  its  own  proper 
time  and  season,  but  who  can  be  certain  that 
he  has  discovered  this  season?  Man's  efforts  to 
grasp  success  are  thus  of  no  avail,  and  all  he 
can  do  is  to  enjoy  the  present.  In  ch.  3: 16-22 
he  contrasts  the  lot  of  man  with  that  of  the 
beasts  that  perish ;  the  fate  of  both  seems  alike, 
and  he  again  draws  the  same  conclusion, — to 
enjoy  the  present.  In  ch.  4: 1-3  he  depicts  the 
evils  of  oppression,  for  which  there  is  no  re- 
dress, (vs.  4-6)  of  rivalry,  (vs.  7-12)  of  isolation,  and 
(vs.  13-16)  the  vanity  of  political  life.  In  ch.  5 : 1-9 
he  points  out  how  certain  of  the  vexations  of 
life  may  be  avoided  by  care  and  prudence,  and 
in  vs.  10-17  moralizes  on  the  vanity  of  riches, 
which  are  often  fraught  with  care  and  trouble, 
and  (vs.  18-20)  can  only  be  regarded  as  blessings 
when  God  grants  the  opportunity  and  power  to 
enjoy  them.  This,  however  (6 : 1-6)  God  often  de- 
nies, and  (vs.  7-9),  though  man  toils  and  labors, 
he  cannot  obtain  his  desire,  for  (vs.  10-12)  he 
is  powerless  to  contend  with  "him  that  is  might- 
ier than  he."  In  ch.  7: 1-24  the  writer  points  out 
how  a  man  may  alleviate  the  troubles  of  life  by 
avoiding  frivolity  and  practicing  patience  and 
resignation,  and  instead  of  brooding  over  the 
ills  of  life,  by  seeking  after  wisdom,  which, 
though  difficult  to  find,  is  the  best  guide  for 
man.  In  vs.  25-29  he  emphatically  insists  on 
the  fact  that  one  of  the  greatest  hindrances  to 
human  happiness  is  the  wicked  woman,  "whose 
heart  is  snares  and  nets,  and  her  hands  as  bands." 
In  ch.  8 : 1-9  the  writer  urges  prudence  in  all  mat- 
ters affecting  the  king  and  those  in  author- 
ity. The  memory  of  the  righteous  (vs.  10-15) 
speedily  passes  away,  while  the  wicked  are  hon- 
ored and  rewarded,  so  that  man's  best  course  is 
to  derive  all  the  enjoyment  he  can  from  life 
while  God  permits  him.  Chs.  8:16-9:6,  man's 
efforts  to  grasp  God's  purposes  are  of  no  avail, 
life  is  uaught  but  evil,  and  death  quickly  comes, 
with  no  certain  hope  of  Immortality  (a  judg- 
ment to  come  is  affirmed  in  ch.  12: 14);  therefore 
(9:  7-10)  man  must  get  all  the  pleasure  he  can  out 

of  life.  In  ch.  4:  11-16  he  points  out  that  merit 
is  not  always  sufficiently  rewarded;  wisdom  is 
often  of  more  avail  than  strength,  yet  wisdom, 
that  has  accomplished  much,  is  often  forgotten. 
Chs.  9:  17-10:  15  form  a  collection  of  proverbs  on 
wisdom  and  the  consequences  of  folly,  and  (vs.  16- 
20)  the  wretched  condition  of  a  country  under  the 
rule  of  a  feeble  king.  In  ch.  11:  1-8  the  writer 
urges  the  importance  of  benevolence,  and  that 
life,  in  spite  of  its  troubles,  ought  to  be  enjoyed. 
Especially  (11:  9-12:  8)  ought  the  young  man  to 
rejoice  in  the  season  of  ais  youth,  before  old  age 
overtakes  him;  yet  in  his  joy  he  should  not  be 
unmindful  of  God,  who  created  him.  The  book 
concludes  with  the  epilogue,  ch.  12:  8-11.  The  drift 
of  the  book  is,  briefly,  that  life  is  full  of  disap- 
pointment and  dissatisfaction ;  man  should  seek 
to  enjoy  in  moderation  the  blessings  God  has 
granted  unto  him,  making  the  approval  of  God 
his  great  object,  knowing  that  after  death  there 
is  a  j  udgment. 


Name  and  Author.—  The  Song  of  Songs  (A.  V., 
The  Song  of  Solo?non)  is  in  the  Hebrew  caiion  the 
first  of  the  five  Megilloth,  and  is  annually  read 
by  the  Jews  in  their  synagogues  at  the  Feast  of  the 
Passover.  The  traditional  view  is  that  the  author 
is  Solomon,  appeal  being  made  to  evidences  in- 
ternal and  external.  There  is  no  ground  for  as- 
suming that  the  book  is  exilic  or  post-exilic. 

Structure.— It  was  formerly  supposed  that  the 
book  consisted  of  a  number  of  independent  songs, 
which  were  only  united  together  by  a  common 
subject.  It  is  now  generally  admitted  that  the 
song  is  a  single  poem,  the  production  of  one  au- 
thor. The  structure  of  the  book  is  dramatic,  and 
by  some  supposed  to  have  been  designed  for  the 
stage;  but  that  view  is  erroneous.  Different  parts 
of  the  poem  are  put  in  the  mouths  of  various 
speakers;  but  opinions  differ  as  to  who  the 
speakers  are,  and  how  the  various  parts  of  the 
song  are  to  be  distributed  among  them.  The  poem 
is  divided  into  twelve  scenes,  each  commencing 
and  ending  with  a  sort  of  refrain,  which  sepa- 
rates one  scene  from  the  preceding  and  follow- 
ing. The  author  was  attached  to  the  charms  of 
country  life,  and  the  images  and  comparisons 
used  are  striking  and  picturesque.  The  tend- 
ency of  the  poem  is  didactic.  A  noteworthy 
element  throughout  the  poem  is  the  chorus, 
which  is  composed  of  the  daughters  of  Jerusalem. 

Interpretations.— Various  interpretations 
have  been  given :  (1)  According  to  the  old  opin- 
ion there  are  only  tAVO  principal  characters, 
King  Solomon  and  a  Shulamite  maiden,  of 
whom  the  king  was  enamored.  The  conclusion 
expresses  in  glowing  terms  the  superiority  of 
pure  and  genuine  affection  over  that  which 
may  be  obtained  by  wealth  and  position.  (2) 
It  has  been  thought  to  be  an  ode  composed  at 
the  marriage  of  Solomon  with  Pharaoh's  daugh- 
ter. (3)  From  ch.  6:  4  it  has  been  suggested  that 
it  was  designed  to  bring  together  again  the 
tribes  of  Israel.  (4)  The  poem  may  be  inter- 
preted literally.  Whether  the  allegorical  inter- 
pretation, dating  back  to  the  Targum,  and  fre- 
quently adopted  by  many  ancient  and  modern 
scholars,  is  admissible  is  another  question.  Ps. 
45 is  a  proof  that  it  is  easy  to  pass  from  the  literal 
sense  to  the  allegorical.  And  though  some,  in 
interpreting  the  poem  allegorically,  have  been 
led  into  extravagance,  it  is  a  fact  that  Christ's 
love  to  his  redeemed  church  is  in  the  New  Tes- 
tament compared  to  conjugal  love. 


I.     ISAIAH. 

Author.— Little  is  known  of  the  details  of 
Isaiah's  life.     From   the   book  itself  we  learn 



that  he  received  the  prophetic  call  in  the  last 
year  of  King  Uzziah's  reign  (6: 1),  and  prophesied 
during  the  reigns  of  the  three  following  kings, 
Jotham,  Ahaz,  and  Hezekiah  (1: 1).  He  was  the 
son  of  Amoz  (a  name  distinct  from  that  of  the 
prophet  Amos),  who  is  otherwise  unknown;  he 
was  married  (8:  3),  and  had  (at  least)  two  sons 
(7:  8-8:  1-4).  Assuming  that  he  was  twenty  or 
twenty-one  years  old  when  he  began  his  pro- 
phetic career,  he  must  have  been  over  eighty 
years  of  age  when  he  died,  or  suffered  martyr- 
dom (cf.  Heb.  11:  37),  shortly  after  Manasseh's 
accession  to  the  throne.  According  to  II.  Chr. 
20:  22,  Isaiah  was  also  the  author  of  a  history 
of  Uzziah's  reign,  and  in  II.  Chr.  82:  82  allusion 
is  made  to  a  "vision  of  Isaiah,"  which  contained 
an  account  of  the  reign  of  Hezekiah,  and  formed 
part  of  the  lost  book  of  "  the  kings  of  Judah  and 
Israel"  (see  on  Chronicles).  Nothing  further, 
however,  is  known  concerning  these  two  books. 

Authorship.— The  question  of  the  authorship 
of  the  second  part  of  the  book  has  been  dis- 
cussed by  many  scholars,  though  none  doubt  the 
inspiration.  The  difference  in  the  prophet's 
standpoint,  the  dissimilarity  in  thought  and 
language  in  the  second  portion  of  the  book,  and 
the  marked  advance  in  the  writer's  theology 
in  chs.  40-66,  as  compared  with  the  passages 
that  are  undoubtedly  Isaiah's,  have  led  many 
modern  scholars  to  assume  that  these  last  chap- 
ters were  not  composed  by  Isaiah,  but  by  some 
unknown  prophet,  who  wrote  after  the  exile, 
but  before  the  restoration.  The  differences  in 
the  style  and  standpoint  of  the  prophet  cannot 
be  denied,  but  are  perfectly  consistent  with  the 
unity  of  authorship.  If  Isaiah  was  their  author, 
they  must  have  been  composed  in  the  prophet's 
old  age,  when  it  is  not  difficult  to  suppose  that, 
having  meditated  long  and  sorrowfully  over 
the  approaching  misfortunes  of  his  compatri- 
ots, he  might  well  have  been  transported  in 
spirit  to  the  closing  days  of  that  period  of  dis- 
grace and  humiliation.  If  he  predicted  the 
Babylonian  captivity  (cf.  ch.  39,  an  admitted 
Isaianic  passage),  why  is  it  impossible  that  he 
should  have  predicted  the  return?  If  the  style 
of  chs.  40-66  differs  from  that  of  prophecies 
which  are  generally  admitted  to  be  Isaiah's, 
there  are  also,  on  the  other  hand,  many  similar- 
ities between  the  genuine  and  disputed  pas- 
sages. Is  it  possible  that  the  name  of  the  writer 
of  one  of  the  most  striking  Hebrew  prophecies 
could  have  vanished  without  the  slightest  trace  ? 
Forty-seven  of  the  sixty-six  chapters  are  quoted 
in  the  New  Testament,  and  our  Lord  refers  to 
these  portions.  The  voice  of  antiquity  is  unan- 
imous in  assigning  the  whole  book  to  Isaiah, 
and  the  question  of  a  double  authorship  has 
only  been  raised  in  comparati  vely  modern  times. 

Contents.— The  book  falls  into  two  main  divi- 
sions, (1)  chs.  1-39  and  (2)  chs.  40-66.  (1)  The  former 
refers  for  the  most  part  to  the  kingdom  of  Assyr- 
ia, the  latter  to  that  of  Babylonia.  The  first 
part  may  be  subdivided  as  follows:  (a)  Chs. 
1-6,  prophecies  against  the  sinful  and  idolatrous 
people,  ib)  Chs.  7-12,  prophecies  belonging  to 
the  period  of  the  Syro-Ephraimitish  war;  the 
prophecy  of  Immanuel,  and  the  downfall  of  the 
Assyrians,  (c)  Chs.  13-23,  prophetic  utterances 
relating  chiefly  to  foreign  nations,  viz.:  chs. 
12-14 :  23,  against  Babylon ;  ch.  14 :  24-27,  against 
the  Assyrian;  ch.  14:28-32,  against  Philistia;  chs. 
15  and  16,  against  Moab;  ch.  17,  against  Da- 
mascus; ch.  18,  concerning  Ethiopia;  ch.  19, 
against  Egypt;  ch.  20,  against  Ashdod;  ch.  21, 
on  Babylon,  Dumah  (Edom),  and  Arabia.  In 
ch.  22 :  1-14  the  prophet  rebukes  the  attitude 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem,  and  in  vs. 
15-25  announces  the  downfall  of  Shebna,  the 
treasurer  (this  chapter  is  perhaps  inserted  here 
owing  to  the  similarity  of  its  title  to  that  of 
ch.  21);  ch.  23,  on  Tyre,  (d)  Chs.  24-27  form  a 
single  prophecy,  announcing  God's  judgment 
upon  the  world,  and  the  establishment  of  his 

kingdom  in  Jerusalem,  (e)  Chs.  28-33  are  a  group 
of  prophecies  against  Samaria  and  Judah,  in 
which  the  prophet  condemns  the  policy  of 
relying  on  Egypt  for  help,  and  describes  the 
overthrow  of  Sennacherib  and  the  deliverance 
of  Jerusalem.  (/)  Chs.  84  and  35,  judgment  on 
the  nations  (with  special  reference  to  Edom),  and 
the  joyous  return  of  Israel  to  its  fatherland,  (g) 
Chs.  34-39,  an  historical  section,  identical  in  the 
main  with  II.  Ki.  18-20.  Ch.  39 :  9-20  contains  the 
psalm  of  Hezekiah,  not  found  in  the  parallel 
section  in  II.  Kings.  (2)  The  second  part  of 
Isaiah  is  a  continuous  prophecy  (chs.  40-66),  the 
subject  of  which  is  the  restoration  of  Israel 
from  the  Babylonian  captivity.  It  may  be  sub- 
divided into  three  parts:  (a)  Chs.  40-48,  in  which 
the  prophet  emphasizes  the  certainty  of  the  ap- 
proaching release  from  exile,  assures  the 
people  that  nothing  can  hinder  their  deliver- 
ance, and  in  proof  of  this  statement  points 
out  the  power  of  Jehovah  to  fulfill  his  prom- 
ises, and  the  impotence  of  the  gods  of  the 
heathen.  (&)  Chs.  49-57,  the  prophecy  of  the  serv- 
ant of  Jehovah,  his  sufferings  and  glory.  This 
title  has  three  different  applications.  It  is  used 
of  Israel  in  general  (e.g.,  42:  19),  of  the  righteous 
in  Israel  (cf.  44:  1,  2,  21),  and  of  the  personal  Mes- 
siah (chs.  49-57;  cf.  42:  1-43:  10).  (c)  Chs.  58-66,  the 
restoration  of  Zion,  the  felicity  of  the  Israelites 
admitted  to  be  its  citizens,  and  the  condemna- 
tion and  overthrow  of  the  enemies  of  Jehovah. 


Author.— Jeremiah  was  the  son  of  Hilkiah, 
uone  of  the  priests  that  were  in  Anathoth,"  a  town 
in  the  tribe  of  Benjamin,  a  short  distance  north 
of  Jerusalem.  He  was  a  young  man  (1 :  6)  when 
he  made  his  first  appearance  as  a  prophet,  in 
the  thirteenth  year  of  King  Josiah  (626  B.C. ;  cf. 
1:2;  25:  3),  and  prophesied  chiefly  in  Jerusalem, 
although  from  chs.  11 :  21  and  37 :  12  he  does  not 
seem  to  have  severed  his  connection  with  his 
native  place,  Anathoth.  After  the  destruction 
of  Jerusalem  by  Nebuchadnezzar,  he  resided  in 
Mizpah  (40 :  6),  and  after  the  murder  of  Gedaliah, 
was  carried  off  against  his  will  to  Egypt  (43 :  6  IT.), 
where,  according  to  a  later  tradition,  he  was 
stoned  to  death  by  the  Jews,  at  Tahpanhes  or 
Daphne,  on  account  of  his  prophecies. 

Preservation.— The  first  collection  of  prophe- 
cies by  Jeremiah  was,  as  we  learn  from  ch.  36, 
destroyed  by  King  Jehoiakim.  In  consequence 
of  this,  Jeremiah,  assisted  by  his  amanuensis, 
Baruch,  prepared  another  copy  of  uall  the  words 
of  the  book  ivhich  Jehoiakim  king  of  Judah  had 
burned  in  the  fire,"  making  additions  to  what  he 
had  previously  written.  That  roll  contained  the 
prophecies  that  belong  to  the  first  twenty-three 
years  of  the  ministry  of  Jeremiah,  and  as  it  is 
clear  that  they  were  subjected  to  revision  after 
delivery,  it  is  probable  other  prophetic  speeches 
in  the  book  underwent  revision. 

Occasion.— The  prophet  was  much  impressed 
by  the  sad  scenes  that  he  saw.  The  backsliding 
and  lapses  into  sin  on  the  part  of  Israel,  the  re- 
fusal to  give  heed  to  the  warnings  uttered,  the 
persecutions  and  trials  to  which  he  was  sub- 
jected at  the  hands  of  his  fellow  countrymen, 
are  all  reflected  in  Jeremiah's  writings.  He 
foresaw  the  ruin  of  his  country,  and  lamented 
it  bitterly.  His  patriotism  was  great,  and  the 
accusations  brought  against  him  by  those 
whom  he  warned  of  impending  disaster  were 
quite  destitute  of  foundation  (cf.  ch.  9).  He 
persisted  in  his  warnings  and  exhortations, 
looking  forward  in  hope  to  the  renewal  of  God's 
covenant  with  his  people,  and  the  restoration 
that  he  predicted  for  his  chosen  people  Israel. 
The  Messiah  is  alluded  to  in  chs.  23:  5-8;  30:  4-11; 
83: 14-26,  but  less  is  said  regarding  his  personality 
than  we  find  in  the  other  prophets. 

Summary.— The  book  may  be  divided  into  two 
parts:    (1)  Chs.  1-45  comprise  for  the  most  part 



prophecies  relating  to  Juclah  and  the  kingdom 
of  God.  They  also  contain  much  information 
Respecting  the  personal  history  of  the  prophet, 
and  the  events  that  happened  during  his  minis- 
try (cf.  11:  21;  20:  1-3;  2(5,  28,  36-43:  8).  (2)  Chs. 
46-51  consist  of  nine  discourses  against  foreign 
nations,  together  with  eh.  52,  which  was  un- 
doubtedly added  at  a  later  date  (after  B.O.  562,  as 
is  clear  from  51 :  64  compared  with  52:  31  if.\  and 
which  exhibits  a  close  resemblance  to  II.  Ki.  24: 
18-25:  30.  The  prophecies,  as  we  now  have  them, 
do  not  appear  to  be  arranged  in  chronological 


Title  and  Author.— The  book  is  entitled  in  the 
Hebrew  Bible  Echah,  from  its  initial  word,  and 
it  is  placed,  as  one  of  the  five  Megilloth,  among 
the  Hagiographa.  In  the  LXX.,  Targum,  and 
Talmud,  Jeremiah  is  regarded  as  the  author  of 
the  book.  This  view  is  perhaps  due  to  the  re- 
semblance the  poems  have  to  Jeremiah's  proph- 
ecies, and  is  adopted  by  many  modern  scholars. 
In  II.  Chr.  35:  25  it  is  stated  that  Jeremiah  la- 
mented the  death  of  King  Josiah,  but  the  "  lam- 
entations" referred  to  in  that  passage  are  not  ex- 

Summary.— The  book  consists  of  five  separate 
poems,  the  subject  of  which  is  the  destruction 
of  Jerusalem  by  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  the  mis- 
fortunes that  followed  that  event.  The  first  four 
poems  are  arranged  alphabetically.  In  chs.  1, 
2,  and  4,  each  of  which  consists  of  twenty-two 
verses,  the  first  letter  of  every  verse  commences 
with  the  corresponding  letter  of  the  Hebrew 
alphabet.  Ch.  3  consists  of  sixty-six  verses,  and 
three  verses,  each  beginning  with  the  same 
letter,  are  assigned  to  each  successive  letter  of 
the  alphabet,  so  that  there  is  a  threefold  alpha- 
betical arrangement  in  that  chapter.  In  ch.  5 
there  are  twenty-two  verses,  but  they  are  not 
arranged  alphabetically. 


Author.— Ezeki el  was  one  of  those  who  were 
carried  captive  to  Babylonia  with  King  Jehoia- 
chin,  B.C.  597,  and  lived  there  at  Tel-abib,  on  the 
banks  of  the  canal  or  river  of  Chebar,  a  name 
which  is  distinct  from  Habor,  a  river  men- 
tioned in  II.  Ki.  17:  6;  18 :  11.  He  was  a  priest, 
the  son  of  Buzi  (1:  3),  and  as  such  belonged  to 
the  aristocracy  of  Jerusalem.  He  received  the 
prophetic  call  in  the  fifth  year  of  the  captivity 
(1:  2),  and  prophesied  for  at  least  twenty-two 
years  among  his  fellow  exiles  (cf.  29: 17;  his  last 
dated  prophecy  was  in  the  twenty-seventh  year 
of  the  captivity).  His  prophetic  ministry  was 
possibly  of  longer  duration.  As  to  his  subse- 
quent fate  nothing  is  known.  An  uncertain 
tradition  states  that  he  died  a  martyr's  death 
at  the  hands  of  his  fellow  exiles,  who  resented 
the  tone  of  his  prophecies.  He  was  a  younger 
contemporary  of  Jeremiah,  and,  like  him,  proph- 
esied both  before  and  after  the  destruction  of 
.Jerusalem  by  the  Chaldeans.  His  prophecies, 
however,  were  all  composed  in  Babylonia.  The 
Jews  regarded  the  book  as  one  of  the  most  diffi- 
cu  1 1  i  n  t  he  Hebrew  canon,  and  so  would  not  allow 
any  person  under  thirty  years  of  agetostudy  it. 

Analysis.— The  book  may  be  divided  into  three 
parts,  each  dealing  with  a  different  subject:  (1) 
(  lis.  1-2-1,  the  impending  downfall  of  Jerusalem. 
(a)  Chs.  1-3:  21  contain  an  account  of  the  proph- 
et's call,  and  the  wonderful  vision  of  the  four 
living  creatures  (cherubim),  with  the  four  faces, 
and  four  wings  encircling  the  four-wheeled  char- 
iot, (b)  Chs.  3:  22-7  are  a  symbolic  description  of 
the  fate  of  Jerusalem,  (c)  Chs.  8-11,  a  vision  of 
the  dest  ruction  of  Jerusalem,  (d)  Chs.  12-24,  the 
certainty  of  the  impending  ruin  is  further  dem- 
onstrated by  the  prophet.  Its  ground  is  the  na- 
tion's sinfulness.  The  song  in  ch.  21,  the  allegory 
in  ch.  23,  and  the  parable  in  ch.  24:  1-14,  are  all 

cbafracterisl  ic  of  the  prophet.  (2)  Chs.  25-32,  the 
prophecies  against  the  foreign  nations  who  re- 
joice at  the  fall  of  Jerusalem  and  regard  it  as  a 
sign  that  Jehovah  cannot  defend  his  city.  Jeho- 
vah will  bring  a  similar  misfortune  upon  them. 
(a)  Ch.  25: 1-7,  against  Amnion  ;  (b)  vs.  8-11,  against 
Moab;  (c)  vs.  12-14,  concerning  Edom;  (d)  vs.  15-17, 
on  the  Philistines;  (e)  chs.  20-28: 19,  against  Tyre; 
(/)  28:  20-2(1,  against  Bidon;  (g)  chs.  29-32,  prophe- 
cies against  Egypt.  (3)  Chs.  33-47,  Israel's  restora- 
lion.  (a)  Ch.  33  (which  was  probably  delivered 
shortly  before  the  news  of  the  capture  of  Jeru- 
salem) describes  the  duties  of  the  prophet  to- 
wards the  people,  {b)  Ch.  34,  the  bad  shepherd 
and  the  good  shepherd;  the  advent  of  the  Mes- 
siah (God's  servant  David),  (c)  Chs.  35-30 :  15, 
Edom,  on  account  of  its  hostility  to  Israel,  will 
become  an  utter  desolation,  but  the  land  of  Israel 
shall  again  be  peopled  with  those  of  the  house  of 
David,  and  its  ruins  rebuilt,  (d)  Ch.  30 :  10-38,  the 
reason  why  Israel  is  to  be  restored,  (e)  Ch.  37: 
1-14,  the  vision  of  the  dry  bones  in  the  valley; 
the  resurrection  of  all  Israel  to  a  new  life,  and 
(vs.  15-28)  the  reunion  of  Ephraim  and  Judah, 
who  will  be  united  together  under  the  rule  of 
the  Messianic  king.  (/)  Chs.  38  and  39,  Jehovah's 
filial  triumph  over  the  wrorld  is  set  forth  in  the 
allegory  of  Gog  and  Magog,  (g)  Chs.  40-43  describe 
the  building  and  dedication  of  a  new  temple. 
(7i)  Chs.  44-46  give  the  order  of  divine  service, 
the  position  of  strangers,  Levites,  and  priests  in 
the  sanctuary;  ordinances  with  reference  to  the 
sacrifices,  (i)  Ch.  47:  1-12,  the  stream  of  living 
water  that  Hows  from  the  sanctuary,  (j)  Chs. 
47:  13-48,  the  boundaries  and  divisions  of  the 
Holy  Land.  These  chapters  (40-48),  are  not  in- 
tended to  be  interpreted  literally,  but  are  an 
allegorical  description  of  the  new  theocracy  and 
the  new  temple,  which  will  be  built,  not  in  the 
old  Jerusalem,  but  in  an  ideal  city,  whose  name 
is  Jehovah-shammah  (Jehovah  is  there). 


The  Book.— The  book  of  Daniel  is  placed  in 
the  Hebrew7  canon  among  the  books  of  the 
Hagiographa,  between  Esther  and  Ezra;  but  in 
the  LXX.,  Vulgate,  and  English  version,  as  the 
fourth  of  the  great  prophets,  after  Ezekiel.  It 
narrates  the  story  of  Daniel,  who  (1:1-6)  wTas 
carried  away  captive  by  King  Nebuchadnezzar, 
in  the  third  year  of  Jehoiakim,  B.C.  605.  The 
book  is  written  partly  in  Hebrew,  and  partly 
(from  2:  46  to  ch.  7)  in  Aramaic. 

Author.— According  to  the  orthodox  interpre- 
ters, the  book  wras  written  by  Daniel,  who  lived 
during  the  whole  of  the  Babylonian  exile, 
down  to  the  third  year  of  Cyrus  ( 10: 1).  Daniel 
is  mentioned  outside  this  book  in  Ezek.  14:14, 
20,  together  with  Noah  and  Job,  and  in  Ezek. 
28:  3;  in  the  former  passage  his  righteousness 
is  spoken  of,  and  in  the  latter  his  wisdom.  In 
the  LXX.  there  are  several  additions  to  the 
narrative  (cf.  on  the  Apocryphal  Books,  p.  42). 
Josephus  adds  some  details  not  found  in  the 
Bible  (Anliq.,  x.,  11,  6),  which  tend  to  prove  that 
Daniel  was  a  well-known  historical  character 
prior  to  the  Grecian  period.  The  knowledge  of 
Babylonian  life  in  the  first  part  (chs.  1-6) 
(which  is  largely  confirmed  by  modern  discov- 
eries) indicates  that  the  book  was  composed  in 
Babylonia,  and  not  in  Palestine.  The  Persian 
words  which  undoubtedly  occur  in  the  book 
are  more  natural  to  the  age  of  Daniel  than  to  a 
later  period. 

Contents.— The  first  part  of  the  book,  which  is 
mainly  historical,  consists  of  chs.  1-6.  Ch.  1  re- 
cords the  captivity  of  Daniel  and  his  companions 
in  the  third  year  of  Jehoiakim,  and  their  subse- 
quent training  for  civil  service  at  the  court  of 
Nebuchadnezzar,  king  of  Babylon.  Ch.  2  con- 
tains the  account  of  Nebuchadnezzar's  dream 
of  the  great  image,  interpreted  by  Daniel,  and 
the  promotion  of  Daniel  and  his  three  compan- 


ions  in  the  province  of  Babylon.  The  vision  of 
Nebuchadnezzar  depicted  the  four  great  world- 
empires  which  wTere  to  come  in  contact  with 
the  people  of  Israel  before  the  setting  up  of  the 
Messianic  kingdom  and  up  to  the  time  of  its 
final  victory.  These  four  world-kingdoms  were 
(1)  the  Babylonian,  signified  by  "the  head  of 
gold  ";  (2)  the  Medo-Persian,  "the  silver  breast  and 
arms  "of  the  image;  (3)  the  Gi*ecian,  its  brazen 
"belly  and  thighs";  (4)  the  Roman,  portrayed 
under  two  stages— (a)  the  stronger,  the  undi- 
vided empire,  the  "legs  of  iron  ";  {b)  the  weaker 
era,  when  the  Roman  empire  was  broken  up 
into  many  smaller  kingdoms,  "his  feet  part  of 
iron  and  part  of  clay."  "The  stone  cut  out  of 
the  mountain  without  hands"  (or  without  any 
human  efforts),  which  smote  "the  image  upon 
its  feet "  (v.  84),  is  the  Messianic  kingdom  set  up 
"in  the  days  of  Augustus  Caesar,"  when  Christ 
was  born,  which  is  to  grow  until  it  becomes  "a 
great  mountain  and  fills  the  whole  earth."  Ch. 
o  gives  the  account  of  Nebuchadnezzar's  golden 
image  in  the  plain  of  Dura,  and  the  deliverance 
of  Daniel's  three  companions  from  the  fiery 
furnace.  Ch.  4  records  Nebuchadnezzar's  dream 
of  the  great  tree,  and  the  fulfillment  of  that 
vision  by  his  being  afflicted  with  a  seven  years' 
madness  because  of  pride.  Ch.  5  records  one  of 
the  grandest  episodes  in  Israel's  captivity— Bel- 
shazzar's  feast  and  its  tragic  close.  Ch.  6  records 
Daniel's  deliverance  from  the  den  of  lions. 

The  second  portion  of  the  book  consists  of 
Daniel's  own  visions,  contained  in  the  last  six 
chapters  (chs.  7-12).  The  first  vision  (ch.  7)  is  that 
of  the  four  great  wild  beasts,  which  represent, 
though  under  somewhat  different  aspects,  the 
four  kingdoms  portrayed  in  Nebuchadnezzar's 
dream.  (1)  The  Babylonian.  (2)  The  devouring 
bear  was  the  Medo-Persian  empire.  (3)  The 
leopard  was  the  Greek  or  Macedonian  empire. 
(4)  The  indescribable  beast  was  the  Roman. 
Ch.  8  contains  the  vision  of  "the  ram  and  the 
he-goat,"  which  describes  the  contest  between 
the  Persian  and  the  Grecian  empires,  the  over- 
throw of  the  latter  by  Alexander  the  Great,  and 
the  oppression  of  the  children  of  Israel  by  Anti- 
ochus  Epiphanes.  This  vision  of  Daniel  closes 
with  the  promise  that  this  power  should  be 
broken  when  "it  shall  stand  up  against  the 
prince  of  princes."  Ch.  9  describes  Daniel's 
prayer  and  confession  of  sin  at  the  end  of  the 
seventy  years'  captivity  predicted  by  Jere- 
miah, and  the  answer  to  that  prayer  by  the 
promise  of  Messiah's  atoning  work  at  the  close 
of  "the  seventy  weeks."  Ch.  10  describes  the 
vision  of  the  mighty  angel  to  Daniel,  in- 
troductory to  the  description  of  the  prophecy, 
"noted  in  the  scripture  of  truth"  (ch.  10:  21). 
This  is  given  in  chs.  11  and  12,  in  which  chap- 
ters the  wars  between  Syria  (the  kingdom  of 
the  north)  and  Egypt  (the  kingdom  of  the  south) 
are  depicted.  All  temporal  deliverances  are  but 
foreshadowings  of  the  deliverance  by  Messiah, 
and  predictions  of  the  coming  of  Messiah  are 
connected  by  other  prophets  with  the  overthrow 
of  Assyria  and  of  Babylon.  Daniel  here  depicts 
Messiah's  deliverance  as  if  it  were  to  occur  at 
the  close  of  the  Grecian  period.  Michael  the 
Conqueror,  in  Dan.  12,  as  in  Rev.  12,  is  Messiah 
under  the  garb  of  a  warrior  prince.  The  Mes- 
sianic prophecies  in  the  book  are  worthy  of 
special  notice.  Christ  refers  to  the  book  in 
Matt.  24:  15,  and  in  other  passages.  The  book 
forms  the  basis  of  several  of  the  prophecies  in 
the  New  Testament,  especially  those  of  the 


I.    HOSEA. 

Author.— Hosea,  the  son  of  Beeri,  was  a  native 
of  the  northern  kingdom,  where  he  prophesied 
under  Jeroboam  and  the  succeeding  kings.    He 

was  a  younger  contemporary  of  Amos,  whose 
book  he  seems  to  have  known  (cf.  Hos.  4:  3  with 
Amos  8:  8,  and  Hos.  8:  14  with  Amos  1:  5,  7,  10, 
12,  etc.).  '    '      ' 

Contents.— The  book  falls  into  two  parts:  (1) 
Chs.  1-3  belong  to  the  closing  years  of  the  reign 
of  Jeroboam  II.  These  chap  fcers  describe  Israel's 
unfaithfulness  towards  God,  and  his  patient 
and  never-failing  love  towards  his  people. 
Israel's  infidelity  towards  God  is  vividly  illus- 
trated by  the  sad  details  of  the  prophet's  do- 
mestic life— his  marriage  with  an  unchaste 
wife,  her  continued  misconduct,  chastisement, 
and  final  return  to  her  husband's  home.  Others 
consider  that  section  merely  symbolical,  and 
regard  the  description  of  the  prophet's  life  as 
a  mere  imaginary  picture.  (2)  Chs.  4-14  contain 
a  series  of  discourses  which  describe  Israel's 
moral  decadence— people  and  priests  alike  are 
utterly  corrupt  (chs.  4-8) ;  in  consequence,  pun- 
ishment is  threatened  (chs.  9-11);  but  if  Israel 
will  renounce  their  sins,  and  turn  in  penitence 
to  Jehovah,  he  will  receive,  forgive,  and  again 
bless  them  (chs.  12-14). 


Author.— Nothing  is  known  about  this  proph- 
et beyond  the  name  of  his  father,  Pethuel. 
He  was  presumably  a  Judean,  and  possibly 
prophesied  in  Jerusalem,  being  perhaps  priesrt 
as  well  as  prophet.  Compare  his  allusions  to 
the  priests,  public  worship,  and  sacrifices.  If  is 
a  common  opinion  that  he  prophesied  in  the 
early  years  of  King  Joash  of  Judah  (c.  837-801  B.C.). 
Amos  apparently  was  acquainted  with  the  book 
of  Joel  (cf.  3:  16  and  Amos  1:2;  3:  18;  9:  13). 

Contents.— The  book  may  be  divided  into  two 
parts:  (1)  Chs.  1:1-2: 17,  a  lamentation  over  the 
devastating  plague,  and  an  exhortation  from 
the  prophet  to  the  people  to  repent  and  turn 
again  to  Jehovah.  It  is  probable  that  an  actual 
plague  of  locusts  is  intended  by  the  prophet, 
and  not  an  ideal  representation  of  the  north- 
ern foes.  (2)  Ch.  2:18  to  end,  the  answer  to  the 
prayer,  and  the  promise  of  blessings  in  the 
future.  God  will  pour  out  his  Spirit  on  all  flesh, 
will  bring  back  those  led  captive  from  Judah 
and  Jerusalem,  and  in  the  conflict  in  the  valley 
of  Jehoshaphat  overthrow  the  heathen  who 
are  his  people's  foes,  and  again  become  their 
refuge  and  stronghold,  Jehovah  dwelling  in 

III.    AMOS. 

Author.— Amos,  as  we  learn  from  the  opening 
words  of  the  book,  was  a  herdsman  of  Tekoa 
(about  nine  miles  south  of  Jerusalem),  who  also, 
as  would  appear  from  ch.  7:  14,  was  employed 
in  the  cultivation  of  sycamore  trees.  He  ex- 
pressly disclaims  being  a  prophet  by  profession 
or  education  (7:14).  Though  apparently  a  na- 
tive of  Judah,  he  was  commissioned  by  Jehovah 
to  go  and  prophesy  unto  Israel.  His  prophetic 
ministry  belongs  to  the  reigns  of  Uzziah  and 
Jeroboam  II.  He  was,  therefore,  somewhat 
earlier  than  Isaiah,  and  an  elder  contemporary 
of  Hosea. 

Place.— In  accordance  with  the  divine  com- 
mission, he  came  to  the  kingdom  of  Israel, 
Bethel  being  apparently  the  chief  scene  of  his 
prophetic  activity.  His  sojourn  at  Bethel  lasted 
probably  no  longer  than  a  year,  when,  having 
incurred  the  hostility  of  Amaziah,  the  priest  of 
Bethel,  by  prophesying  disaster  to  King  Jero- 
boam II.  in  the  midst  of  his  victories,  he 
returned  to  Judea,  where,  we  may  infer,  he 
committed  his  prophecy  to  writing. 

Contents.— The  style  of  the  book  is  noticeable 
for  imagery  and  its  numerous  allusions  to  nat- 
ural objects  and  the  cultivation  of  the  fields 
(2: 13,  R.V.;  3:4;  5: 19;  9:9;  9: 13).  Chs.  1  and  2  are 
introductory,  announcing  that  God's  judgment 
will  come  upon  Damascus,  Gaza,  Tyre,  Edom, 



Aminon,  Moab,  and  Judah,  but  will  fall  most 
heavily  upon  Israel.  Chs.  3-6  contain  three 
discourses,  commencing  with  the  emphatic 
words,  "Hear  ye,"  in  which  the  indictment  and 
sentence  of  chs.  1  and  2  are  further  justified 
and  expanded.  Chs.  7-0:  10  describe  in  five  vis- 
ions the  judgments  that  are  coming  upon  Israel, 
the  book  concluding  (9:  11  to  end)  with  a  prom- 
ise that  the  kingdom  of  God  ("the  tabernacle  of 
David  that  is  fallen")  shall  again  be  restored. 


Author  and  Date.— Of  this  prophet  we  know 
nothing  except  his  name.  The  first  nine  verses 
of  the  prophecy  exhibit  a  close,  and  occasionally 
verbal,  agreement  with  Jer.  49:  7-22.  The  ques- 
tion of  date  is  connected  with  the  relationship 
of  the  parallel  passages  in  the  two  prophets  one 
to  the  other.  If  Jeremiah  borrowed  from  Oba- 
diah.  then  an  early  date  is  given  to  the  latter 
and  the  incidents  referred  to  in  vs.  11-14  would 
be  explained  to  belong  to  the  reign  of  King 
Jehoram  of  Judah  (B.C.  852-843).  On  the  other 
hand,  it  is  generally  maintained  that  both 
prophets  wrote  about  the  same  time,  and  that 
Obadiah's  prophecy  wras  composed  shortly  after 
the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  Nebuchadnezzar 
(586  B.C.),  the  capture  of  the  city  by  that  monarch 
being  alluded  to  in  vs.  11-14  (cf.  Ps.  137:  7). 

Contents.— Obadiah's  design  is  to  predict  the 
overthrow  of  Edom.  (1)  He  condemns  their 
pride,  self-righteousness,  and  violence  against 
Jacob,  and  predicts  their  destruction  (vs.  1-1(3).  (2) 
He  promises  future  restoration  to  Israel,  and 
the  possession  of  an  enlarged  kingdom,  includ- 
ing Edom  (vs.  17-21).  In  this  book  the  modern 
Jews  see  the  future  restoration  of  their  people. 

V.    JONAH. 

Jonah.— Jonah,  the  son  of  Amittai,  mentioned 
in  II.  Ki.  14:  25,  was  a  native  of  Gath-Hepher  in 
the  tribe  of  Zebulon,  and  lived  in  the  reign  of 
Jeroboam  II.,  shortly  after  the  time  of  Elisha. 
He  was  therefore  a  contemporary  of  the  prophet 
Amos.  The  book  of  Jonah  does  not  claim  to 
have  been  written  by  him. 

Character.— The  narrative  strikingly  illus- 
trates the  conditional  character  of  the  judg- 
ments pronounced  by  divine  command  against 
nations,  and  even  against  Israel,  which  princi- 
ple is  also  taught  by  Jeremiah  (Jer.  18 :  10). 

The  Hebrew  prophets  were  wont  often  to  utter 
predictions  under  the  form  of  historical  narra- 
tives. Nathan's  parable  related  to  David  (II. 
Sam.  12:  1-7),  the  tale  of  the  prisoner  let  loose 
on  the  battlefield,  related  by  an  unknown 
prophet  to  Ahab  as  an  actual  fact  (I.  Ki.  20:  39- 
41),  the  grand  parable  or  vision  of  Micaiah  (I. 
Ki.  22:  19-22),  are  a  few  out  of  many  instances. 

Historical  Relation.— The  main  difficulty  in 
the  book  of  Jonah  does  not  consist  in  the  ac- 
count of  his  having  been  swallowed  by  the 
great  fish,  but  rather  in  the  fact  that  no  refer- 
ence is  made  to  any  such  conversion  of  Nine- 
veh by  Isaiah,  Ezekiel,  Hosea,  Nahum,  and  the 
other  prophets  who  prophesied  concerning  As- 
syria and  Nineveh.  The  Assyrian  inscriptions 
have  confirmed  the  statements  of  the  book  con- 
cerning the  exceeding  great  city  Nineveh,  but 
no  reference  has  yet  been  discovered  to  Jonah's 

Several  incidents  of  Jonah's  history  are  re- 
ferred to  by  our  Lord  (Matt.  12:39fT.  and  Luke 
11:  29  11'.),  and  this  has  been  generally  considered 
conclusive  evidence  in  favor  of  the  historical 
character  of  the  narrative. 

Contents.— The  book  is  an  historical  narra- 
tive, giving  an  account  of  Jonah's  call  and 
disobedience  (1:  1-3),  his  punishment  by  being 
swallowed  up  by  t  he  great  fish  (1: 4-17),  the  psalm 
composed  in  the  fish's  belly  (2:  1-9),  his  deliver- 
ance (2: 10),  his  second  call,  obedience,  and  the 

success  of  his  mission  to  Nineveh  (3:  1-10).  The 
account  of  Jonah's  indignation  at  the  non-ful- 
fillment of  his  predictions,  and  God's  explana- 
tion of  the  mercy  shown,  close  the  book  (4: 1-11). 
The  psalm  in  eh.  2  is  almost  entirely  com- 
posed of  quotations  from  the  Psalms,  and  from 
those  of  a  late  date. 


Author.— The  prophet  is  described  in  chapter 
1:1  as  a  native  of  Moresheth,  a  little  town  in 
the  Shephelah,  or  maritime  plain,  a  dependency 
OfGath.  lie  prophesied  in  1  he  reigns  of  Jotham, 
Ahaz,  and  llezckiah.  He  w;is;i  younger  contem- 
porary of  Isaiah,  and  in;i.\  perhaps  be  described 
as  "the  prophet  of  the  people."  A  want  of  co- 
hesion and  connection  between  the  different 
parts  of  the  prophecy  may  be  admitted,  but 
there  are  no  reasons  to  deny  that  Micah  com- 
posed the  book,  with  perhaps  the  exception  of 
the  title  in  ch.  1. 

Contents.— The  book  may  be  divided  into  three 
sections:  (1)  Chs.  1  and  2,  the  judgment  that  will 
come  upon  Israel  and  Judah  for  their  sins,  to- 
gether wi  th  a  promise  that  the  remnant  of  Israel 
shall  be  delivered.  (2)  Chs.  3-5,  a  vivid  descrip- 
tion of  the  sinfulness  of  the  leaders  of  the  peo- 
ple, the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  the  future 
restoration  of  the  people,  and  the  glorious  reign 
of  the  Messianic  king.  (3)  Chs.  6  and  7,  exhor- 
tations to  repentance  and  threats  of  punish- 
ment, the  penitent,  attitude  of  the  people  toward 
Jehovah,  with  promises  of  future  restoration. 
The  Messianic  prophecy  in  ch.  5:  2,  3  is  of  great 
importance;  the  allusions  also  in  chs.  0  and  7 
to  the  Pentateuch  are  of  considerable  value. 
Compare  ch.  0  : 4-6  with  Ex.  12 :  51  and  14 :  30 ;  Num. 
22-25  and  ch.  7 :  17-20  with  Gen.  3  and  the  history 
of  the  patriarchs. 


Author  and  Date.— All  we  know  of  Nahum  is 
that  he  lived  at  Elkosh,  a  village  which  was, 
according  to  Jerome,  in  Galilee.  The  book  may 
have  been  composed  sometime  between  the  fall 
of  Thebes  in  Egypt  (alluded  to  in  ch.  3:  8-10,  No- 
amon),  c.  664  B.C.,  and  the  destruction  of  Nine- 
veh by  the  Medes  and  Babylonians  in  607  B.C. 

Subject. — The  subject  of  Nahum's  prophecy  is 
the  fall  of  Nineveh.  The  descriptions  are  very 
striking  and  picturesque.  The  style  is  terse  and 
vigorous,  and  resembles  more  closely  that  of 
Isaiah  than  that  of  any  of  the  other  prophets. 
The  prophet  presents  (1)  the  majesty  of  God  and 
the  certainty  of  his  judgments  against  the 
wicked  city  (ch.  1) ;  (2)  a  vivid  picture  of  the  fall 
of  the  city  (ch.  2);  and  (3)  the  complete  destruc- 
tion of  Nineveh  and  its  desolation  (ch.  3),— all 
given  with  marvelous  detail  and  brilliancy. 
These  prophecies  had  a  most  striking  fulfillment 
in  the  disappearance  for  ages  of  the  very  site, 
until  recent  explorations  revealed  the  extent  of 
the  ancient  city. 


Author  and  Date.— Nothing  is  known  about 
the  prophet  outside  the  book  itself.  He  be- 
longed to  the  kingdom  of  Judah,  and  may  have 
been  either  a  priest  or  a  member  of  the  Levitical 
choir  (3:1, 3, 13-19).  Most  critics  are  of  the  opinion 
that  Habakkuk  wrote  duri  \\\z  the  time  of  Jehoi- 
akim  (B.C.  608-597),  perhaps  towards  the  begin- 
ning rather  than  the  close  of  that  monarch's 
reign.  Some  assign  the  prophecy  to  the  time  of 
Josiah  (B.C.  639-608). 

Contents.— The  theme  of  the  prophecy  is  the 
Chaldean  invasion.  The  book  is  dramatically 
constructed  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue.  Ch. 
1:2-4  contains  the  prophet's  complaint,  vs.  5-11 
Jehovah's  reply  that  judgment  is  near,  and  vs. 
»  12-17    the    prophet's    reflections:     In    ch.  2   the 



prophet  sets  himself  on  the  prophetic  watch- 
tower,  awaiting  Jehovah's  reply,  by  which  he  is 
assured  that  "  the  just  shall  live  by  his  faith  "  (2:  4) 
and  that  the  heathen  (the  Chaldeans)  shall  be 
humbled  and  brought  to  ruin.  Ch.  3  is  one  of 
the  finest  examples  of  Hebrew  lyric  poetry.  It 
describes  the  awe-inspiring  appearance  of  the 
Lord  from  Sinai,  as  in  the  days  of  old;  recalls 
the  glorious  events  of  Israel's  redemption  from 
Egypt;  and  announces  the  motive  of  Jehovah's 
advent  in  order  to  support  and  encourage  his 
people  in  the  troublous  days  that  were  coming 
upon  them. 


Author  and  Date.— Zephaniah  was  a  great- 
grandson  of  Hezekiah,  and  prophesied  during 
the  reign  of  Josiah.  The  Hezekiah  alluded  to 
is  no  doubt  the  king  of  Judah  of  that  name.  It  is 
probable  from  chs.  1:  4-6,  8,  9,  12  and  3:  1-3,  7  that 
Zephaniah  wrote  before  the  great  reformation 
in  the  eighteenth  year  of  King  Josiah  (B.C.  621). 

Contents.— The  prophecy  falls  into  three  parts : 
(1)  In  ch.  1  the  prophet  graphically  describes  the 
great  day  of  wrath  coming  upon  the  nations  of 
the  earth,  and  especially  upon  Judah  and  Jeru- 
salem. (2)  In  chs.  2:1-3:8  the  prophet  exhorts 
the  people  to  repent,  and  thus  escape  the  doom 
that  threatens  the  Philistines,  Moab,  Amnion, 
Ethiopia,  and  even  Nineveh  itself.  (3)  In  ch.  3: 
8-20  the  prophet  promises  the  Messianic  blessings 
to  the  remnant  of  Israel,  and  announces  that 
these  blessings  will  also  extend  to  all  the  nations 
of  the  earth.  Zephaniah  predicts  the  destruction 
of  Nineveh,  but  not  the  agents  who  were  to  ac- 
complish it. 

X.    HAGGAI. 

Author.— The  prophet  Haggai  was  a  contem- 
porary of  Zerubbabel,  uthe  governor  of  Judah," 
with  whom  he  returned  to  Jerusalem.  Together 
with  Zechariah  the  prophet  (cf.  Ezra  4:  24-5:  1, 
2),  he  came  forward  in  the  second  year  of  Darius 
(B.C.  520)  to  urge  the  people  again  to  undertake 
the  building  of  the  temple,  already  commenced 
in  the  second  year  of  Cyrus  (B.C.  535),  but  aban- 
doned, owing  to  the  opposition  met  with  (cf .  Ezra 
4  and  5).  The  exhortations  of  the  two  prophets 
were  not  without  effect,  and  that  work  was 
completed  at  the  expiration  of  four  years  (cf. 
Ezra  6 :  14, 15). 

Contents.— The  prophecy  is  arranged  chrono- 
logically, and  consists  of  four  parts.  These  were 
all  delivered  within  the  space  of  three  months. 
(1)  Ch.  1,  an  exhortation  to  build  the  temple— on 
the  first  day  of  the  sixth  month  of  the  second 
year  of  Darius— and  its  result.  (2)  The  glory  of 
the  new  temple— on  the  twenty-first  day  of  the 
seventh  month  (2:  1-9).  (3)  From  the  twenty- 
fourth  day  of  the  ninth  month  Jehovah  prom- 
ises to  again  bless  his  people  with  fruitful  sea- 
sons (2:  10-19).  (4)  The  prophet  on  the  same  day 
assures  Zerubbabel  that,  amid  the  impending 
overthrow  of  the  thrones  and  kingdoms  of  the 
heathen  (2:  6),  Jehovah  will  specially  favor  and 
protect  him  (2:20-23).  The  book  is  remarkable 
as  containing  a  distinct  Messianic  prophecy,  re- 
ferred to  in  Heb.  12 :  26-28.  In  ch.  2 : 5-9  the  phrase 
"the  desire  of  all  nations"  is  not,  however,  a  title 
of  the  Messiah,  but  should  rather  be  rendered, 
as  in  the  R.V.,  uthe  desirable  tilings  of  all  nations," 
the  allusion  being  to  the  munificent  gifts  brought 
by  the  Gentiles  to  beautify  the  second  temple. 
The  "latter  glory"  of  the  temple  exceeded  the 
former  glory,  for  in  it  the  Messiah  manifested 
himself  in  the  person  of  Jesus  Christ. 


Author  and  Purpose.— Zechariah  was  the  son 
of  Berechiah,  and  grandson  of  Iddo,  one  of  the 
priests  who  returned  with  Zerubbabel  (Neh.  12 : 

4,  16).  He  prophesied  in  the  second  and  fourth 
years  of  Darius  Hystaspes  (b.c.  520  and  518)  (cf.  1: 
1,  7;  7:1),  and  was  associated  with  the  prophet 
Haggai  (cf.  Ezra  5 :  1 ;  6 :  14).  The  book  falls 
into  two  parts,  chs.  1-8  and  chs.  9-14.  Part  first 
is  undoubtedly  the  work  of  Zechariah,  but  the 
authorship  and  date  of  part  second  are  much 
disputed.  Assuming  that  the  latter  part  of  the 
book  is  from  the  hand  of  Zechariah,  the  prophet 
describes  therein  the  judgments  that  came  upon 
different  parts  of  Syria  and  Palestine  during 
the  Greek  period,  which  resulted  in  the  conver- 
sion of  the  remnant  of  the  Philistines  and 
their  incorporation  with  Israel,  and  paved  the 
way  for  the  advent  of  the  Messiah,  whose 
coming  the  prophet  predicts. 

Contents.— I.  (1)  Ch.  1 : 1-6  contains  an  earnest 
exhortation  to  repentance.  (2)  Chs.  1 : 7-6 : 8  com- 
prise eight  apocalyptic  visions,  viz.:  (a)  ch. 
1 :  8  ff.,  the  vision  of  the  angels  riding  on  vari- 
ous colored  horses  among  the  myrtle  trees;  (6) 
ch.  1 :  18-21,  the  four  horns  and  the  four  smiths ; 
(c)  ch.  2,  the  man  with  the  measuring  line;  (d) 
ch.  3,  the  high  priest  Joshua  standing  before  the 
angel  of  the  Lord,  Satan's  accusation,  the  ac- 
quittal of  Joshua  and  his  restoration  to  Jeho- 
vah's favor,  the  promise  of  the  advent  of  the 
Messiah  (the  Branch) ;  (e)  ch.  4,  the  golden  can- 
dlestick, and  the  two  olive  branches;  (/)  ch. 
5 : 1-4,  the  flying  roll  inscribed  with  curses  against 
theft  and  perjury;  (g)  ch.  5:  5-11,  the  woman  in 
the  ephah,  symbolical  of  wickedness  with  false 
weights  and  measures;  {h)  ch.  6:1-8,  the  four 
chariots,  with  different  colored  horses,  destined 
to  execute  God's  judgments  on  the  earth.  The 
most  striking  features  of  each  vision  are  indi- 
cated to  the  prophet  by  an  angel.  (3)  Ch.  6 :  9-15 
forms  an  appendix  to  what  precedes,  descriptive 
of  the  crowning  of  the  high  priest  Joshua,  sym- 
bolical of  the  coming  of  the  Messiah  (the  Branch) 
as  High  Priest  and  King.  (4)  Chs.  7  and  8,  the 
prophet's  answer  to  the  inquiry  of  the  men  of 
Bethel  concerning  fasting,  in  which  he  points 
out  that  Jehovah  requires  no  fasts,  but  obedi- 
ence to  his  law,  concluding  with  a  promise  that 
the  Lord  will  again  turn  to  his  people,  and 
change  their  fasting  into  joy  and  gladness. 

II.  In  ch.  9  the  prophet  describes  the  future  of 
the  Jewish  church,  and  foretells  the  corning  of 
the  King  who  shall  "  speak  peace  unto  the 
heathen  "  (9 :  10),  and  have  world-wide  dominion. 
In  ch.  10  he  describes  the  war  of  the  children  of 
Zion  against  the  Greeks,  and  in  chs.  11  and  12 
sketches  the  outlines  of  the  same  period  down 
to  the  advent  of  the  Messiah  and  his  rejection 
by  Israel.  Ch.  12  contains  a  striking  description 
of  the  mourning  in  Jerusalem.  In  ch.  13  is  de- 
scribed "the  reaction  against  the  false  prophets, 
in  the  post-exilic  period,  which  subsequently 
led  to  the  rejection  of  the  true  Prophet  of  Israel." 
Ch.  14  is  of  an  apocalyptic  character,  and  was 
doubtless  not  intended  to  be  interpreted  literally. 
It  is  a  vision  "of  the  last  things  as  seen  in  the 
light  of  the  Old  Testament. "  Special  importance 
is  to  be  attached  to  the  Messianic  passages  in 
chs.  9, 11, 12,  and  13. 


Author  and  Date.— Nothing  is  known  regarding 
the  history  or  person  of  the  prophet  Malachi; 
nor  is  the  name  found  elsewhere.  This  does 
not,  however,  prove  the  name  Malachi  to  be 
merely  a  title  ("my  messenger")  descriptive  of 
his  office.  The  prophecy  belongs  to  the  time 
after  the  exile,  when  Judah  was  a  Persian 
province,  when  the  temple  (1:  10;  3:  1)  was 
rebuilt;  and  it  may  be  assigned  to  some  period 
between  the  first  and  second  sojourns  of  Nehe- 
miah  in  Jerusalem  (cf.  the  phrase  "  thy  governor," 
in  1:  8;  also  Hag.  1:  1;  Neh.  5:  14;  12:  26). 

Style  and  Contents.— The  style  of  the  book  is 
more  prosaic  than  that  of  the  other  prophets  of 
the  Old  Testament.    It  is  partly  arranged  as  a 



dialogue,  and  attacks  (l)  the  degenerate  condi- 
tion of  the  priesthood  (1-2:  9),  (2)  intermarriage 
With  foreign  women  (2.  10-16),  and  (3)  the  remiss- 
ness on  the  part  of  the  people  in  the  payment 

of  sacred  dues  (2:  17-1:  0).  There  are,  with  these, 
striking  promises  for  the  future.  The  book  is 
important,  as  it  contains  a  striking  Messianic 
prediction  (cf.  3:  J;  4:  1,2).  Elijah  the  prophet, 
spoken  of  in  ch.  4:  5  as  the  forerunner  of  the 
Messiah,  was  expressly  declared  by  Christ  to  be 
John  the  Baptist  (see  Matt.  17:  10-18;  11:  14,  Mark 
9:  11-13).  In  eh.  3:  1  there  is  an  allusion  to  the 
divine  character  of  the  Messiah. 

Books  of  Refekknck.  I.  C4knj<:ral.  Historical 
Evidences  oj  the  Old  Testament,  by  Conder,  Blaikio.  and 
others;  Historical  Evidences  of  the  New  Testament,  by 

-Maclcar.  Meyer,  and  others;  Taylor's  Outline  Analyses 
of  the  Books  of  tin   Bible;  Pierson's  Keys  to  the  Word. 

II.  Old  Tkstamkxt.  Eftrkpatrick's  Divine  Lurmry 
of  the  oui  Testament,'  Smith's  Old  Testament  in  the 
Jewish  ChurcH;  C.  II.  II.  Wriuhfs  Introduction  to  the 
oi'/  Testament;  Bleek's  Introduction  to  the  Old  Testa- 
ment; Geikie'S  Hours  with  (he  Bible;  Rowland's  The 
Pentateuch;  Gibson's  Ages  Before  Moses  and  Mosaic 
Era;  Phelps'  Studies  in  the  Old  Testament;  French's 
(editor)  Lex  Mosaica;  Gtenung's  Kpic  of  the  Inner 
Life  (Job);  GrifRs'  The  Lily  Among  Thorns  (Song  of 
Songs);  Weidner's*  Studies  in  Genesis;  C.H.H.  Wrightte 
Biblical  Essays  (Job,  Jonah,  Ezekiel,  etc.),  Zechariah 
end  His  Prophecies,  and  The  1  loot:  of  Kcheleth  (Eccle- 
siastes).  Consult  also  List  of  Commentaries  and 
General  Bookqof  Refeeence, page  144 ;  books  re- 
Cerred  to  under  Parts  ii.  and  III.,  and  under  How 
t«  )  St  r  i  >  v  T 1 1  k  I  >  i  p  le,  page  (J. 


By  GEORGE  J.  SPURRELL,  M.A.,  Balliol  College,  Oxford,  Examiner  University 

of  London. 

The  exact  technical  meaning  of  the  word 
Apocrypha  (lit.  hidden  or  concealed)  is  a  matter 
of  dispute  among  scholars.  From  the  time  of 
the  Reformation,  however,  it  has  been  the  title 
employed  by  the  Protestant  church  to  designate 
those  books  which  are  appended  to  the  ancient 
Greek  and  Latin  versions  of  the  Bible,  but 
which  were  not  admitted  into  the  Hebrew  can- 
on by  the  Jews.  This  latter  point  is  clear  from 
the  evidence  of  Josephus,  and  from  other  con- 
siderations; and  Jerome  expressly  distinguishes 
between  the  canonical  writings  as  works  of 
authority,  and  the  non-canonical,  which  he 
considered  useful  for  private  perusal,  and  "for 
example  of  life  and  instruction  of  manners,"  but 
which  ought  not  to  be  used  to  "establish  any 
doctrine."  The  Church  of  England  adopted 
Jerome's  view  (which,  however,  was  current  be- 
fore his  time),  and  expressed  a  similar  opinion 
in  Article  VI.;  but  the  Roman  Church,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  decision  of  the  so-called 
Council  of  Trent,  regards  the  books  as  canonical. 
In  the  early  Christian  church  many  of  these 
books  were  frequently  used  and  quoted,  and 
they  were  often  regarded  as  if  they  were  equal 
in  authority  with  the  canonical  Scriptures 
themselves.  The  importance  of  the  study  of 
the  Apocrypha  is  obvious,  when  we  consider 
that  it  serves  in  a  great  measure  to  rill  up  the 
interval  (of  about  400  years)  between  the  writ- 
ings of  the  Old  and  New  Testaments.  It  is  com- 
posed partly  of  independent  works,  and  partly 
of  additions  to  canonical  works,  and  was,  with 
the  exception  of  Ecclesiasticus,  I.  Maccabees, 
Judith,  and  perhaps  Baruch  and  Tobit,  origi- 
nally written  in  Greek.  Some  of  the  books  are  of 
great  historical  value,  while  others  are  important 
as  exhibiting  various  moral  and  doctrinal  views. 

1.  The  Tftird  Bookof  K\dr<(s  is  variously  entitled 
the  First  Book  of  Esdras  (A.  V.,  so  LXX.  and  Syr- 
ian and  the  Third  Book  of  Esdras  (Vulgate). 
The  book  is  for  the  most  part  compiled  from 
other  books  of  the  Bible,  chiefly  from  the  canon- 
ical book  of  Ezra;  but  chs.  3,  4,  and  5:  1-6  seem 
to  be  an  independent  work  of  no  historical 
value,  derived  from  unknown  sources,  but 
bearing  a  slight  resemblance  to  the  book  of  Es- 
ther. Its  author  is  unknown,  and  the  date  of 
its  composition  uncertain. 

2.  The  Fourth  Book  of  Esdras,  otherwise  called 
the  Apocalypse  of  Esra,  and  in  the  A.  V.  the 
Second  Book  of  Esdras,  was  originally  written  in 
Greek,  but  is  now  extant  only  in  translations. 
The  main  portion  of  the  work  (chs.  3-14)  consists 
of  seven  visions,  in  some  respects  similar  to  the 
book  of  Daniel,  and  is  generally  assigned  to 
the  end  of  the  first  century  a.d.  The  remain- 
ing chapters,  1, 2, 15,  and  16,  are  probably  of  later 

date  (about  200-270  a.d.).    The  contents  of  the 
book  possess  no  historical  value. 

3.  The  Book  of  Tobit. — The  work  is  now  only 
extant  in  several  translations,  viz.,  Greek,  Latin, 
Hebrew,  and  Aramaic.  The  date  of  composition 
cannot  be  fixed,  but  the  book  ought  perhaps  to 
be  assigned  to  the  second  or  first  century  B.C., 
rather  than  to  a  later  period.  Where  the  book 
was  composed,  whether  in  Palestine  or  among 
the  "Dispersion,"  cannot  be  determined. 

4.  The  Book  of  Judith  relates  how  Holof ernes, 
the  chief  captain  of  Nebuchadnezzar,  king  of 
Assyria,  wras  commissioned  to  set  out  and  take 
vengeance  on  the  nations  who  had  refused 
that  king  assistance  in  his  campaign  against 
Arphaxad,  king  of  the  Medes.  Holof  ernes  pro- 
ceeds to  execute  his  master's  commands,  and  in 
due  course  lays  siege.  Judith,  a  Jewish  widow, 
by  means  of  a  stratagem  slays  Holofernes,  which 
so  encourages  the  defenders  of  Bethulia,  a  for- 
tress on  the  way  to  Jerusalem,  that  they  easily 
rout  the  demoralized  Assyrian  hosts.  The  book 
probably  dates  from  the  Maccabean  period. 

5.  The  rest  of  the  book  of  Esther,  containing 
chs.  10:  4-16,  was  doubtless  originally  written  in 
Greek,  and  was  known  to  and  used  by  Josephus. 
It  is  later  than  the  canonical  book  of  Esther,  and 
was  not  composed  by  the  author  of  that  work. 

6.  The  Book  of  Wisdom  is  also  entitled  The  Wis- 
dom of  Solomon.  The  name  of  Solomon  was  used 
because  it  had  become  "  a  sort  of  collective  name 
for  all  sapiential  Hebrew  literature  "  (Farrar). 
The  work  was  perhaps  composed  between  150  and 
50  B.C.,  and  is  not  a  translation.  The  theology  of 
the  writer  is  noticeable.  The  doctrine  of  im- 
mortality is  taught,  and  (possibly)  that  of  future 
retribution,  but  no  mention  is  made  of  a  resur- 
rection, nor  is  there  any  allusion  to  the  Messiah. 

7.  TJie  Wisdom  of  Jesus  the  Son  of  SiracJt,  other- 
wise called  Ecclesiasticus,  the  latter  title  being  due 
to  the  fact  that  the  book  was  much  used  iii  the 
early  church  as  an  ecclesiastical  reading  book. 
The  book  was  probably  edited  and  translated 
into Greek,  in  Egypt,  about  132  b:C.  by  the  author's 
grandson  Jesus,  the  son  of  Sirach.  Nothing  cer- 
tain is  known  about  the  author  himself. 

8.  9.  TJie  Book  of  Baruch  consists  of  two  distinct 
sections,  the  work  of  different  authors,  to  which, 
in  the  English  version  of  the  Apocrypha  (and 
also  in  the  Vulgate),  a  third  is  appended,  entitled 
the  Epistle  of  Jerem j/,  an  independent  work,  pro- 
ceeding from  another  author.  T lies-  parts  were 
probably  composed  between  100  r>.c.  and  300  a.d. 

10,11,12.  The  additions  to  Daniel.  (1)  The  Prayer 
of  Azariali  and  the  Song  of  the  Three  Children,  in 
the  LXX.  and  Vulgate  ch.  3:  24-90,  was  probably 
written  in  Hebrew  or  Aramaic.  ,  (2)  The  Story  of 
Susannah,  or  the  Judgment  of  Daniel.  In  the  LXX. 



this  is  a  separate  work,  placed  after  the  book  of 
Daniel,  but  in  the  Vulgate  is  Dan.  13.  The  orig- 
inal was  probably  composed  in  Greek.  (3)  Tlie 
Story  of  Bel  and  the  Dragon,  a  separate  book  in 
the  LXX.,  curiously  entitled,  from  "the  Prophecy 
of  Habakkuk,  Son  of  Joshua,  of  the  Tribe  of  Levi." 

13.  The  Prayer  of  Manasses  is  only  found  in 
some  MSS.  of  the  LXX. 

14.  The  First  Book  of  the  Maccabees  is  a  work  of 
great  historical  value.  It  contains  an  account 
of  the  history  of  the  Jews  in  Palestine,  from  175 
to  135  B.C.,  beginning  with  Antiochus  Epiphanes' 
attempt  to  abolish  the  Jewish  religion,  narrat- 
ing the  heroic  exploits  of  the  Maccabean  broth- 
ers, and  concluding  with  the  death  of  Simon  the 
high  priest.  The  work  was  probably  composed 
by  an  unknown  author  about  105  B.C. 

15.  The  Second  Book  of  the  Maccabees  is  of  in- 
ferior historical  value  to  the  first,  and  of  later 
date.  The  author  was  probably  a  Jew  of  Alex- 
andria. The  work  falls  into  two  parts.  The 
first  contains  two  fictitious  documents,  profess- 
edly letters  addressed  by  the  Jews  of  Jerusalem 
to  their  brethren  in  Egypt.  The  main  portion 
of  the  narrative  is  based  on  the  history  of  Jason 
of  Cyrene,  who  is  otherwise  quite  unknown,  and 

extends  from  ch.  2:  19  to  15:39.  It  commences 
with  the  history  of  the  latter  days  of  Seleucus 
IV.,  Philopator,  176  B.C.,  and  extends  to  Judas 
Maccabeus'  victory  over  Nikanor,  160  B.C. 

16.  The  Third  Book  of  the  Maccabees  is  one  of  the 
books  whose  canonicity  is  maintained  by  none. 

17.  The  Fourth  Book  of  the  Maccabees,  more  cor- 
rectly entitled  The  Triumph  of  Reason,  was  prob- 
ably composed  before  the  destruction  of  Jerusa- 
lem, by  an  Alexandrian  Jew  acquainted  with 
Stoic  philosophy.  It  attempts  to  prove  that  "  re- 
ligious reasoning  is  absolute  master  of  the  passions." 

18.  Among  the  other  apocryphal  writings  of 
the  Old  Testament  may  be  enumerated :  (1)  The 
Book  of  Jubilees,  or  The  Little  Genesis.  (2)  TJie  Book  of 
Enoch.  (3)  The  Assumption  of  Moses.  (4)  TJie  Ascen- 
sion of  Jsaiah.  (5)  The  Apocalypse  of  Baruch.  (6) 
The  Sibylline  Oi^acles.  (7)  The  Psalter  of  Solomon. 
(8)  The  Testament  of  the  Twelve  Patriarchs.  Not 
one  of  all  these,  though  each  is  important  from 
various  points  of  view,  has  been  recognized  as 
canonical,  with  the  single  exception  of  the  book 
of  Enoch,  which  is  received  by  the  Abyssinian 
Church,  but  by  no  other. 

Consubt  Bissell's  Apocrypha  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, with  notes  and  introductions. 

By  EEV.  A.  PLUMMER,  D.D.,  Master  of  University  College,  Durham. 

The  Books  of  the  New  Testament,  twenty- 
seven  in  number,  may  be  grouped  as  follows :  (1) 
The  Historical  Books,  including  the  four  Gospels 
and  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles;  (2)  The  Pauline 
Epistles,  fourteen  in  number,  including  ten 
addressed  to  churches,— Romans,  I.  Corinthians, 
II.  Corinthians,  Galatians,  Ephesians,  Philip- 
pians,  Colossians,  I.  Thessalonians,  II.  Thessa- 
lonians,  Hebrews(?);  three  pastoral,  I.  Timothy, 
II.  Timothy,  and  Titus ;  and  one  personal,  Phile- 
mon. (3)  The  General  Epistles,  James,  I.  Peter, 
II.  Peter,  I.  John,  II.  John,  and  III.  John,  and 
Jude.    (4)  The  Prophetic,  Revelation. 


In  no  case  is  the  title  of  a  Gospel— "  according 
to  Matthew,"  "Mark,"  "Luke,"  "  John  "—origi- 
nal. But  the  titles  are  very  ancient,  and  those 
who  added  them  thereby  expressed  their  belief 
as  to  the  authorship  of  each  Gospel;  for  the  "ac- 
cording to  "is  equivalent  to  "of  "or  "by."  There 
is  abundant  evidence  for  believing  that  in  all 
four  cases  this  ancient  belief  was  correct.  There 
is  no  rival  hypothesis.  As  soon  as  the  evidence 
begins  it  is  unanimous.  From  all  parts  of  the 
Christian  world  we  have  testimony  as  to  the  ex- 
istence of  four,  and  only  four,  Gospels;  and  none 
of  them  is  ever  attributed  to  any  author  other 
than  Matthew,  Mark,  Luke,  or  John.  And  if  "  ac- 
cording to  Matthew  "  had  been  intended  to  mean 
no  more  than  that  some  unknown  writer  was 
giving  us  the  substance  of  what  St.  Matthew 
used  to  teach,  then  the  second  Gospel  would 
have  been  called  the  "  Gospel  according  to  Peter," 
and  the  third  the  "Gospel  according  to  Paul." 

The  first  Gospel,  like  the  other  two  synoptic 
Gospels,  is  composite  in  substance.  The  author 
has  made  use  of  previously  existing  material; 
and  much  of  this  material  has  been  used  by  St. 
Mark  and  St.  Luke  also.  How  many  sources  St. 
Matthew  used  cannot  now  be  ascertained,  nor 
whether  they  were  all  of  them  written  docu- 
ments. Some  of  them  may  have  been  oral  tra- 
ditions. But,  if  so,  they  had  already  been  told 
so  often  that  they  had  reached  a  fixed  form 
almost  equivalent  to  a  written  document.  The 
Jews  were  specially  trained  in  the  accurate 
retention  of  sacred  words  and  facts;  and  this 

is  common  in  other  Oriental  nations,  especially 
where  the  memory  has  not  been  weakened  by 
habitual  reliance  upon  books,  or  burdened  by 
habitual  perusal  of  them.  Both  from  tradition 
and  habit  the  apostles  taught  by  word  of  mouth 
in  preference  to  writing.  By  constant  repetition 
they  found  out  what  portions  of  the  gospel  his- 
tory were  most  effectual  in  bringing  the  Christ 
home  to  the  hearts  of  men.  Thus  the  gospel  was 
tested  again  and  again  by  experience  before  it 
was  committed  to  writing;  and  it  was  probably 
not  committed  to  writing  before  the  necessity 
for  this  arose.  When  churches  began  to  multi- 
ply in  cities  far  apart  from  one  another,  so  that 
it  was  impossible  for  an  apostle  to  visit  them 
frequently,  and,  above  all,  when  apostles  began 
to  die  off,  then  it  became  necessary  to  have  their 
teaching  put  on  record,  so  that  there  might  be 
something  to  which  all  could  appeal.  Indeed, 
it  had  become  evident  that,  if  apostles  did  not 
meet  this  necessity,  others  with  less  authority 
would  endeavor  to  do  so  (Luke  1:  1).  (Consult 
the  introduction  to  the  Harmony  of  the  Gospels, 
p.  75.) 


Author.— Matthew  may  safely  be  identified 
with  Levi.  The  call  of  Levi  (Mark  2:  14;  Luke 
5:  27)  is  evidently  the  same  as  the  call  of  Mat- 
thew (Matt.  9:  9).  Alphseus  the  father  of 
Matthew  is  probably  a  different  person  from 
Alphseus  the  father  of  James;  but  we  know 
nothing  of  the  family.  Matthew's  profession 
was  lucrative,  and  he  gave  a  farewell  banquet  to 
"a  great  multitude"  of  his  old  associates  when 
he  surrendered  it.  The  words  which  Jesus  ut- 
tered on  the  occasion,  "I  came  not  to  call  the 
righteous,  but  sinners,"  are  one  of  the  two  earli- 
est quotations  from  the  first  Gospel  that  have 
come  down  to  us.  They  are  found  in  the  Epistle 
of  Barnabas  (ch.  5)  close  after  "many  are  called, 
but  few  chosen  "  (ch.  4). 

Date. — The  Gospel  was  probably  written  in 
Palestine,  a.d.  60-70.  It  was  before  the  destruc- 
tion of  Jerusalem  (ch.24).  Barnabas  quotes 
Matt.  9:  13,  and  22:  14  as  Scripture,  and  his  epistle 
is  placed  at  a.d.  70-79.  All  three  synoptic  Gospels 
must  have  been  published  early.  It  is  manifest, 
both  from  what  each  omits  and  from  what  each 
contains,  that  the  writer  of  the  first  Gospel  can- 
not have  seen  the  third,  and  that  the  writer  of 



the  third  cannot  have  seen  the  first.  This  ren- 
ders it  probable  that  the  two  Gospels  appeared 
about  the  same  time;  for,  it'  one  had  Long  pre 
ceded  the  other,  the  writer  of  the  second  would 
have  seen  the  first. 

Object.—  That  Matthew  wrote  for  Jewish  Chris- 
tians is  affirmed  by  all  ancient  writers  from 
Jremeus  (A.  I).  180)  downwards;  and  the  State- 
ment is  abundantly  confirmed  by  the  internal 
evidence  of  the  Gospel  itself.  Thegenealogy  of 
Christ  is  traced  through  David  to  Abraham,  but 
no  farther.  Appeals  to  the  Old  Testament  arc 
frequent,  t  he  object  of  t  he  writer  being  to  show 
that  Messianic  prophecies  were  fulfilled  in  Jesus 
of  Nazareth.  The  Sermon  on  the  Mount  abounds 
in  references  to  the  Mosaic  Law.  A  knowledge 
of  Jewish  customs  and  of  the  geography  of  Pal- 
estine is  assumed.  Tin1  frequent  phrase,  "king- 
dom of  heaven  "  (literally  "of  the  heavens,")  For 
which  other  evangelists  and  St.  Paul  have 
"kingdom  of  God,"  is  of  Jewish  origin.  In 
short,  the  whole  tone  of  the  Gospel  is  Hebraic, 
and  it  may  he  regarded  as  the  last  word  of  Jeho- 
vah to  his  ancient  people.  Hence,  it  rightly 
stands  first,  whatever  its  date  may  he,  for  it 
most  closely  connects  the  old  covenant  with  the 
new.  It  preserves  the  Jewish  atmosphere,  with- 
out Jewish  narrowness. 

Language. — That  the  first  Gospel  was  original- 
ly written  in  Hebrew,  i.  e..  in  the  Aramaic  dia- 
lect, which  had  taken  the  place  of  the  old 
Hebrew*  is  stated  hy  many  ancient  writers  from 
Papias  (c.  a.d.  130)  onwards.  But  Papias  implies 
that  translating  it  into  Greek  had  in  his  day 
ceased;  obviously  because  the  Greek  Gospel  of 
St.  Matthew  had  rendered  this  unnecessary.  Onr 
Gospel  of  Matthew  has  never  been  treated  as  a 
translation  even  by  those  ancient  writers  who 
assert  that  it  is  a  translation.  Everything  re- 
specting this  Hebrew  original  is  mere  hearsay. 
Our  Matthew  does  not  read  like  a  translation. 
It  contains  translations  of  Hebrew  words  (1:  23; 
27:  33-46),  and  these  translations  could  not  have 
existed  in  a  Hebrew  original. 

Style  and  Summary.— St.  Matthew  gives  us 
more  fully  than  either  St.  Mark  or  St.  Luke  the 
discourses  of  Jesus  Christ  (chs.  5,  0,  7, 10,  13, 18,  23, 
24,  25).  In  the  Gospel,  as  we  have  it,  the  narrative 
forms  about  one-fourth  of  the  whole.  St.  Mat- 
thew does  not  tie  himself  to  the  chronological 
order  of  events,  but  often  groups  his  sections 
according  to  similarity  of  matter.  He  probably 
had  very  little  plan  in  writing,  but  we  can  mark 
the  following  divisions:  The  birth  and  infancy 
of  the  King  (chs.  1,  2) ;  the  preparation  for  the 
kingdom  (3:  1-4: 16);  the  works  of  the  kingdom 
and  its  true  nature  (4:  17-16:  20);  the  journey  to 
Jerusalem  and  residence  there  (16:  21-25:46);  the 
passion  and  resurrection  (chs.  26-28). 


Author.— The  evangelist's  full  name  was  John 
Mark  (Acts  12:  12,  25;  15:  37),  a  combination  of 
Hebrew  {John,  or  Johanan  =  Jehovah  is  gracious) 
with  Roman  {Marcus= Hammer  or  Mallet),  which 
symbolizes  his  mission.  As  in  the  case  of  Peter 
and  Paul,  the  original  Hebrew  name  (Acts  13:  5, 
13)  seems  to  have  gone  out  of  use  (Acts  15:  39; 
Col.  4:  10;  Phile.  24;  11.  Tim.  4:  11).  His  mother, 
Mary,  was  a  friend  of  Peter  (Acts  12:  12),  and 
Peter  probably  converted  Mark,  and  hence  calls 
him  his  son  (I.  Pet.  5:  13).  The  young  man 
mentioned  in  Mark  14:  51,  52  is  possibly  the 
evangelist.  It  is  difficult  to  see  why  so  trivial 
an  occurrence  is  mentioned,  unless  it  was  of  per- 
sonal interest  to  the  narrator.  Mark  was  cousin 
to  Barnabas  (Col.  4:  10),  and  perhaps  in  this  way 
came  in  contact  with  St.  Paul  (Acts  12:  25;  13:  5), 
who  dismissed  him  for  slackness  (Acts  15:  38,  39), 
on  which  his  cousin  was  less  severe.  But  nine 
or  ten  years  later  we  find  him  a  welcome  com- 
panion of  St.  Paul  during  his  first  Roman  cap- 
tivity (Col.  4:  11;  Phile.  24),  and  a  much  desired 

fellow- worker  during  his  second  (II.  Tim.- 4:  11). 
Mark  was  with  Peter  in  "Babylon," i.  c,  Rome, 
when  be  wrote  his  first  epistle  (I.  Pet.  5:13).  Tlio 
date  and  manner  of  his  death  are  unknown. 

Date.— The  relation  of  the  Gospel  of  St.  Mark 
to  those  of  St.  Matthew  and  St.  Luke  is  a  very 
dim  cull  problem.  In  one  respect  it  is  demon- 
strably prior,  for  it  contains  far  more  of  the 
primitive  material  of  which  all  three  make 
much  use.  Bui  in  its  present  form  it  may  easily 
he  later.  From  all  the  evidence,  we  conclude 
that  Mark  was  preparing  to  write  during  Peter's 
lifetime,  but  did  not  complete  and  publish  his 
( lospei  until  some  time  after  Peter's  martyrdom. 
The  prophecies  in  eh.  13  lead  to  the  conclusion 
that  it  was  finished  before  the  destruction  of 
Jerusalem.  This  would  place  1  hcGospel  between 
67  and  70.  The  last  twelve  verses  are  probably 
not  hy  St.  Mark,  whose  Gospel  was  found  incom- 
plete (probably  through  some  accident),  and 
finished  in  different  ways  by  later  hands.  Two 
different  conclusions  are  found  in  the  MSS.,  and 
the  two  best  MSS.  omit  both  of  them.  But  there 
is  no  reason  for  doubting  that,  like  the  section 
on  the  woman  taken  in  adultery,  these  twelve 
verses  represent  genuine  apostolic  teaching,  al- 
though they  are  probably  not  by  the  writer  of 
the  rest  of  the  Gospel. 

Sources.— Mark's  Gospel  contains  little  else 
than  the  primitive  material,  oral  and  written, 
which  is  employed  by  all  three  synoptists;  and 
there  are  only  about  twenty -four  verses  in 
it  which  are  not  contained  in  Matthew  or  in 
Luke,  or  in  both  (e. ,/.,  1:  26-29;  7:  1,  31-37;  12:  32, 
33).  This,  however*  does  not  extend  to  the  his- 
tory of  the  passion.  There  it  would  seem  that 
St.  Mark  has  made  use  of  St.  Matthew ?s  account, 
or  vice versa.  There  is  good  reason  for  believing 
that  the  source  of  most  of  this  common  mate- 
rial is  the  preaching  of  St.  Peter.  That  which  is 
found  in  all  three  Gospels,  or  in  Mark  and  Mat- 
thew, or  in  Mark  and  Luke,  is  just  that  part  of 
Christ's  life  of  which  Peter  would  have  personal 
knowledge.  The  earliest  witnesses,  from  Papias 
(a.d.  130)  downwards,  state  that  Mark  recorded 
the  things  which  were  related  by  Peter.  The 
graphic  details,  which  are  so  abundant  in  Mark, 
indicate  that  the  writer  was  an  eye-witness  or 
obtained  his  information  from  an  eye-witness 
(e.  g.,  3:  5,  34;  5:  32;  8:  33;  9:  35;  10:  23,  32,  etc.).  St. 
Mark  sometimes  specially  mentions  the  pres- 
ence of  Peter  where  Matthew  and  Luke  are 
silent  on  the  point  (1:  36;  11:  21;  13:  3;  16:  7).  He 
begins  the  ministry  of  Christ  with  the  call  of 
Peter  and  his  brother  Andrew  (1: 16),  and  ends 
his  Gospel  with  a  message  to  Peter  (16:  7).  He 
tells  us  that  at  the  transfiguration  Peter  "wist 
not  what  to  answer."  He  alone  tells  us  that 
Peter  was  warming  himself  "in  the  light  of  the 
fire  "  (14 :  54),  so  as  to  attract  attention,  when  he 
denied  his  Master;  and  that  the  cock  crew  twice 
(14:72).  And  possibly  it  is  Peter's  humility 
which  suppresses  notice  of  Peter  where  others 
tell  what  is  to  his  honor  (contrast  Mark  6:  50,  51 
with  Matt.  14:  28-31;  Mark  9:  33  with  Matt.  17: 
24-27:  Mark  8:  29,  30  with  Matt.  16:  17-19). 

Object.— It  is  probably  true  that  St.  Mark 
wrote  his  Gospel  in  Rome  for  Gentiles,  and  pri- 
marily for  Romans.  It  is  confirmed  by  the  in- 
ternal evidence  of  the  Gospel  itself.  In  his  own 
8erson  he  quotes  only  two  passages  from  the 
Id  Testament  (1 : 2,  3).  He  makes  no  references  to 
the  Mosaic  Law,  and  gives  no  genealogy  of  the 
Messiah.  He  explains  Jewish  words,  localities, 
and  customs  (3:17;  5:41;  7:3,11;  10:46;  12:18,42; 
13:  3;  14: 1, 12,  36;  15:  6, 16,  34,  42).  The  Latin  words 
which  he  uses  may  be  the  result  of  life  in  Rome 
(6:27;  7:4;  12:42;  15:39.  44,45). 

Characteristics  and  Summary.— He  represents 
Christ  as  the  Son  of  God,  exhibiting  the  divine 
power  in  mighty  wonders,  especially  in  van- 
quishing the  powers  of  evil  by  healing  demoni- 
acs. The  people  are  thus  led  to  recognize  in  him 
a  spiritual  conqueror,  an  aspect  of  the  Crucified 



which  would  be  acceptable  to  heathen,  and 
especially  to  the  Romans.  The  Gospel  of  St. 
Mark  has  no  special  characteristic  as  regards 
doctrine.  It  is  primitive  and  neutral;  practical 
rather  than  theological.  In  style  it  is  inartifi- 
cial clear,  and  vivid;  originality  and  truthful- 
ness are  stamped  on  its  face.  The  writer  has  lit- 
tle literary  skill.  His  language  is  homely  and 
sometimes  ungrammatical.  But  he  has  a  faithful 
memory,  and  can  reproduce  with  picturesque 
freshness  the  graphic  narratives  which  he  had 
heard  again  and  again  from  St.  Peter;  hence  his 
fondness  for  the  historic  present,  for  the  scene 
is  before  him  as  he  writes;  and  his  frequent 
"straightway  "  is  perhaps  a  trait  caught  from 
the  eager  lips  of  the  impetuous  apostle.  He 
notices  more  than  any  other  evangelist  the 
human  emotions  and  the  gestures  of  Christ,  and 
it  is  from  him  that  we  learn  that  Jesus,  as  well 
as  Joseph,  was  a  carpenter  (6:  3).  The  arrange- 
ment, so  far  as  there  is  any,  is  simple:  The  in- 
troduction (1:  1-8);  the  ministry  in  Galilee, 
Pera?a,  and  Jerusalem  (1:  9-13:  37);  the  passion 
and  resurrection  (14:  1-16:  8. 


Author. — The  name  Luke,  or  Lucas,  is  an  ab- 
breviation, possibly  of  Lucilius,  but  almost  cer- 
tainly of  Lucanus.  Some  of  the  oldest  Latin 
MSS.  have  Secundum  Lucanum  as  the  title  of  the 
third  Gospel.  These  contracted  proper  names 
are  frequent  as  the  names  of  slaves ;  and  slaves 
were  sometimes  physicians.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  St.  Luke  was  a  manumitted  slave.  Luke 
nowhere  gives  his  name  in  either  of  the  two 
writings  which  from  the  first  have  been  as- 
signed to  him;  but  he  is  three  times  named  by 
St.  Paul  (Col.  4:  10,  14;  Phile.  24;  II.  Tim.  4:  11). 
These  notices  of  him  tell  us  that  he  was  a  Gentile 
and  a  physician,  very  dear  to  the  apostle,  as  be- 
ing his  fellow  worker  in  spreading  the  faith  and 
his  attendant  in  both  his  Roman  imprison 
ments.  It  is  worth  noting  that  in  all  three 
places  his  brother  evangelist  Mark  is  men- 
tioned also.  In  four  other  passages  in  the  New 
Testament  Luke,  by  using  the  first  person, 
tells  us  a  good  deal  about  himself  (Luke  1:  1-4; 
Acts  16-  10-17;  20:  5-21:  18;  27:  1-28:  16);  and  these 
seven  passages  contain  all  that  is  really  known 
about  the  life  of  St.  Luke.  Luke  was  probably 
a  Syrian  of  Antioch,  and  may  have  been  con- 
verted by  St.  Paul.  He  gives  us  much  informa- 
tion about  Antioch  (Acts  11:  19-30,  where  v.  26  is 
especially  remarkable;  13:  1-3;  14:  26-15:  3;  15: 
22-41).  His  opportunities  of  collecting  the  very 
best  information  were  very  great,  owing  to  his 
residence  at  Antioch,  at  Jerusalem,  at  Csesarea, 
and  at  Rome,  where  we  lose  sight  of  him.  At 
all  these  places  he  would  meet,  or  from  them 
could  easily  reach,  apostles  and  many  others 
who  had  seen  Jesus  Christ  in  the  flesh.  He  is 
rightly  called  the  "father  of  Christian  church 
history."  His  investigation  of  primary  sources, 
his  accuracy,  and  his  high  aims,  are  all  of  them 
worthy  of  the  best  historical  work.  Continuity 
and  development  characterize  both  his  writings; 
and  it  may  be  said  that  he  is  the  only  New  Tes- 
tament writer  who  exhibits  a  really  historical 

Date.— The  date  of  the  publication  of  the  Gos- 
pel must  be  determined  on  the  one  hand  by  the 
date  of  the  Acts,  on  the  other  by  the  many  at- 
tempts at  written  narratives  which  preceded  the 
Gospel  (1:  1).  We  may  place  the  third  Gospel 
between  a.d.  60  and  70.  A  later  date  is  not  prob- 
able on  account  of  the  early  date  required  for 
the  Acts. 

Source.— While  the  second  Gospel  seems  to 
come  almost  entirely  from  one  source,  the  third 
appears  to  be  the  most  composite  of  all.  St. 
Luke  tells  us  that  he  obtained  information 
from  a  variety  of  quarters,  and  the  internal  evi- 
dence shows  that  this  is  the  case.    Besides  the 

primitive  material  of  which  all  three  synoptists 
make  use,  and  of  which  St.  Mark  gives  us  so 
much,  the  third  evangelist  translates  and  adapts 
various  documents  and  traditions  which  appear 
to  have  been  unknown  to  the  other  two.  The 
contents  of  the  first  two  chapters  and  of  most  of 
what  is  given  us  in  9:  51  to  18:  14  may  be  as- 
signed to  these  new  sources.  The  primitive  tra- 
dition respecting  the  origin  of  Luke's  Gospel  is 
similar  to  that  respecting  Mark's.  Mark  is  said 
to  give  us  the  teaching  of  St.  Peter;  Luke  the 
teaching  of  St.  Paul.  But  the  cases  are  not  par- 
allel. Mark  derived  his  material  from  Peter; 
Luke  derived  his  spirit  from  Paul.  Mark  was 
Peter's  "interpreter";  he  passed  on  to  others 
what  Peter  had  said.  Paul  was  Luke's  "illumi- 
nator"; he  inspired  the  evangelist  with  his  own 
mind  and  spirit.  It  is  altogether  a  mistake  to 
suppose  that  by  "  my  gospel "  St.  Paul  means 
the  Gospel  of  St.  Luke  (Rom.  2: 16;  16:  25;  II.  Tim. 
2:  8).  By  "my  gospel"  he  means  the  substance 
of  his  teaching,  under  the  influence  of  which 
Luke  came.  Both  Paul  and  Luke  teach  with 
special  fullness  the  universality  and  freedom  of 
salvation  without  legal  conditions  or  privilege 
of  birth.  It  is  in  this  sense  that  the  third  Gos- 
pel is  the  Gospel  of  Paul.  In  his  preface  Luke 
tells  us  that  he  derived  his  material  from  eye- 
witnesses, and  among  these  St.  Paul  cannot  be 

Object.— St.  Luke  wrote  for  the  whole  world, 
whether  Jew  or  Gentile,  but  especially  for 
Greeks,  as  Matthew  for  Jews,  and  Mark  for 
Romans.  His  is  the  universal  Gospel  (3:  38;  4: 
16-30;  7:  36-50;  10:  25-37;  17:  11-19;  18:  14;  19:  1-10;  23: 
39-43).  He  is  less  careful  to  set  forth  Jesus  as  the 
Messiah  of  prophecy,  than  to  exhibit  him  as  the 
Saviour  of  all  men  and  the  satisfier  of  all  human 
needs.  He  shows  how  the  lives  of  Jesus  and  his 
apostles  are  part  of  the  history  of  the  great 
Roman  empire,  and  he  is  not  content  until  he 
has  traced  the  lineage  of  the  Saviour  past  David 
and  Abraham  to  the  father  of  the  whole  human 
race.  The  Theophilus  to  whom  he  dedicates 
both  the  Gospel  and  the  Acts  was  probably  a 
real  person  in  good  social  position,  and  either 
a  convert  or  at  least  a  catechumen.  But 
whether  real  or  imaginary  he  represents  the 
intelligent  and  godly  reader  who  needs  infor- 
mation as  to  the  historical  basis  of  the  faith. 
Such  there  will  always  be,  and  for  them  the 
third  Gospel  will  always  be  of  peculiar  worth. 

Characteristics.— No  other  Gospel  is  so  com- 
plete as  Luke's.  It  begins  with  the  promise  of 
the  forerunner,  and  ends  with  the  ascending 
Saviour's  blessing  and  his  disciples'  continual 
joy.  It  gives  us  the  fullest  account  of  Christ's 
humanity,  its  development  and  reality,  from  the 
manger  to  the  ascension.  Quite  in  keeping  with 
its  universal  character,  it  is  in  a  special  sense 
the  Gospel  for  women.  From  first  to  last  a 
prominent  place  is  assigned  to  them,  and  a  great 
variety  of  types  of  womanhood  are  exhibited : 
Elizabeth,  the  blessed  Virgin,  the  prophetess 
Anna,  the  widow  at  Nain,  the  nameless  sinner 
in  the  house  of  Simon  the  Pharisee,  Mary  Mag- 
dalene, Joanna,  Susanna,  the  woman  with  the 
issue,  who  had  spent  all  her  living  upon  physi- 
cians, Martha  and  Mary  of  Bethany,  the  widow 
with  her  two  mites,  the  "daughters  of  Jerusa- 
lem," and  the  women  at  the  tomb.  And  Luke's 
keen  sense  of  historical  accuracy  does  not  ex- 
clude a  love  of  poetry,  especially  that  poetry 
which  is  the  outcome,  not  of  imagination,  but 
of  religious  fervor  and  truth.  The  biblical 
hymns,  which  for  centuries  have  been  used 
in  public  and  private  worship  throughout 
Christendom,  have  all  been  preserved  to  us  by 
St.  Luke  (1:  28,  46-55,  68-79;  2:  14,  28-32).  The  keen 
literary  instincts  of  Renan  are  not  far  wrong 
when  he  pronounces  this  Gospel  to  be  "the 
most  beautiful  book  which  exists." 

The  synoptists  all  agree  with  one  another 
most  closely  in  reporting  the  words  of  Christ, 



and  differ  most  in  the  narrative  of  his  acts, 
showing  that  tradition  guarded  the  discourses 
of  Jesus  with  a  care  which  was  not  considered 
necessary  in  recording  his  works.  In  Luke 
about  one-third  of  the  Gospel  is  narrative,  and 
rather  less  than  one-third  is  peculiar  to  him, i.e., 
is  discourse  or  narrative  which  is  recorded  by 
no  one  else.  But  even  here  he  seldom  writes 
independently,  but  is  under  the  influence  of 
tradition  or  documents.  When  he  does  write 
independently,  as  in  the  preface  to  the  Gospel 
and  the  latter  half  of  the  Acts,  he  writes  excel- 
lent Greek.  He  was  evidently  a  person  of  con- 
siderable education,  with  literary  skill  and  a 
very  full  vocabulary.  In  his  Gospel  he  uses 
about  180  words  which  are  not  found  elsewhere 
in  the  Greek  Testament.  His  style  has  many 
characteristic  marks,  and  any  one  who  is  famil- 
iar with  them  could  recognize  a  leaf  torn  from 
his  writings  as  his  composition.  These  marks 
demonstrate  a  common  authorship  for  the 
third  Gospel  and  the  Acts,  and  also  prove  that 
the  whole  of  each  book  is  from  the  same  pen. 

Summary.— The  following  main  divisions  can 
be  traced  in  it:  The  preface  (1:  1-4);  the  infancy 
and  childhood  of  the  forerunner  and  of  the 
Saviour  (1:  5-2:  52);  the  preparation  and  early 
ministry  (8:1-7:  50) ;  the  later  ministry  (8: 1-9: 50) ; 
the  journeyings  towards  Jerusalem  (9:  51-19:48); 
the  last  days,  passion,  resurrection,  and  ascen- 
sion (20:  1-21:  53). 


Author.— As  the  Gospels  surpass  all  other 
books,  so  the  other  Gospels  are  surpassed  by  the 
Gospel  of  St.  John,  "the  most  influential  book 
in  all  literature."  That  it  is  by  St.  John  has 
been  the  conviction  of  all  who  have  known  it, 
with  very  insignificant  exception,  down  to  the 
end  of  the  last  century.  The  best  scholars  are 
fully  agreed  that  the  fourth  Gospel  is  by  St. 
John,  the  apostle.  The  genuineness  of  no  clas- 
sical works  of  similar  antiquity  is  attested  by 
such  a  mass  of  early,  continuous,  and  full  evi- 
dence. The  internal  evidence  is  not  less  strong 
than  the  external,  and  it  has  been  well  said  that 
if  we  knew  nothing  of  the  apostle  John,  we 
should  have  to  imagine  such  a  person  in  order 
to  account  for  his  writings.  He  is  the  one  per- 
sonality which  fits  the  intricate  and  varied 
phenomena  of  the  case.  The  author  is  evidently 
a  Jewr,  familiar  with  Jewish  opinions  and  points 
of  view  (1:  19-28,  45-51;  4:  9,  20,  22,  25,  27;  6:  14,  15; 
7:  15,  49;  8:  48;  12:  34,  etc.),  with  Jewish  usages 
and  ceremonies  (1:  25;  2:  6,  13,  23;  3:  22-25;  4:2; 
5:4;  7:  2,  37;  10:  22,  etc.),  with  the  topography  of 
Palestine  (1:  28,  44,  46;  2:  1;  3:  23;  4:  5,47;  11:18, 
54,  etc.)  and  of  Jerusalem  (5:  2;  9:  7;  10:  23;  18:  1, 
28;  19: 13, 17).  Moreover,  he  knows  the  Old  Testa- 
ment in  Hebrew.  Out  of  fourteen  quotations 
from  the  Old  Testament  there  are  three  which 
agree  wTith  the  Hebrew  against  the  Septuagint; 
there  is  not  one  which  agrees  with  the  Septua- 
gint against  the  Hebrew.  The  author  displays 
such  exact  knowledge  of  details,  that  he  can 
hardly  have  been  other  than  an  eye-witness  (1: 
29,  35,  39,  43;  2:  1,  14-16;  4:  6,  40,  43,  52;  6:  5-14,  22, 
etc.).  But  the  author  is  not  merely  an  eye-wit- 
ness, but  a  disciple,  and  a  very  intimate  disciple. 
1 1  e  k  nows  the  ways  and  views  of  the  Twelve,  and 
sometimes  the  very  thoughts  of  the  Master  (2: 
11,  17,  22,  24,  25;  4:  1-3,  27,  31,  33;  5:6;  6:  6, 15, 19,  60; 
9:2;  11:  8,  12,  16,  54;  13:  1,  3,  11,  22,  28,  etc.).  Al- 
though he  carefully  distinguishes  persons  (11: 
16,  49;  14:  22;  18:  13;  20:  24,  etc.),  he  never  follows 
the  synoptists  in  distinguishing  the  two  Johns 
by  calling  one  of  them  "  the  Baptist."  The  Bap- 
tist in  the  fourth  Gospel  is  simply  "John  "  (1:  6, 
15,  19,  26-41 ;  3:  28-27,  etc.).  We  infer  that  the  au- 
thor himself  is  the  other  John,  to  whom  the 
Baptist  was  the  only  John. 

Date.— How  late  John  wrote  his  Gospel  cannot 
be  determined,  but  probably  between  a.d.  80  and 

95.  Tradition  says  that  he  wrote  at  the  request 
of  his  fellow  disciples  and  elders  of  Ephesus. 
That  it  was  written  in  Ephesus  we  may  regard 
as  certain.  There  he  lived  during  the  last  portion 
of  his  life,  teaching  what  he  afterwards  wrote. 

Source. — The  fourth  Gospel  is  not  composite 
like  theother  three.  Although  it  comes  last,  and 
the  author  of  it  knew  the  writings  of  his  prede- 
cessors, it  is  the  most  original  of  them  all.  He 
writes  from  personal  knowledge;  "that  which 
we  have  heard,  that  which  we  have  seen  with 
our  eyes,  that  which  we  beheld,  and  our  hands 
handled,  concerning  the  Word  of  life  .  .  . 
declare  we  unto  you."  The  other  Gospels  some- 
times influenced  him  in  the  selection  and  the 
treatment  of  his  subjects;  here  and  there  they 
may  have  influenced  his  wording  (John  6:  7  and 
Mark  6:  37;  John  12:  5  and  Mark  14:  5);  but  St. 
John's  material  is  his  own.  He  has  no  genealogy 
of  Christ,  no  record  of  the  birth,  infancy,  bap- 
tism, temptation,  transfiguration,  or  ascension, 
no  healing  of  demoniacs,  no  Sermon  on  the 
Mount,  no  parables.  Instead  of  these  wre  have 
the  preexistence  of  the  Word,  the  incarnation, 
the  new  birth  of  the  Spirit,  the  water  of  life,  the 
bread  of  life,  the  good  shepherd,  and  the  true 
vine.  Where  he  traverses  exactly  the  same 
ground  as  the  synoptists.  as  in  the  feeding  of 
the  five  thousand,  and  in  the  history  of  the  pas- 
sion and  resurrection,  he  adds  various  details 
of  great  interest,  which  come  from  his  personal 
knowledge.  Perhaps  the  chief  of  these  are  the 
farewell  discourses  of  Christ  to  his  disciples  just 
before  the  crucifixion.  The  difference  between 
these  and  those  in  the  other  Gospels  is  very  great, 
and  is  to  be  explained  partly  by  the  difference  of 
the  occasions  and  audience,  partly  by  the  ele- 
ment in  them  which  comes  from  St.  John  him- 

Object.— St.  John  writes  for  adult  Christians, 
to  confirm  them  in  the  belief  that  "Jesus  is  the 
Christ,  the  Son  of  God,"  that  by  believing  they 
"may  have  life  in  his  name"  (20:  31).  His  is  the 
spiritual  Gospel,  abounding  in  symbolism,  sat- 
urated with  the  Old  Testament,  and  stern  in  its 
condemnation  of  those  whose  misconception  of 
the  Old  Testament  led  them  to  reject  the  Mes- 
siah. It  sets  forth  the  true  conception  of  the 
Messiah  in  opposition  to  the  debased  perversions 
of  it  current  among  "the  Jews,"  who  in  this 
Gospel  are  the  enemies  of  Christ. 

Style.— The  style  is  simple  in  construction  and 
intense  in  meaning.  The  sentences  are  short, 
and  the  vocabulary  is  limited;  as  of  a  writer 
whose  command  of  the  language  is  sufficient, 
but  not  perfect.  It  abounds  in  parallelisms  and 
repetitions,  which  arrest  the  ear  and  impress 
the  heart.  It  has  a  charm  which  is  unique  in 
literature,  and  which  it  is  not  easy  to  analyze. 
It  is  one  of  those  things  which  all  can  know, 
but  none  can  tell.  St.  John  alone  among  bib- 
lical waiters  uses  "  the  Word,"  or  "  the  Logos,"  of 
the  divine  Son  (1:  1-18),  a  term  which  in  itself 
is  a  summary  of  theology.  And  his  is  the  only 
Gospel  which  has  an  elaborate  plan,  the  divi- 
sions of  which  are  arranged  with  great  care.  He 
gives  us,  not  a  biography  of  Christ,  but  a  series 
of  carefully  chosen  scenes,  all  leading  up  with 
dramatic  and  cogent  effect  to  the  only  possible 
conclusion,  "  My  Lord  and  my  God  "  (20:  28). 

Characteristics.— The  difference  between  these 
contents  and  those  of  the  synoptic  Gospels  is 
great,  and  we  need  not  doubt  that  part  of  St. 
John's  reason  for  selecting  certain  scenes  was 
that  they  had  not  been  previously  recorded.  The 
synoptists  give  us  little  more  than  one  year  of 
Christ's  ministry,  nearly  all  of  which  is  in  Gal- 
ilee. John  gives  us  nearly  three  years  (2:  13;  6: 
4;  13:  1),  with  various  sojourns  at  Jerusalem. 
But  in  the  gaps  in  the  synoptic  narrative  there 
is  plenty  of  room  for  all  that  is  peculiar  to  St. 
John,  and  in  the  gaps  in  his  narrative  for  all 
that  is  peculiar  to  theirs.  They, imply  several 
visits  to  Jerusalem  (Matt.  23:  37),  although  they 



do  not  record  them.  But  he  differs  from  them, 
not  only  in  his  choice  of  material,  but  in  the 
view  which  he  gives  us  of  the  Christ.  They  show 
us  how  the  great  Rabbi  and  Prophet  exasperated 
the  people  by  denouncing  their  immoral  tradi- 
tions and  lives.  John  shows  us  how  a  divine 
personage  infuriated  the  hierarchy  by  claiming 
to  be  one  with  Jehovah.  They  exhibit  the  teach- 
ing of  Christ  as  simple,  and  for  the  most  part 
moral,  illustrated  by  frequent  parables.  John 
/exhibits  it  as  mystical  and  doctrinal,  without  a 
single  parable,  aud  with  only  one  or  two  allego- 
ries. As  already  stated,  there  is  in  St.  John's 
Gospel  a  large  element  which,  although  under 
the  guidance  of  the  Spirit,  comes  from  himself. 
His  strong  personality  determines  the  form  in 
which  he  records  the  words  of  others  and  even 
of  Christ.  He  wrote  in  circumstances  very  differ- 
ent from  those  which  surrounded  the  first  three 
evangelists.  The  opposition  between  Christianity 
and  Judaism  had  become  more  intense;  the  hos- 
tility between  the  church  and  the  world  had  be- 
come more  evident.  This  change  is  reflected  in 
his  narrative.  After  twenty  or  thirty  years  of 
additional  experience  he  is  able  to  see,  more 
clearly  than  the  synoptists  could  do,  what  were 
the  precise  issues  involved  in  the  coming  of 
Christ  and  the  teaching  of  Christ;  and  this  clear- 
ness influences  his  Gospel. 

Summary.— The  main  divisions  of  the  Gospel 
are  two,  of  which  the  first  is  preceded  by  a  pro- 
logue of  pregnant  meaning,  w hile  the  second  is 
followed  by  an  appendix  of  intense  interest. 
The  prologue  sets  forth  the  Word  as  a  divine 
Person,  the  eternal  Interpreter  of  the  nature  of 
God,  the  Creator  of  the  universe,  and  the 
Fountain  of  life  and  light  (1:  1-18).  The  min- 
istry is  the  revelation  of  the  incarnate  Son  and 
his  Father  to  the  world  (1:  19-12:  50).  In  the 
i  ssues  of  the  ministry  a  more  complete  revelation 
is  made  to  the  disciples  (chs.  13-20).  The  appen- 
dix explains  Christ's  saying  respecting  the  evan- 
gelist (ch.  21).  The  first  main  division  seems  to 
be  divided  into  three  parts  at  2:  11  and  11:  57, 
and  the  second  also  at  17:  26  and  19:  42. 


Author.— Few  things  in  biblical  criticism  are 
more  certain  than  that  the  author  of  the  third 
Gospel  was  the  author  of  the  Acts,  and  therefore  a 
companion  of  St.  Paul.  It  is  practically  certain 
that  this  companion  was  St.  Luke.  Christian 
tradition  on  this  point  is  early,  full,  and  unani- 
mous. And  it  is  twofold.  There  is  separate  testi- 
mony to  Luke  as  the  author  of  the  third  Gospel. 
and  to  Luke  as  the  author  of  the  Acts ;  and  each 
enormously  strengthens  the  other.  No  conjec- 
ture as  to  what  is  possible,  seeing  that  Paul  had 
various  companions,  ought  to  weigh  against 
such  strong  evidence  as  to  what  is  the  fact. 
Luke  is  the  author  of  all  but  the  title  of  the 
book ;  that,  no  doubt,  was  added  by  others.  The 
earliest  form  of  it  seems  to  have  been  "Acts  of 
Apostles,"  which  was  shortened  to  "Acts"  or 
"The  Acts,"  and  lengthened  to  "The  Acts  of  the 
Apostles,"  in  which  form  it  is  rather  misleading. 
The  book  is  rather  the  Acts  of  Peter  and  Paul. 

Date.— The  date  of  the  treatise  itself  cannot 
be  determined.  It  may  have  been  published  in 
any  year  between  62  and  70,  but  probably  not 
long  after  62.  There  is  no  hint  of  the  Neronian 
persecution,  or  of  the  death  of  Peter  or  of  Paul,  or 
of  the  epistles  of  either,  or  of  the  destruction  of 
Jerusalem.  The  strongest  argument  for  an  early 
date  is  the  writer's  manifest  ignorance  of  the 
four  great  epistles  of  St.  Paul,  all  of  which  were 
written  before  the  end  of  58.  This  ignorance 
would  not  continue  long  after  Paul's  death, 
even  if  it  lasted  till  then;  wherefore  a  date 
much  later  than  68  seems  improbable. 

Sources.— In  his  Gospel,  St.  Luke  is  entirely 
dependent  upon  research;  he  is  never  an  eye- 
witness, but  obtains  his  information  from  eye- 

witnesses. In  the  Acts  he  has  both  sources  of 
knowledge.  In  the  first  half  he  is  mainly  de- 
pendent upon  others,  but  in  the  second  half 
records  a  great  deal  that  he  witnessed  himself. 
Without  mentioning  his  own  name  he  slips 
from  the  third  person  into  the  first,  and  thus 
indicates  his  own  presence  (16: 10-17;  20:  5-21: 18; 
27: 1-28: 16).  These  are  the  famous  "we  "  sections, 
which  every  one  admits  to  be  contemporary 
evidence.  The  excellence  of  his  information 
and  his  fidelity  in  using  it  have  been  abun- 
dantly proved.  Wherever  we  can  test  him,  by 
profane  writers,  by  inscriptions,  by  excavations, 
and  the  like,  he  is  found  to  be  accurate.  No 
ancient  writer  gives  us  so  many  opportunities, 
in  so  small  a  compass,  of  testing  the  accuracy 
of  his  statements;  and  very  seldom  in  the  case 
of  ancient  authors  have  we  contemporary  let- 
ters with  which  to  confront  them.  The  number 
of  undesigned  coincidences  between  the  Acts 
and  the  Epistles  are  numerous  and  convincing, 
as  the  student  of  Paley's  Horce  Paulinw  knows. 

Characteristics.— In  the  work  of  Peter  among 
the  Jews  and  Paul  among  the  Gentiles  the  au- 
thor joyously  sketches  the  triumphant  progress 
of  the  faith  from  Jerusalem,  the  center  of  Juda- 
ism, to  Rome,  the  center  of  paganism  and  the 
capital  of  the  civilized  world.  Luke  evidently 
regards  the  book  as  a  continuation  of  his  Gospel 
(1:  1-8),  and  as  such  perhaps  gave  it  no  title. 
"The  former  treatise"  gives  us  the  ministry  of 
Christ  in  his  own  person;  the  latter  gives  us  his 
ministry  through  the  Spirit  acting  upon  his 
apostles.  It  has  been  called  "  the  Gospel  of  the 
Holy  Spirit,"  who  is  mentioned  in  the  Acts  more 
often  than  in  any  other  book  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment. In  this  way  it  forms  a  link  between  the 
Gospels  and  the  Epistles.  Its  relation  to  the  Gos- 
pels has  been  stated;  the  one  the  ministry  of 
Christ,  the  other  the  ministry  of  his  church. 
But  the  external  work  of  the  church  predomi- 
nates in  the  Acts;  its  internal  life  predominates 
in  the  Epistles.  In  short,  the  Gospels,  Acts,  and 
Epistles  give  us  the  Christ  in  the  world,  his 
church  in  the  world,  and  his  church  at  home. 

Summary.— St.  Luke  addresses  the  Acts,  as  he 
addresses  his  Gospel,  to  Theophilus,  who  repre- 
sents all  who  are  in  need  of  information  about 
the  foundation  of  the  church.  He  himself  indi- 
cates the  main  divisions  of  his  treatise,  in  the 
last  words  of  Christ  before  the  ascension  (1:  8)— 
"Ye  shall  be  my  witnesses  both  in  Jerusalem 
[1: 15-8: 8],  and  in  all  Judea  and  Samaria  [8 : 4-11: 8], 
and  unto  the  uttermost  part  of  the  earth  [11: 19- 
28 :  31]."  Of  the  opening  verses,  1-5  are  preface  and 
6-14  are  introduction,  which  overlaps  the  Gospel. 
Two  events  are  mentioned  of  which  the  dates  are 
fixed  by  profane  history— the  death  of  Herod 
Agrippa  I.  (12:  23),  which  took  place  in  a.d.  44; 
and  the  accession  of  Festus  (25 : 1),  which  occurred 
a.d.  60. 




Author.— Nothing  in  the  history  of  literature 
is  more  certain  than  that  the  four  great  epistles 
—to  the  Corinthians,  the  Galatians,  and  the  Ro- 
mans—are by  the  apostle  St.  Paul;  and  they 
contain  all  the  essentials  of  the  faith.  They 
form  the  second  and  chief  group  of  the  Pauline 
Epistles,  having  been  written  four  or  five  years 
after  the  two  to  the  Thessalonians,  and  four  or 
five  years  before  the  epistles  of  the  captivity. 

The  epistle  is  written  in  Greek,  not  only  be- 
cause St.  Paul  could  write  most  easily  in  that 
language,  but  also  because  it  was  most  familiar 
to  his  readers.  Christians  in  Rome,  whether 
Jews  or  Gentiles,  would  understand  no  language 
better  than  Greek. 

Date.—Of  the  four  great  epistles,  that  to  the 



Romans  was  written  last,  and  apparently  not 
long  after  the  Epistle  to  the  « Jalatians,  which  is 
the  rough  sketch  out  of  which  the  elaborate 
treatise  grew.  All  four  were  written  within  about 
fourteen  months,  in  a.j>.  57  and  58.  The  dates 
of  the  Pauline  Epistles  are  much  more  certain 
t  ban  those  of  any  other  books  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment, and  must  all  be  placed  in  the  sixteen 
years  52  to  67.  Romans  was  written  in  the 
spring  of  58,  from  Corinth,  during  a  stay  of 
three  months  in  Greece. 

The  Church  at  Rome.— The  Roman  church  for 
many  generations  was  a  Greak-speaking  com- 
munion. Its  origin  is  unknown,  but  there  is  no 
need  to  assume  that  an  apostle  founded  it.  Chris- 
tians would  migrate  from  various  parts  of  the 
world  to  Rome,  and  would  there  make  converts. 
The  letter  is  addressed  sometimes  to  Gentiles 
(1:6, 13;  11:  18),  sometimes  to  Jews  (2;  3: 19;  7: 1), 
sometimes  to  both  (chs.  -9-11).  Evidently  there 
are  plenty  of  both  in  the  Roman  church,  and 
there  is  no  sharp  antagonism  between  them.  Of 
the  many  persons  named  in  the  epistle,  some 
are  Jews  and  some  are  Greeks,  while  two  (Urban 
and  Ampliatus)  have  Latin  names.  It  is  a  rep- 
resentative and  metropolitan  communion,  and 
it  receives  an  epistle  of  like  character. 

Occasion.— The  letter  to  the  Romans  is  a  theo- 
logical treatise  rather  than  a  letter,  and  the 
exact  motive  which  induced  the  apostle  to  write 
it  is  not  certain.  The  epistle  is  written  calmly 
and  deliberately,  and  betrays  no  trace  of  anx- 
iety or  pressure,  or  of  any  serious  crisis  in  the 
church  or  city  of  Rome.  St.  Paul  had  many 
friends  there  (eh.  16),  and  had  long  wished 
to  go  thither  (15:  23).  He  could  not  fail  to  see 
that  the  condition  of  Christianity  in  the  me- 
tropolis of  the  empire  must  be  momentous  for 
the  whole  church.  The  departure  of  Phoebe, 
a  deaconess  of  Cenchrea,  port  of  Corinth,  gave 
him  an  opportunity  of  sending  a  letter  to  the 
Christians  in  this  important  center,  and  "the 
most  profound  work  in  existence  "  was  the  re- 
sult. In  it  he  tells  the  church  in  this  city  of 
conquerors  to  proclaim  the  gospel  as  the  power 
of  God,  which  by  faith  is  to  conquer  the  world, 
and  to  establish  a  spiritual  empire  greater  than 
the  material  empire  of  Rome.  Submission  to 
this  spiritual  rule  is  the  only  true  freedom. 

Contents.— In  the  previous  year  the  apostle 
had  dealt  sharply  with  Gentile  license  at  Cor- 
inth, and  with  Jewish  bigotry  in  Galatia.  He 
now  writes  a  calm  dissertation  upon  the  power 
of  the  faith  to  a  church  in  which  Jew  and  Gen- 
tile were  equally  and  peacefully  represented. 
In  this  treatise  he  expounds  Christianity  as  a 
divine  scheme  for  producing  righteousness  in 
man,  and  thus  realizing  the  kingdom  of  the 
Messiah.  The  epistle  has  two  main  divisions, 
doctrinal  and  practical,  with  introduction  and 
conclusion.  Introductory  (1:  1-17);  doctrinal- 
righteousness  by  faith  (1:  18-11:  36);  practical 
—Christian  duties  (12:1-15:  13);  valedictory  (15: 
14-16:  27).  The  principal  passages  which  touch 
on  the  divinity  of  Christ  are  1:3,  4;  8:3;  and 
perhaps  9:  5;  but  in  the  last  passage  some  would 
apply  the  doxology  to  God  and  not  to  Christ. 


Date  and  Place.— The  epistle  was  written  at  or 
near  Ephesus,  before  Pentecost  (16:  8),  and  prob- 
ably in  a.d.  57.  It  was  written  near  the  end  of 
St.  Paul's  second  and  long  visit  to  Ephesus  on 
his  third  missionary  journey  (Acts  19: 1,  10;  20: 
31),  shortly  before  his  departure  for  Greece  (19 :  21). 
No  other  book  in  the  New  Testament  is  quoted 
b)i  Us  author's  name  so  early  as  I.  Corinthians. 

The  Corinthian  Church.— Corinth,  destroyed 
by  Muinmius  (B.C.  146),  was  restored  by  Juiius 
Ca3sar  (B.C.  46);  and  in  a  century  it  had  become 
the  political  and  commercial  capital  of  Greece. 
As  such  it  was  the  abode  of  the  proconsul 
Gallio  (Acts  18:  12).     With  its  luxury  and  its 

worship  of  Aphrodite,  it  became  a  byword  for 
licentiousness.  The  Corinthian  Christians  had 
been  rescued  from  this  (I.  Cor.  6: 10,  11);  but  the 
evil  influence  was  always  there  (ch.  5).  The  plant- 
ing of  the  gospel  in  this  corrupt  center  was  the 
work  of  St.  Paul  (3:6,  10;  4:  15;  16:  15;  1 :  16).  He 
was  probably  the  first  Christian  to  enter  Corinth 

(C.  A.D.  52). 

Style— No  epistles  of  St.  Paul  illustrate  the 
peculiarities  of  his  style  better  than  the  two 
to  the  Corinthians.  He  dictated  his  letters,  and 
thus  speaks  rather  than  writes  to  the  recipients 
of  them.  In  this  way  his  letters  have  become  a 
mixture  of  oratory,  conversation,  and  corre- 
spondence, which  is  unlike  any  other  collection 
of  letters  that  is  known  to  us. 

Occasion.— Some  five  years  after  the  founding 
of  the  Corinthian  church,  St.  Paul  was  moved 
by  three  things  to  write  the  First  Epistle— the 
news  of  the  monstrous  case  of  incest,  perhaps 
brought  by  Stephanas  and  others  (16:17);  the 
news  of  the  factions  and  kindred  evils,  brought 
by  some  of  the  household  of  Chloe  (1:  11);  and 
the  letter  from  the  Corinthians  (7: 1). 

Contents. — The  contents  of  the  epistle  are  de- 
termined by  the  evils  reported  and  the  questions 
asked,  and  these  involve  a  considerable  number 
of  disconnected  topics.  After  the  usual  salu- 
tation and  thanksgiving  (1:1-9),  he  deals  with 
the  factions  (1:  10-4:  20)  and  impurity  (4:21-6: 
20).  He  then  answers  their  questions  about 
marriage  (ch.  7),  heathen  feasts  (8: 1-11 : 1),  public 
worship  and  spiritual  gifts  (11:  2-14:  40),  and  ex- 
pounds the  doctrine  of  the  resurrection  (ch.  15). 
He  ends  with  charges  and  salutations  (ch.  16). 
These  contents  are  more  varied  than  those  of  any 
other  epistle.  They  form  a  series  of  Tracts  for  the 
Times,  and  give  us  our  first  and  fullest  informa- 
tion about  the  institutions  and  ideas  of  the 
apostolic  age,  e.  g.,  baptism  (1:  13-17);  the  eu- 
charist,  which  is  evidently  united  with  the 
agape,  or  love-feast  (10: 15-22;  11:  23-34);  the  min- 
istry (12 :  28,  29) ;  public  worship  (14 :  14-39) ;  a  creed 
(15:  3,  4);  belief  in  a  future  state  (15: 12-34);  the 
observance  of  Sunday  (16:2);  the  holy  kiss  (16: 
20).  About  these  things  I.  Corinthians  gives  us 
the  earliest  information ;  but  it  does  not  give  us 
the  earliest  stage  of  their  development.  The 
churches  of  Jerusalem  and  of  Antioch  were 
older  than  the  church  of  Corinth. 


Date.— The  Second  Epistle  to  the  Corinthians 
was  written  in  Macedonia,  in  the  autumn  of  a.d. 
57,  but  perhaps  not  all  at  one  time  or  place.  Ap- 
parently Paul  was  suffering  from  his  chronic 
malady  (1:9;  4 :  10-12, 16).  Certainly  he  was  much 
depressed  (1:  6;  4:  8,  9;  5:  2;  7:  4).  The  bearers  of 
the  letter  were  Titus  and  two  others,  who  are 
not  named,  and  about  whom  there  have  been 
many  futile  conjectures. 

Characteristics.— This  is  the  first  chapter  in 
ecclesiastical  biography,  as  the  First  Epistle  is 
in  ecclesiastical  history.  It  is  the  apostle's  Apol- 
ogia pro  vita  sua,  being  in  part  an  autobiography; 
and  for  many  details  of  his  life  it  is  our  only 
source  of  information.  It  tells  us  much  about 
his  personal  feelings,  the  joys  and  sorrows  which 
his  high  office  brought  to  him,  and  the  humility 
and  fortitude  with  which  he  received  them.  As 
in  the  former  letter,  and  in  those  to  Timothy 
and  Titus,  the  pastoral  sagacity  and  strength  of 
the  apostle  is  very  prominent. 

Occasion  and  Contents.— The  motive  for  writ- 
ing it  was  news  brought  from  Corinth  by  Titus 
(7:5,  6),  especially  as  to  the  way  in  which  the 
First  Epistle  had  been  received,  and  the  success 
of  the  Judaizing  party,  who  had  been  intriguing 
in  Corinth,  as  elsewhere,  against  the  authority 
of  St.  Paul.  The  contents  are  less  varied  than 
those  of  the  First  Epistle,  but  the  changes  from 
one  subject  to  another  are  very  abrupt.  After 
the  usual  salutation  and  thanksgiving  (1 :  1-11), 



he  discusses  the  news  brought  by  Titus  (1 :  12- 
7:  16),  the  collection  for  the  churches  in  Judea 
(8: 1-9:  15);  and  his  own  apostolic  authority  (10: 
1-12 :  13).  He  ends  with  warning  and  blessing  (12 : 
14-13:13).  Love  and  thankfulness  pervade  the 
first  half  of  the  letter,  indignation  and  severity 
the  second.  It  is  less  eloquent  than  the  First 
Epistle,  but  even  more  intense. 


Date.— The  Epistle  to  the  Galatians  was  writ- 
ten before  that  to  the  Romans,  but  probably  after 
those  to  the  Corinthians,  while  St.  Paul  was 
journeying  through  Macedonia  to  Greece  late  in 
a.d.  57. 

The  Galatian  Churches.— We  are  uncertain 
whether  it  is  the  churches  in  the  Roman  prov- 
ince of  Galatia,  which  included  part  of  Phrygia, 
Pisidia,  and  Lycaonia,  or  only  those  in  Galatia 
proper,  which  are  addressed  by  the  apostle.  The 
latter  is  the  more  probable  alternative.  In  the 
Acts  St.  Luke  seems  to  mean  Galatia  proper,  and 
not  the  Roman  province,  when  he  mentions  the 
country.  Its  inhabitants  were  a  mixed  people, 
with  a  strong  Celtic  element  from  its  Gallic  con- 
querors ;  and  in  the  want  of  stability,  for  which 
St.  Paul  rebukes  them,  some  have  seen  an  ex- 
ample of  Celtic  fickleness.  We  gather  from  4: 13 
that  St.  Paul  was  detained  among  the  Galatians 
by  illness;  and  this  led  to  their  conversion. 

Occasion.— They  received  his  preaching  with 
enthusiasm,  and  became  personally  devoted  to 
him.  But  after  he  left  them  some  Judaizing 
teachers  arrived,  who  affirmed  that  in  order  to 
be  loyal  Christians  the  Galatians  must  become 
loyal  Jews  and  keep  the  Mosaic  law ;  and  to  this 
persistent  dogmatism  the  Galatians  succumbed. 
This  burning  appeal  is  the  result. 

Characteristics.— The  epistle  is  written  rap- 
idly, under  the  influence  of  strong  emotion,  and 
sweeps  all  before  it  in  its  fervid  proclamation  of 
the  freedom  of  the  gospel  as  opposed  to  the  bond- 
age of  the  law.  As  in  II.  Corinthians,  Paul  has 
to  vindicate  his  claim  to  be  an  apostle.  He  has 
also  to  make  clear  that  the  Mosaic  law,  although 
divine  in  origin,  is  not  binding  upon  Christians, 
because  legal  ordinances  have  been  superseded  by 
faith  in  Jesus  Christ.  Material  which  is  roughly 
thrown  together  in  this  letter  is  worked  up,  to- 
gether with  a  great  deal  of  additional  matter, 
into  an  elaborate  structure  in  the  Epistle  to  the 
Romans.  Here  we  have  the  first  sketches, 
which  were  afterwards  enlarged  and  arranged 
in  the  more  careful  composition,  which  was 
produced  when  the  writer  was  less  under 
the  influence  of  pressure  and  strong  emotion. 
The  letter  is  remarkable  in  lacking  the  thanks- 
giving, which  is  an  all  but  invariable  feature  in 
the  Pauline  Epistles.  In  his  severity  the  apostle 
substitutes  for  the  thanksgiving  a  statement  of 
the  Galatians'  defection  (1:  6-10). 

Summary.— We  can  trace  three  main  divisions 
—personal,  doctrinal,  and  hortatory.  After  the 
introduction  (1 : 1-10),  we  have  a  vindication  of 
his  apostolic  authority  (1 :  11-2 :  21),  and  of  the 
gospel  as  superseding  the  law  (3:1-4:  31) ;  thence 
we  pass  to  a  practical  application  of  this  doc- 
trine (5: 1-6: 10).  The  conclusion  he  writes  with 
his  own  hand  (6: 11-18). 


Date.— This  epistle  belongs  to  the  group  which 
is  called  "the  epistles  of  the  imprisonment" 
or  "of  the  captivity,"  i.e.,  the  first  Roman  im- 
prisonment, during  which  St.  Paul  wrote 
Philippians,  Philemon,  Colossians,  and  Ephe- 
sians.  The  letter  was  probably  written  and  sent 
near  to  the  close  of  the  first  Roman  imprison- 
ment, about  the  year  a.d.  63. 

Characteristics.— In  all  these  letters  he  de- 
scribes himself  as  a  prisoner  (Phil.  1:13,  17; 
Phile.  1,  23;  Col.  4:  10,  18;  Eph.  3:  1;  4:  1).  As 

we  might  expect  from  the  fact  of  their  being 
written  almost  at  the  same  time,  there  is 
great  resemblance  between  the  letters  to  the 
Colossians  and  to  the  Ephesians.  Out  of  the 
hundred  and  fifty-five  verses  in  Ephesians, 
seventy-eight  contain  expressions  identical  with 
those  in  Colossians.  But  the  two  epistles, 
although  similar,  are  not  the  same.  In  Colos- 
sians the  glory  of  Christ  as  head  of  the  universe 
and  of  the  church  is  magnified.  In  Ephesians  it 
is  the  catholicity  of  the  church  itself  that  is  set 
forth  as  the  outcome  of  the  doctrine  of  adop- 
tion in  Christ.  In  Colossians  it  is  the  glory  of 
Christ  that  is  emphasized;  in  Ephesians  the 
work  of  the  Spirit,  for  it  is  through  the  Spirit 
that  the  presence  and  energy  of  Christ  is  con- 
tinued in  the  church  (1: 13;  2:  22;  4:3,  30;  5: 18* 

Occasion.— The  fact  that  Tychicus  was  going 
from  Rome  to  Colosste  (Col.  4 : 7)  was  an  oppor 
tunity  of  sending  a  letter  not  only  to  that  city, 
but  to  other  Christians  in  Asia  (Eph.  6:  21).  But 
there  seems  to  have  been  no  great  crisis  in  the 
churches  of  Asia  Minor  calling  for  interference. 
In  this  respect  the  epistle  is  parallel  to  the 
Epistle  to  the  Romans.  There  is  little  doubt 
that  this  magnificent  epistle  was  originally  a 
circular  one,  and  that  Ephesus  was  only  one  of 
the  cities  in  the  Roman  province  of  Asia  to 
which  it  was  addressed.  "The  epistle  from 
Laodicea"  (Col.  4:16)  probably  refers  to  a  copy  of 
this  circular  letter  to  be  left  by  Tychicus  at 
Laodicea,  on  his  way  from  Ephesus  to  Colossge. 

Style.— The  language  of  the  epistle  is  marked 
by  an  overflowing  copiousness  of  expression, 
sometimes  resulting  in  involved  and  prolonged 
constructions  (1 :  3-14).  The  writer  finds  even 
the  grand  resources  of  the  Greek  language 
unequal  to  the  task  of  conveying  to  others 
the  flood  of  heavenly  thoughts  which  spring  up 
within  him  as  his  mind  soars  from  his  prison  in 
Rome  to  the  throne  of  God ;  this  is  specially  the 
case  in  the  first  chapter. 

Contents.— The  epistle  expounds  the  concep- 
tion of  the  ideal  church  and  draws  practical 
conclusions  from  it.  The  church  is  the  body  of 
Christ,  and  the  fullness  of  Him  that  fllleth  all  in 
all  (1 :  23;  4 :  12-16) ;  the  holy  temple  of  God  (2 :  20- 
22) ;  and  the  spotless  spouse  of  Christ  (5 :  25-28). 
As  the  fullness  of  the  Godhead  resides  in  Christ, 
so  the  fullness  of  Christ  resides  in  his  church. 
This  ideal  church  is  in  process  of  being  realized. 
The  actual  church  has  many  defects  and  blem- 
ishes. But  "the  measure  of  the  stature  of  the 
fulness  of  Christ"  will  be  reached  at  last  (4: 13); 
and  it  is  the  duty  of  each  individual  member  to 
work  towards  this  end,  especially  through 
the  Christian  family,  which  is  a  symbol  and 
likeness  of  the  church.  The  usual  salutation 
(1 : 1,2)  and  thanksgiving  (1 :  3-14)  are  followed  by 
a  corresponding  intercession  (1: 15-2: 10)  and  a 
contrast  between  unconverted  and  converted 
Gentiles  (2: 11-22).  The  apostle's  special  interest 
in  the  conversion  of  the  Gentiles  (3:1-21)  leads 
up  to  exhortations  respecting  the  unity  of  the 
catholic  church  and  the  duties  of  its  members 
(4 : 1-6 :  20) ;  after  which  comes  a  personal  expla- 
nation, and  the  concluding  benediction  (6 :  21-24). 


The  Philippian  Church.— Philippi,  founded  by 
Philip,  the  father  of  Alexander  the  Great,  and 
immortalized  by  the  battle  which  ended  the 
Roman  republic  and  ushered  in  the  empire 
(B.C.  42),  had  been  thereupon  raised  to  the  rank 
of  a  Roman  military  colony,  and  made  a  minia- 
ture likeness  of  Rome.  Greeks,  Roman  officials, 
and  colonists,  and  a  small  colony  of  Jews,  who 
had  a  place  of  prayer  by  the  river,  formed  the 
population.  St.  Paul's  first  visit  to  Philippi,  in 
company  with  Silas,  Timothy,  and  Luke,  is  nar- 
rated by  Luke  with  exceptional  detail  in  one  of 
the  "we"  sections  (Acts  16:  11-40).    This  was  on 



the  second  missionary  journe v,  i  n  or  near  a.d.  52 
The  three  converts  whom  St.  Luke  mentions, 
and  the  order  of  their  conversion,  are  typical: 
first,  the  proselyte  purple-seller  from  Thvatira- 
next,  the  Greek  slave  girl  with  the  spirit  of 
divination;  and  lastly,  the  Roman  jailer.  No- 
where, m  spite  of  very  great  persecution,  was 
the  apostle's  success  so  great,  and  nowhere  had 
he  more  loyal  converts.  They  were  the  only 
congregation  from  which  he  accepted  pecuniary 
help  (4:  15),  and  that  more  than  once.  He  was 
deeply  attached  to  thorn  as  his  "joy  and  crown," 
and  visited  them  a  second  time  towards  the  end 
of  57,  and  vet  a  third  time  on  his  return  to  Asia 
for  the  last  journey  to  Jerusalem,  in  the  spring 
of  68,  when  he  stayed  and  kept  Easter  with  them. 
They  contributed,  not  only  to  his  support,  but 
to  the  relief  of  the  poor  Christians  in  Judea— a 
charitable  work  which  St.  Paul  had  very  much 
at  heart. 

Occasion  and  Date.— The  letter  is  a  sponta- 
neous expression  of  love  and  gratitude  in  return 
for  the  affectionate  generosity  of  the  Philip- 
pi  ans,  and  is  a  beautiful  reflection  of  the  apos- 
tle's mind  and  character  in  its  noblest  and  ten- 
derest  moods.  It  was  sent  by  Epaphroditus, 
who  had  brought  help  from  the  Philippians  to 
their  imprisoned  master  in  Rome,  at  the  cost  of 
a  severe  illness,  which  almost  proved  fatal,  and 
which  left  him  rather  homesick.  St.  Paul  gen- 
erously seconded  his  desire  to  return  home,  and 
with  him  sent  this  affectionate  letter  (2:  25-30). 
It  was  probably  the  first  of  the  group  of  letters 
written  during  the  first  Roman  imprisonment. 
Contents.— The  epistle  to  the  Philippians  is  the 
only  one  of  St.  Paul's  letters  to  the  churches  in 
which  there  is  no  word  of  rebuke  or  disappoint- 
ment. It  overflows  with  Christian  cheerfulness. 
"Rejoice  in  the  Lord  alway:  again  I  will  say 
Rejoice"  (4:  4).  Like  the  First  Epistle  to  the 
Thessalonians,  it  approaches  the  character  of  a 
private  letter  as  an  exhibition  of  personal  feel- 
ing; hence  there  is  very  little  arrangement  of 
topics:  Salutation  and  thanksgiving  (1:  1-11)- 
personal  narrative  (1:  12-26);  exhortation  to  fol- 
low Christ  (1:  27-2: 18);  the  missions  of  Timothy 
and  Epaphroditus  (2: 19-30);  final  charge,  inter- 
rupted by  a  caution  against  those  who  debase 
the  gospel  (3:1-4:  1),  and  resumed  (4:  2-9);  grati- 
tude for  their  bounty  (4:  10-20);  greetings  and 
blessing  (4 :  21-23).  He  looks  forward  to  visiting 
them  again  (2:  24);  and  it  would  seem  that  this 
hope  was  fulfilled  in  the  interval  between  the 
two  Roman  imprisonments  (I.  Tim.  1:3);  but  in 
the  New  Testament  we  are  told  no  more  about 


The  Epistle  and  Its  Date.-This  epistle  is  the  con- 
necting link  between  Ephesians  and  Philemon. 
The  letters  to  the  Ephesians  and  the  Colossians 
were  both  entrusted  to  Tychicus,  and  they  have 
a  great  deal  of  common  material.  Those  to  the 
Colossians  and  to  Philemon  mention  almost  ex- 
actly the  same  group  of  persons.  The  devotion 
of  Epaphras  had  caused  him  to  be  kept  in  Rome 
as  a  fellow-prisoner  with  St.  Paul  (Phile.  23V 
and  therefore  not  he,  but  Tychicus,  is  entrusted 
with  the  letter,  and  Tychicus  is  accompanied  by 
Onesimus,  who  bears  the  letter  to  Philemon  (4- 
7-9).  The  probable  date  is  a.d.  63,  shortly  before 
the  apostle's  release  from  the  first  of  the  two 
Roman  imprisonments. 

The  Colossian  Church.  —  Colossse  had  been  a 
great  city,  but  it  had  very  much  declined,  and 
was  now  the  smallest  of  the  three  neighbor  cities 
in  the  valley  of  the  Lycus;  for  Laodicea  and 
Hierapolis  were  still  prosperous.  It  was  the  most 
insignificant  of  the  churches  which  have  been 
honored  by  receiving  a  letter  from  St.  Paul,  and  it 
is  scarcely  mentioned  in  later  times.  Neither  in 
this  epistle  nor  in  the  Acts  is  there  any  evidence 
that  the  apostle  ever  visited  the  Colossians.  He 
has  "heard  of  their  faith"  (1:  4,  9),  and  implies 

that  they  "have  not  seen  his  face  in  the 
flesh  "  (2:  1).  It  was  the  Colossian  Epaphras  who 
preached  Christ  at  Colossse,  Laodicea,  and  Hie- 
rapolis, being  aided  at  ( tolossse  by  Philemon,  and 
at  Laodicea  by  Nymphas  (1-7;  4:12-15):  and  it- 
was  the  report,  brought  by  Epaphras  to  Rome, 
of  the  dangerous  heresy  that  was  spreading  in 
Colossse,  which  moved  the  apostle  to  write.  This 
heresy  was  a  mixture  of  Oriental  dualism  with 
Jewish  formalism. 

Contents.— St.  Paul  meets  the  erroneous  doc- 
trine taught  at  Colossse  by  insisting  that  Christ 
is  the  one  mediator  between  (rod  and  man.  It  is 
io;iindnotany  series  of  angelic  beings,  that 
bridges  the  chasm  between  the  supreme  God  and 
the  universe,  between  the  Creator  and  the  crea- 
ture. And  St.  Paul  meets  the  erroneous  method 
?,tc.°lnJ?almg  evil  by  pointing  out  that  it  is  in 
Christ  that  sanctification  is  to  be  gained,  by  puri- 
f^ng  the  heart,  and  not  by  external  observances. 

Christ  is  all  and  in  ail,"  is  the  main  theme  of 
the  epistle,  which  is  written  with  less  finish 
than  most  of  St.  Paul's  letters,  but  with  all  his 
characteristic  force.  After  the  customary  salu- 
tation and  thanksgiving  (1:  1-8)  he  protests  his 
intense  interest  in  the  Colossians  (1 :  9-29),  which 
leads  on  to  warning  against  errors  (2:  1-3:4)  and 
exhortation  to  Christian  duties  as  husbands, 
fathers,  wives,  mothers,  children,  masters,  and 
servants  (3:  5-4:  6).  Personal  explanations  and 
salutations  bring  the  letter  to  a  close  (4 :  7-18). 


Date.--These  two  epistles  to  the  Thessalonians 
form  the  earliest  group  among  the  letters  of  St. 
Paul ;  and  the  first  of  them  is  probably  the  earliest 
Christian  document  that  has  come  down  to  us 
The  only  book  that  is  at  all  likely  to  be  earlier  is 
the  Epistle  of  St.  James,  and  that  was  probably 
written  eight  or  nine  years  later.  The  apostle 
wrote  the  First  Epistle  from  Corinth,  in  the 
names  of  himself,  Silas,  and  Timothy,  late  in  52 
or  early  in  53.  The  letter  bears  strong  marks  of 
its  very  early  date.  It  was  written  at  a  time 
when  it  was  expected  that  most  Christians 
would  live  to  see  Christ's  return,  and  when  it 
was  feared  that  those  who  died  before  he  came 
might  lose  some  of  the  blessings  of  his  comin^ 
The  apostle  corrects  the  latter  mistake,  but  ap- 
pears to  share  the  former  (4 :  13-18) ;  this  is  a 
strong  mark  of  genuineness;  for  no  one  writing 
after  St.  Paul's  death  would  have  attributed  to 
him  a  belief  which  experience  had  proved  to  be 
erroneous.  Evidently,  when  the  letter  was 
written,  not  many  Christians  had  died.  After 
many  had  passed  away  without  witnessing  the 
return  this  erroneous  expectation  perished. 

The  Church.— Thessalonica  was  a  prosperous 
city  on  the  Thermaic  Gulf,  the  capital  of  Mace- 
donia Secunda,  and  seat  of  a  Roman  proconsul 
Many  Jews  had  settled  there  for  the  sake  of  its 
commercial  advantages.  St.  Paul  founded  the 
church  there  on  his  second  missionary  journey 
in  company  with  Silas,  about  a.d.  52.  He 
preached  in  the  synagogue  and  converted  some 
Jews  and  many  proselytes.  Jewish  hostility 
was  so  great  that  after  three  weeks  he  ceased  to 
preach  in  the  synagogue;  then  many  Gentiles 
were  won  over.  Jewish  persecution  became  so 
intense  that  he  was  obliged  to  leave  the  city 
but  his  implacable  enemies  followed  him  to 
Berea,  and  made  that  place  also  unsafe  for  him. 
His  friends  sent  him  away  to  Athens,  where  he 
waited  for  Silas  and  Timothy,  who  had  re- 
mained behind  at  Berea  (Acts  17) ;  and  they  ulti- 
mately joined  him  at  Corinth  (18:5).  But  it 
seems  that  Timothy  joined  the  apostle  at  Ath- 
ens, as  previously  arranged  (18:  15)>  and  thence 
returned  to  Thessalonica,  before  rejoining  Paul 
at  Corinth  (I.  Thes.  3:  1,  2)  with  a  report  of  the 
mistaken  ideas  that  had  arisen. 

Contents.— I.  Thessalonians  shows  us  a  voung 
church  which  had  embraced  the  faith  with  en- 



thusiasm,  but  is  not  yet  free  from  heathen  vices, 
and  is  moreover  much  excited  about  questions 
respecting  the  end  of  the  world,  which  tended 
to  promote  idleness  and  gossip.  It  is  the  least 
dogmatic  of  St.  Paul's  epistles,  yet  it  clearly 
teaches  the  following  important  doctrines :  that 
Christ  is  one  with  the  Father  (1:1;  3:11);  is  our 
Redeemer  and  Saviour  (1:  11;  5:  9,  10);  is  the 
Lord  (2: 15;  4:  16)  and  our  Lord  (2: 19;  5:  23),  who 
is  coming  again  from  heaven  (4:  14-18).  After 
the  salutations  and  thanksgiving  (ch.  1),  we  have 
two  main  divisions :  declarations  of  affection  and 
satisfaction  (2 : 1-3 :  13) ;  advice  and  comfort,  be- 
cause of  the  triumph  in  the  resurrection  (4: 1- 
5:  22).  In  the  conclusion  (5:  23-28),  the  direction 
that  the  epistle  is  to  be  read  to  all  the  brethren, 
and  not  retained  by  a  select  few,  is  quite  in 
place  in  the  first  letter  written  by  the  apostle  to 
a  Christian  church. 


Date.— The  Second  Epistle  was  written  before 
a.d.  58,  but  how  long  after  the  First  Epistle  cannot 
be  determined;  probably  a  number  of  months. 
Silvanus  and  Timothy  are  still  with  St.  Paul 
(1:  1),  and  that  perhaps  points  to  his  being  still 
at  Corinth.  But  the  precaution  against  forged 
letters  (4:  17),  by  means  of  which  the  Thessalo- 
nians  seem  to  have  been  deceived  (2:  2),  appears 
to  imply  that  they  have  received  more  than  one 
genuine  letter  from  the  apostle. 

Contents.— In  I.  Thes.  4:  15  St.  Paul  expects 
that  he  and  most  Christians  will  live  to  see  the 
second  advent.  In  II.  Thes.  2:  2,  3  he  points  out 
that  "the  man  of  sin"  must  come  first,  whom 
the  Lord  shall  "  bring  to  nought  by  the  manifes- 
tation of  his  coming  "  (2 :  8,  R.  V.).  This  is  quite 
consistent  with  the  belief  that  most  Christians 
will  live  to  see  the  coming  both  of  "  the  man  of 
sin"  and  also  of  the  Lord.  The  main  divisions 
of  the  epistle  are  marked  by  the  chapters.  Sal- 
utation and  thanksgiving  (ch.  1) ;  warning  about 
the  date  of  the  advent  (ch.  2);  exhortation  to 
prayer  and  work  (3 : 1-15),  with  benediction  (v.  16) 
and  autograph  conclusion  (vs.  17, 18). 



The  Name,  "  Pastoral."— This  title  could  not  be 
improved.  It  expresses  the  chief  characteristic 
of  this  last  group  of  the  Pauline  Epistles;  but  it 
might  easily  mislead,  for  the  letters,  especially 
II.  Timothy,  are  by  no  means  wholly  pastoral. 
They  are  suitably  placed,  although  out  of  the 
chronological  order,  between  the  other  epistles 
of  St.  Paul  and  that  to  Philemon.  Like  Phile- 
mon, they  are  personal;  like  the  others,  they 
treat  of  church  practice,  doctrine,  and  govern- 
ment, rather  than  of  personal  topics.  Yet  these 
church  questions  are  treated,  not  (as  in  other 
epistles)  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  congrega- 
tion, but  from  that  of  the  minister. 

The  Dates.— The  dates  can  only  be  approxi- 
mately fixed.  Titus  and  I.  Timothy  were  written 
after  St.  Paul's  release  from  the  first  Roman 
imprisonment,  and  II.  Timothy  was  written 
during  the  second  Roman  imprisonment,  short- 
ly before  the  apostle's  martyrdom  in  a.d.  67  or 
68.  Titus  may  have  been  written  before  I.  Tim- 
othy, but  it  is  impossible  to  find  a  place  for  the 
whole  group— so  evidently  connected  with  one 
another,  and  so  distinct  from  the  preceding 
group— inside  the  period  covered  by  the  Acts. 


Author.— Timothy  would  be  barely  thirty-five 
years  of  age  when  Paul,  who  was  nearly  twice  as 
old,  wrote  the  First  Epistle  to  him.  He  had 
been  converted  as  a  lad  by  the  apostle  at  Lystra, 
about  a.d.  45,  and  was  the  most  trusted  of  all 

his  disciples,  his  "beloved  and  faithful  child." 
He  was  with  Paul  during  his  imprisonment  in 
Rome  (Phil.  1: 1;  2: 19;  Col.  1:  1). 

Occasion  and  Date.— After  Paul's  release,  Tim- 
othy had  been  left  by  him  in  Ephesus  to  check 
erroneous  doctrine,  while  Paul  went  on  to  Mac- 
edonia (1:  3-7)  to  visit  his  loved  Philippians 
(Phil.  2 :  24).  Not  knowing  when  he  may  return 
(3 :  14,  15),  the  apostle  writes  to  instruct  Timothy 
about  a  variety  of  matters.  This  was  probably 
about  65. 

Summary.— The  subjects  are  taken  just  as  they 
occur  to  the  writer,  in  an  easy  manner,  which 
is  perfectly  natural  in  a  genuine  letter,  but 
which  a  forger,  writing  to  promote  his  own 
views,  could  not  readily  have  assumed.  We  have 
the  eminently  Pauline  salutation  (1:  1,  2)  and 
thanksgiving  (1: 12-17)  at  the  outset.  Then  the 
subjects  of  public  worship  (ch.  2),  officers  of  the 
church  (ch.  3),  false  teachers  and  asceticism 
(ch.  4),  widows  and  elders  (ch.  5),  slaves,  false 
teachers,  and  covetousness,  (6:  1-19)  are  dis- 
cussed; and  the  letter  closes  with,  a  charge  and 
a  benediction  (6:  20,  21). 


Date.— The  Second  Epistle  to  Timothy  was 
written  from  the  prison  in  Rome,  near  the  close 
of  the  second  imprisonment,  a.d.  67  or  68,  after 
Paul  alone  and  unaided  had  defended  himself, 
and  had  been  "delivered  out  of  the  mouth  of 
the  lion."  It  was  written  in  the  conviction  that 
the  end  was  near  at  hand. 

Occasion.— The  immediate  motive  of  the  letter 
is  the  desire  to  see  Timothy,  a  desire  so  urgent 
that  it  is  expressed  four  times  (1:4;  4:  9,  ll,  21). 
But  the  writer  takes  the  opportunity  of  express- 
ing a  great  deal  more  than  this  personal  wish. 

Contents.— The  apostle  sends  his  last  instruc- 
tions to  his  disciple  and  delegate,  and  to  all 
future  ministers  in  the  church.  In  its  strange 
mixture  of  depression  and  gladness  it  reminds 
us  of  II.  Corinthians.  Death,  which  will  free 
him  from  bonds,  toil,  and  anxiety,  and  bring 
him  home  to  Christ,  will  take  him  from  the 
churches  which  sorely  need  him,  and  from  the 
friends  who  love  him  and  lean  on  him;  dark 
days  are  coming,  and  even  love  is  waxing  cold; 
hence  the  urgent  appeals  all  through  the  letter 
to  be  firm  and  courageous  (1 :  6-14 ;  2 : 1-13 ;  3 :  14 ; 
4: 1-5).  The  conduct  of  Timothy  occupies  about 
one-third  of  the  epistle,  the  second  main  sub- 
ject being  the  present  and  future  condition  of 
the  church  (2:  14-3:  17).  Towards  the  close  the 
apostle  speaks  of  himself  (4:  6-21).  Like  the 
First  Epistle,  the  letter  has  the  thoroughly 
Pauline  salutation  (1: 1,  2),  thanksgiving  (1:3-5), 
and  benediction  (4 :  22) ;  which  last  contains  the 
last  recorded  words  of  the  apostle  of  the  Gen- 
tiles. Of  Timothy  we  are  told  nothing  further 
in  the  New  Testament,  excepting  his  release 
from  some  imprisonment,  about  which  we  have 
no  details  (Heb.  13:23). 


Author.— Titus,  like  Timothy,  was  converted  by 
St.  Paul;  unlike  Timothy,  he  was  a  Gentile.  He 
was  probably  the  bearer  of  I.  Corinthians,  and 
certainly  the  bearer  of  II.  Corinthians,  a.d.  57. 
Paul  writes  of  him  to  the  Galatians  as  a  person 
well  known  to  them  (2 : 1),  but  we  do  not  know 
when  he  was  in  that  country.  Apparently  he 
was  not  one  of  the  apostle's  constant  compan- 
ions, but  worked  more  or  less  independently. 
We  have  no  certain  knowledge  of  him  until  the 
epistle  to  him  reveals  him  as  the  delegate  of  the 
apostle  in  Crete,  where  St.  Paul  had  left  him 
some  time  before,  perhaps  in  a.d.  65.  When 
II.  Timothy  was  written  a  year  or  two  later 
(66  or  67),  Titus  had  been  with  Paul  in  Rome 
during  his  second  imprisonment  there,  but  had 
left   him  to  go  into   Dalmatia.     Whether  the 



plan  of  meeting  In  Nicopolis,  during  the  winter 
alter  the  writing  of  the  letter  to  Titus  (3:  L2),  was 
carried  ou1  or  not,  we  do  riot  know.  On  the 
journey  from  Rome  to  Dalmatia  we  losesighl  of 
tltus,  He  was  one  of  sr.  Paul's  most  trusted 
disciples,  and  apparently  was  a  stronger  man 
than  Timothy.  The  apostle  seems  to  be  Jess 
anxious  about  him. 

Object  and  Contents.— The  main  object  of  the 
letter  istoinsl  met  Titus  how  to  canyon  the  work 
which  Paul  had  left  so  incomplete,  especially 
in  organising  a  regular  ministry  by  the  appoint- 
ment of  elders,  and  in  combat  Lug  false  teachers. 
In  this,  the  Letter  closely  resembles  I.  Timothy, 
which  was  written  about  t  he  same  time.  Like 
both  the  Letters  to  Timothy,  it  has  little  or  no 
arrangement  Subjects  are  treated  as  they  come 
to  the  writer's  mind,  in  a  natural  but  not  a 
systematic  order.  The  rather  long  and  solemn 
salutation  (1:1-1)  is  followed  by  a  discussion 
of  the  needs  of  the  Cretan  church  (1:5-3:11); 
after  which  we  have  personal  details  and  con- 
clusion (o:  12-15).  Great  stress  is  laid  upon  so- 
briety in  conduct  and  religion. 



Character.— This  exquisite  relic  stands  alone 
among  the  writings  of  St.  Paul,  and  almost 
alone  in  the  Bible.  It  is  a  private  letter  from 
an  apostle  to  a  private  individual.  The  pastoral 
epistles  are  addressed  to  individuals,  but  they 
are  not  private.  They  are  partly  official,  being 
written  to  persons  who  hold  office  in  the 
church,  and  are  to  be  read  by  others  besides 
Titus  and  Timothy.  The  letter  to  Philemon 
is  entirely  domestic.  St.  Paul  may  have  written 
many  such  letters  in  the  course  of  his  long 
ministry,  but  this  is  the  only  one  of  which 
we  have  any  knowledge;  and,  short  as  it  is,  it 
reveals  the  apostle  to  us  in  a  new,  but  not  unex- 
pected character,  as  the  perfect  Christian  gentle- 
man, with  all  a  gentleman's  courtesy  and  deli- 
cacy of  feeling. 

Date.— It  was  written  at  the  same  time  as  the 
epistles  to  the  Ephesians  and  the  Colossians  (a.d. 
63);  and  Onesimus,  the  bearer  of  it,  was  accom- 
panied by  Tychicus,  who  had  charge  of  the  two 
longer  epistles. 

Occasion.— Philemon  of  Colossal  had  been  con- 
verted by  St.  Paul.  Apphia  was  probably  his 
wife,  and  Archippus  possibly  his  son  (v.  2). 
Onesimus,  his  slave,  had  robbed  him  and  fled  to 
Rome,  the  common  hiding-place  of  countless 
criminals.  His  name  means  "profitable,"  and 
hence  the  play  on  words  (v.  11).  While  he 
was  in  Home  he  came  in  contact  with  St.  Paul, 
who  converted  him  and  became  deeply  attached 
to  him.  But  at  great  personal  sacrifice  he  re- 
stored him  to  his  master,  whom  he  begs  to  wel- 
come the  former  slave  and  thief  as  now  a 
brother  and  the  apostle's  child.  Neither  here 
nor  in  other  epistles  in  which  he  treats  of 
slaves  and  their  masters  does  St.  Paul  order  or 
even  recommend  emancipation.  But  he  enjoins 
a  treatment  of  slaves  which  would  render 
emancipation  either  inevitable  or  unnecessary. 
1  f  a  slave  is  treated  as  a  beloved  brother,  slavery 
has  become  an  empty  form.  Of  the  effect  of 
this  letter  we  have  no  certain  knowledge;  but 
we  need  not  doubt  that  Onesimus  was  forgiven 
and  kindly  received. 


For  Whom  Written— The  title  " To  Hebrews " 
is  very  ancient,  but  is  probably  not  original. 
The  addition  of  "  The  Epistle  "describes  the  writ- 
ing fairly  well;  but  until  near  the  end  of  it,  it  is 
more  of  an  essay  than  a  letter.  The  writer  him- 
self calls  it  a"  word  of  exhortation  "(18:  22).  The 
unsupported  statement  of  Clement  of  Alexan- 
dria (c.  a.j).  200)  that  it  was  originally  "written 

m  the  Hebrew  language  (ie.,  the  later  Aramaic)    I 

and  translated  by   Luke,"  is  contradicted  by  the 
vocabulary  and  stvle  of    the  treatise,  which  is 

written  in  pure  and  unfettered  Greek,  The 
numerous  quotations  from  the  Old  Testament 
are  all  of  them,  excepting  that  in  10:30,  taken 
from  the  Septuagint,  even  when  the  Septuagint 
differs  from  the  Hebrew.  The  writing  is  not 
addressed  to  Hebrews  generally,  but  to  some 
definite  community  of  Hebrew  Christians  in 
which  there  were  few  or  no  Gentiles.  Probably 
it  is  the  Christians  at  .Jerusalem,  or  at  some 
other  place  in  Palestine,  that  ought  to  be  regard- 
ed as  the  first  recipients  of  the  treatise.  It  was  | 
here  that  the  temptation  to  apostatize  and  go 
back  to  Judaism  was  specially  great;  and  the 
writer  again  and  again  warns  his  readers  against 
this  danger  as  one  of  a  really  awful  character 
(2:  1-4;  3:  6,  14;  4:  1,  14;  6:  1-8;  10:  23,26r31:  12:  13, 16, 

Date  and  Place.— The  epistle  was  certainly 
written  before  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  (a. 
d.  70);  and  12:  4  suggests  that  neither  the  Nero- 
nian  persecution  nor  the  nianvrdom  of  James 
the  Just  had  taken  place.  Jf  so,  the  treatise  can- 
not be  later  than  a.d.  (52. 

The  place  from  which  he  wrote  is  quite  uncer- 
tain. "They  of  Italy  salute  you"  (13:24)  may 
mean,  either  that  people  in  Italy  send  greetings 
to  the  recipients  of  the  epistle,  or  that  people 
from  Italy,  i.e.,  Italians  who  are  away  from  their 
home,  send  greetings. 

Authorship.— The  chief  question  regarding  this 
epistle  is  the  author,  about  whom  we  must 
still  confess,  as  Origen  did  more  than  sixteen 
centuries  ago,  "Who  wrote  the  epistle,  God 
alone  knows."  In  the  earliest  Greek  MSS.  it  is 
placed  among  the  epistles  of  St.  Paul.  The 
Syriac,  later  Greek,  and  Latin  MSS,  place  it 
where  we  have  it,  as  an  appendix  to  the  Pauline 
collection.  The  different  portions  of  the  church 
were  not  agreed  regarding  it.  St.  Paul,  St.  Luke. 
Apollos,  and  Barnabas  have  all  been  accredited 
with  the  authorship. 

Two  things  are  certain:  The  writer  was  not 
St.  Paul,  who  did  not  have  the  gospel  "con- 
firmed unto  him  by  them  that  heard  "  (2:  3),  but 
by  Jesus  Christ  himself  (Gal.  1:1);  and  the  writer 
was  under  strong  Pauline  influence,  as  the  whole 
treatise  shows.  Several  other  things  are  proba- 
ble. The  writer  was  a  born  Jew;  a  Hellenist, 
well  versed  in  the  Septuagint  and  in  the  Alex- 
andrian type  of  Jewish  theology;  a  companion 
of  Paul  and  a  friend  of  Timothy,  but  working 
independently  of  the  apostle;  a  person  with  a 
keen  interest  in  the  Hebrews  of  Palestine.  As 
it  is  possible  to  place  Barnabas  among  those  who 
received  the  gospel  from  "them  that  heard,"  the 
very  early  African  tradition  that  he  is  the  author 
may  be  true.  About  author,  place,  and  exact 
date  of  the  epistle  we  must  be  content  to  remain 
in  uncertainty.  However,  its  apostolic  power 
and  inspiration,  and  its  right  to  a  place  in  com- 
pany with  the  writings  of  apostles,  are  indis- 

Summary.— There  is  no  Pauline  salutation  or 
thanksgiving;  the  writer  goes  direct  to  his  main 
thesis:  The  finality  of  the  revelation  made  by 
the  Son,  who  is  superior  to  the  angels  (ens.  1,  2); 
Moses  and  Joshua,  the  founders  of  the  old  dis- 
pensation, Jesus  the  founder  of  the  new  (ohsi 
3,4):  the  universal  and  absolute  high-priesthood 
of  Christ  (chs.  5-7);  Christ's  priesthood  the  ful- 
fillment of  Jewish  expectations (8 :  1-10:  18);  ex- 
hortations to  use  their  privileges,  to  remember 
the  triumphs  of  the  faith,  and  to  profit  by  the 
lessons  of  the  past  (10:  19-12:  17);  personal  in- 
structions and  conclusion  (13:  18-25). 


St.  James  and  the  six  writings  which  follow  it 
constitute  the  group  known  as  "The  Catholic 
Epistles."   They  are  called  "  Catholic,"  or  "  Gen- 



era!,"  because  they  are  not  addressed  to  any 

particular  church,  but  to  a  wide  circle  of  read- 
ers. St.  Paul  had  written  to  seven  churches— 
Thessalonica,  Corinth,  Galatia,  Rome,  Philippi, 
Colossi,  Ephesus;  and  here  we  have  seven 
epistles  without  address  to  any  particular 
ehurch;  therefore,  they  may  be  called  "Gen- 
eral," or  "IJatholic."  This  group  was  anciently 
placed  immediately  after  the  Acts,  a  place 
which  suits  their  character  very  well;  and  in 
the  group  itself  the  Epistle  of  St.  James  has 
almost  always  stood  first. 


Author.— There  is  scarcely  any  doubt  that  the 
writer  was  James  the  Just,  the  brother  of  th-^. 
Lord  and  the  first  overseer  of  the  church  oi 
Jerusalem.  As  such  he  had  very  great  influence, 
and  was  regarded  as  of  apostolic  rank.  But  the 
fact  that  he  was  not  one  of  the  Twelve  explains 
the  ignorance  respecting  the  existence  of  his 
epistle  which  prevailed  in  the  early  church,  es- 
pecially in  the  West.  It  was  mainly  in  the  East, 
and  among  Jews  and  Jewish  Christians,  that 
James  the  Just  was  so  revered.  As  the  brother 
of  the  Lord  he  had  been  much  in  the  society  of 
Christ  before  he  had  learned  to  believe  on  him; 
and  this  accounts  for  the  numerous  reminis- 
cences of  Christ's  wwds  which  we  rind  in  his 
epistle,  and  which  seem  to  be  independent  of 
the  reports  of  his  words  contained  in  the  Gospels. 

Date.— James  was  put  to  death  in  a.d.  62  or  63, 
and  therefore  his  letter  cannot  be  placed  later 
than  that  date,  at  which  time  possibly  none  of 
our  Gospels  Avere  in  circulation.  It  may,  how- 
ever, have  been  written  fourteen  or  fifteen  years 
earlier  than  62;  and  in  that  case  would  not  only 
be  earlier  than  any  of  our  Gospels,  but  would 
be  the  earliest  book  in  the  New  Testament.  But 
a  later  date  is  more  probable. 

Character.— The  letter  is  addressed  to  the 
Christian  Jews  of  the  Dispersion,  i.e.,  the  Jews 
outside  Palestine,  especially  in  Syria  and  Egypt. 
Here  and  there  perhaps  the  writer  turns  aside 
and  addresses  unconverted  Jews  (4:  1-4;  5:  1-6); 
but  the  letter  as  a  whole  is  addressed  to  humble 
and  suffering  communities  of  Jewish  Christians. 
There  are  striking  parallels  between  this  epistle 
and  that  to  the  Romans  (Jas.  1:  3,  22;  4:1,  and 
Rom.  5: 3;  2: 13;  7:  23);  and  also  between  this  and 
I.Peter  (As.  1:  2,  3,  10, 11;  4:  6;  5:  20,  and  I.  Pet.  1: 
6,  7,  24;  5:  5;  4:  8).  In  neither  case  can  we  be  sure 
which  is  the  earlier  writing. 

Summary.— The  letter  has  no  plan,  and  scarce- 
ly admits  of  analysis.  It  begins  and  ends  with 
exhortations  to  patience  and  practical  piety  (1 : 
2-27;  5:  7-20),  while  the  central  portion  (2:  1-5:  6) 
is  largely  taken  up  with  rebukes.  "  Deeds,  not 
words  "  is  the  theme  all  through.  The  readers  are 
warned  against  barren  orthodoxy,  deadly  covet- 
ousness,  and  presumptuous  worldliness,  and  are 
comforted  under  present  and  threatening  temp- 
tations and  sufferings.  The  famous  passage  on 
faith  and  works  (2:  14-26)  is  written  without  any 
reference  to  the  teaching  of  St.  Paul.  St.  Paul 
contrasts  works  of  the  law  with  faith  in  Jesus 
Christ.  St.  James  says  nothing  about  either  the 
law  or  Jesus  Christ,  and  contrasts  works  of  mercy 
with  the  mere  belief  that  there  is  a  God. 


Author,  Date,  and  Place.— Excepting  the  four 
great  epistles  of  St.  Paul,  there  is  no  book  in 
the  New  Testament  of  which  the  authorship  is 
better  attested  than  the  First  Epistle  of  St. 
Peter.  The  questions  open  to  doubt  are  when 
and  where  he  wrote  it.  Peter  remained  in  the 
East  after  his  release  from  prison  at  Jerusalem 
(Acts  15:  7),  and  at  Antioch  (Gal.  2:  11).  It  is  pos- 
sible rather  than  probable  that  he  visited  Cor- 
inth (I.  Cor.  1 :  12).  Of  a  visit  to  Italy  there  is  no 
trace.  When  St.  Paul  wrote  to  the  Romans,  a.d. 
58,  no  apostle  had  as  yet  visited  Rome  (Rom.  1 : 

11-15;  15:  20-21).  If  such  an  apostle  as  Peter  had 
preached  there,  Paul  could  not  have  written 
thus.  The  "fiery  trial  "  which  awaits  the  read- 
ers of  I.  Peter  (4:  12)  seems  to  point  to  the  perse- 
cution under  Nero.  If  this  is  correct,  we  must 
place  the  epistle  either  in  or  after  a.d.  61,  a  date 
which  fully  explains  the  writer's  acquaintance 
with  Romans,  Ephesians,  and  St.  James.  The 
letter  itself  indicates  where  it  was  written.  "  She 
that  is  in  Babylon,  elect  together  with  you,  sa- 
luteth  you;  and  so  doth.Marcus  my  son"  (5:  13). 
It  is  scarcely  doubtful  that  this  means  the 
church  of  Rome.  Babylon  had  long  been  a 
name  for  Rome  among  the  Jews;  and  such  a 
name  would  have  special  point  during  the  Nero- 
nian  persecution. 

Motive.— The  address  of  the  letter  is  figurative, 
as  Babylon  is  figurative.  The  letter  is  written 
"  to  the  elect  who  are  sojourners  of  the  Dispersion 
in  Pontus,  Galatia,"  etc.  This  probably  means 
those  Christians  who  had  fled  from  Nero's  perse- 
cution and  taken  refuge  in  Asia  Minor.  The 
chief  motive  of  the  letter  is  to  inspire  patience 
and  hope  amid  tribulation  and  persecution,  and 
steadfastness  under  temptation.  It  beautifully 
illustrates  the  special  mission  of  Peter  to  feed 
the  flock  of  Christ,  in  supplying  Christians 
through  all  ages  with  spiritual  sustenance  and 
refreshment,  especially  in  times  of  trial. 

Contents.— There  are  (1)  an  exhortation  to  per- 
severance under  persecution  (1: 1-2: 10);  (2)  admo- 
nitions to  discharge  of  particular  duties  (2 :  11- 
3:  13):  (3)  the  enforcement,  by  the  example  of 
Christ,  of  duties  of  patience  and  holiness  (3:  11- 
4:  19);  directions  for  officers  of  the  church  and 
members,  with  salutations  (5:  1-14). 


Authorship.— The  authorship  of  the  Second 
Epistle  is  one  of  the  most  perplexing  problems 
in  New  Testament  criticism.  The  writer  of  the 
Epistle  to  the  Hebrews  veils  his  personality. 
The  writer  of  II.  Peter  seems  to  give  every  op- 
portunity of  identification.  He  is  "Symeon 
Peter,  an  apostle  of  Jesus  Christ "  (1 :  1),  whose 
death  Christ  foretold  (1 :  14),  who  was  present  at 
the  transfiguration  (1 :  18),  and  was  the  author 
of  I.  Peter  (3:  1).  The  difficulties  of  admitting 
the  writer's  claim  to  be  the  chief  of  the  apostles 
are  serious;  but  the  difficulties  of  rejecting  it 
are  not  less  serious.  "In  style  and  diction  it  is 
very  unlike  I.  Peter."  But  most  of  these  diffi- 
culties were  known  in  the  fourth  century,  when 
evidence  which  is  no  longer  available  was  in  ex- 
istence; and  in  spite  of  them  the  epistle  was 
finally  accepted  as  apostolic. 

Date  and  Address.— It  was  probably  written 
shortly  before  the  apostle's  death,  and  therefore 
probably  in  Rome.  It  is  addressed  to  all  Chris- 
tians (1:  1),  but  especially  to  the  recipients  of 
the  First  Epistle  (3: 1). 

Contents.— There  are  striking  resemblances  be- 
tween II.  Peter  and  I.  Peter,  and  between  II. 
Peter  and  the  speeches  of  St.  Peter  as  reported 
in  the  Acts.  In  I.  Peter  there  are  borrowings 
from  St.  Paul  and  from  St.  James ;  and  it  need 
not  startle  us  if  in  II.  Peter  we  find  borrowings 
from  St.  Jude.  The  letter  begins  and  ends  in 
exhortations  to  grow  in  grace  and  knowledge 
(1:  3-21;  3:  14-18),  the  central  portion  being  occu- 
pied with  warnings  and  predictions  regarding 
the  certainty  of  the  punishment  of  the  impeni- 
tent, and  of  the  future  judgment  (2:  1-3:  13), 
which  are  the  main  object  of  the  epistle. 

I.  JOHN. 

Author  and  Date.— It  is  admitted  on  all  sides 
that  I.  John  is  by  the  author  of  the  fourth  Gos- 
pel, and  that  testimony  to  either  book  may  be 
accepted  as  testimony  to  the  other.  The  epistle 
was  no  doubt  written  at  Ephesus,  where  St. 
John  spent  most  of  the  last  thirty  years  of  his 
life ;  and  it  was  probably  written  a.d.  85-95. 



Characteristics.— The  epistle  is  rightly  called 
catholic,  or  general,  as  being  addressed  to  the 
church  at  large.  St,  John  may  have  had  the 
Christians  of  Asia  Minor  specially  in  view  when 
he  wrote,  but  he  does  not  specially  address 
them,  and  the  writing  is  more  like  a  homily 
than  a  letter.  It  is  a  companion  to  the  fourth 
Gospel,  the  thoughts  and  words  of  which  it  fre- 
quently reproduces.  It  refers  to  the  Gospel,  and 
comments  on  it  repeatedly,  with  a  view  to  com 
firming  and  enforcing  it.  The  Gospel  is  histor- 
ical, and  only  indirectly  controversial ;  the  epis- 
tle is  moral  and  practical,  and  sometimes  is  in- 
tentionally polemical.  The  one  exhibits  the  per- 
son of  the  Christ;  the  other  sets  forth  the  duty 
of  the  Christian,  who  will  often  have  to  oppose 
error.  It  is  the  final  utterance  of  "the  glorious 
company  of  the  apostles"  to  Christendom.  It 
soars  above  the  other  epistles  and  consummates 
them.  It  breathes  an  atmosphere  in  which  the 
agitation  caused  by  minor  collisions  is  not  felt, 
and  every  other  opposition  is  merged  in  the 
great  conflict  between  light  and  darkness,  truth 
and  falsehood,  love  and  hate,  righteousness  and 
sin,  life  and  death. 

Contents.— The  epistle  is  much  harder  to  ana- 
lyze than  the  Gospel.  The  divisions  melt  into 
one  another  so  that  the  transitions  are  scarcely 
perceptible.  There  is  an  introduction  (1:  1-4)  and 
a  conclusion  (5:  13-21).  What  lies  between  falls 
into  two  main  divisions,  the  first  of  which  (1:5- 
2:28)  is  influenced  by  the  thought  "God  is  light  " 
the  second  (2:  29-5:  12)  by  the  thought  "God  is 
^Le'"  Itls  Possible  to  subdivide  these;  but  it  is 
difficult  to  say  where  each  section  begins  and 
ends,  and  also  to  state  satisfactorily  the  exact 
subject  of  each. 


Author  and  Date. —  It  is  generally  admitted 
that  the  Second  and  Third  Epistles  are  by  the 
same  hand.  "The  elder"  who  wrote  these  re- 
produces the  style  of  St.  John  with  such  mar- 
velous felicity  that  it  is  reasonable  to  believe 
that  they,  as  well  as  the  First  Epistle  and  the 
Gospel,  arc  by  the  apostle.  This  letter  was  no 
doubt  written  from  Ephesus  during  about  the 
same  period  of  St.  John's  life  as  the  First  Epistle. 

Contents.— The  First  Epistle  is  certainly  ad- 
dressed to  the  church  universal,  the  third 
equally  certainly  to  an  individual  man;  the  sec- 
ond may  be  addressed  either  to  a  local  church  or 
to  an  individual  woman.  The  latter  alternative 
is  the  more  probable,  owing  to  the  great  simi- 
larity between  the  Second  and  Third  epistles. 
But  when  we  have  decided  that  the  "elect 
i?idy.  „(or  the  "elect  Kyria,"  or  the  "lady 
Electa  ")  is  an  actual  person  rather  than  a  fig- 
urative name  for  a  particular  church,  we  must 
be  content  to  know  no  more  about  her  than  the 
letter  itself  reveals.  Like  Philemon,  II.  and 
111.  John  are  precious  examples  of  the  private 
correspondence  of  an  apostle,  the  one  being  ad- 
dressed to  a  Christian  lady,  the  other  to  a  Chris- 
tian gentleman.  In  the  former  the  apostle 
states  that  he  has  seen  some  of  the  lady's 
children,  who,  to  his  great  joy,  are  leading 
Christian  lives.  But  there  are  others  of  hei 
children  of  whom  this  could  not  be  said;  and 
this  painful  fact  makes  him  write  to  her  before 
coming  to  visit  her.  Has  she  been  indiscreet  in 
exposing  them  to  unsound  teaching?  Hospi- 
tality and  benevolence  ought  not  to  be  exercis- 
eviin  S  a  Way  aS  t0  further  tne  success  of 

Date  and  Place. -The  Third  Epistle  was  written 
probably  about  the  same  time  as  the  other  two. 
and  from  the  same  place.  It  is  addressed  to 
Gaius,  who  seems  to  be  a  well-to-do  layman. 

Cnaracteristics.-Like  that  to  Philemon  this 
epistle  has  importance  far  beyond  its  length. 
It  professes  to  be  written  by  a  person  of  great 

authority,  who  speaks  of  opposition  to  himself 
as  "prating  against  us  with  wicked  words," and 
as  conduct  which  cannot  be  passed  over.  The 
letter  is  mainly  a  narration  of  facts,  which  un- 
designedly throw  valuable  light  upon  the  con- 
dition of  the  churches  of  Asia,  and  reveal  a 
state  of  things  quite  in  harmony  with  what  we 
learn  elsewhere,  showing  us  episcopacy  alreadv 
in  existence  in  a  congregation  which  may  easily 
have  been  founded  thirty  years  previously  by 
St.Paul  or  one  of  his  disciples.  All  three  of  the 
epistles  differ  in  one  particular  from  both  the 
fourth  Gospel  and  the  Revelation  ;  thev  contain 
no  quotations  from  the  Old  Testament. 

contents.— He  is  commended  for  his  hospital- 
ity is  warned  not  to  imitate  the  intolerance  of 
Diotrephes,  and  is  told  by  way  of  contrast  of 
the  excellence  of  Demetrius,  who  is  perhaps  the 
bearer  of  the  letter.    The  two  contrasted  char- 

•  +  ur{Lare  sketched  in  a  few  masterly  touches 
with  the  same  skill  that  is  exhibited  so  often  in 
the  fourth  Gospel.  The  hospitality  which  Gaius 
practiced  and  which  Diotrephes  forbade  on 
pain  of  excommunication,  was  general  in  the 
primitive  church  (Rom.  12:  13;  I.  Tim.  3:  2; 5:  10; 
Tit .  1:8;  Heb.  13:2;  I.  Pet.  4:9);  and  at  a  very 
early  date  it  began  to  be  abused.  The  "Teach- 
ing of  the  Twelve  Apostles,"  which  is  perhaps 
not  much  later  in  date  than  this  epistle,  rules 
that  any  teacher  who  stays  more  than  two  days 
with  his  entertainer,  or  asks  for  money  when 
he  departs,  is  a  false  prophet  (11:5,  0) ;  and  an  or- 
^m^rv  wayfarer  is  not  to  exceed  three  days 


Author.— The  last  of  the  Catholic,  or  General, 
Epistles  is  not  written  by  "Judas  (not  iscariot)" 
(John  14:  22),  otherwise  called  Thadda-us,  and 
perhaps  Lebbseus  (Matt.  10:  3;  Mark  3:  18)  who 
was  thesonof  James  (Luke  6:  16;  Acts  1:  13  ;  but 
as  the  letter  itself  states,  by  Judas  the  "brother 
°I  James,"  i.  e.,  the  Lord's  brother.  The  writer 
of  this  epistle  is  the  brother  of  the  writer  of  the 
Epistle  of  James;  and  both  of  them  were 
brethren  of  the  Lord.  Religious  feeling  would 
deter  them  from  stating  this;  and  they  knew 
that  to  be  the  "servant  of  Jesus  Christ"  was 
much  more  than  being  his  actual  brother 
(Luke  11:27,  28).  There  had  been  a  time  when 
they  had  been  the  latter,  and  yet  had  refused  to 
become  the  former  (John  7:5).  The  writer  of 
the  letter  is  evidently  a  Jewish  Christian,  who 
while  addressing  all  that  are  called,  has  Jewish 

^ris+liar}s.fhieny  in  his  mind-  Jt  is  possible 
that  the  letter  was  written  about  a.d.  66,  from 
Jerusalem,  though  nothing  is  really  known  of 
the  date  and  place. 

Object— As  to  its  object,  the  letter  itself  in- 
forms us  that,  while  St.  Jude  was  intending  to 
write  a  more  comprehensive  epistle,  the  en- 
trance of  ungodly  men  into  the  church  caused 
him  to  write  at  once  about  the  crisis  which  this 
disastrous  invasion  produced.  All  Christians 
must  forthwith  be  urged  to  be  unflinching  in 
their  defense  of  the  truth  against  errors  so 
monstrous  and  destructive  as  the  libertinism 
which  these  intruders  preached  and  practiced. 

Summary. -(1)  Salutation  and  reason;  (vs  1-4)- 
(2)  historical  argument  regarding  punishment 
and  its  application  (vs.  5-10) ;  (3)  description  of  the 
evil-doers,  and  applications  of  prophecy  (vs 
11-19) ;  (4)  exhortation  (vs.  20-23) ;  (5)  benediction 
and  praise  (vs.  24,  25). 


Authorship  and  Date.  — Excepting  I.  Corin- 
thians, no  book  in  the  New  Testament  is  quoted 
with  the  author's  name  earlier  than  the  Revela- 
tion. Justin  Martyr  in  his  Dialogue  withTrypho 
the  Jew  (c.a.d.  140)  says,  "There  was  with  us  a  man 



named  John,  one  of  the  apostles  of  Christ,  who 
in  the  revelation  made  to  him"— and  then  he 
gives  the  substance  of  Rev.  20:  3-6,  very  much 
abbreviated  ( Try.,  81).  The  book  itself  nowhere 
expressly  claims  to  be  written  by  the  apostle. 
There  are  some  very  striking  similarities  to 
John's  Gospel,  as  well  as  great  differences,  but 
the  similarities  are  mainly  in  details,  while  the 
differences  lie  in  the  general  character  of  the 
books.  There  are  many  scholars  who  hold 
that  only  in  one  way  is  it  credible  that  the 
same  person  wrote  both  books,  viz. :  if  the  Rev- 
elation was.  written  first,  and  a  good  many  years 
elapsed  before  the  Gospel  was  written.  In  fif- 
teen or  twenty  years  the  rugged  Greek  of  the 
Apocalypse  might  have  been  improved  into 
the  smooth  Greek  of  the  Gospel  and  Epistles, 
and  other  very  considerable  changes  of  style 
might  have  taken  place.  At  Ephesus  St.  John 
would  be  constantly  speaking  Greek  and  rarely 
speaking  Aramaic,  and  he  would  be  in  contact 
with  persons  who  would  influence  his  style. 
But  Irenseus,  who  was  the  disciple  of  Polycarp, 
the  disciple  of  the  apostle  John,  tells  us  that 
the  vision  of  the  Revelation  "  was  seen  at  the  end 
of  the  reign  of  Domitian  "  (a.d.  95  or  96).  As  St. 
John  died  early  in  the  reign  of  Trajan  (a.d.  98-100), 
at  the  age  of  about  a  hundred,  there  is  no  possi- 
bility of  finding  the  necessary  interval  between 
the  Revelation  and  the  Gospel,  if  Irenseus  is  cor- 
rect ;  and  it  is  unlikely  that  St.  John  wrote  any- 
thing when  he  was  nearly  a  hundred  years  of 
age.  But  Irenseus  may  have  been  mistaken. 
The  apostle  may  have  been  exiled  when  Domi- 
tian was  city  prsetor  after  the  downfall  of  Vitel- 
lius  (a.d.  69) ;  and  Irenseus,  knowing  that  Domi- 
tian was  connected  with  the  exile,  may  have 
assumed  that  it  took  place  when  Domitian  was 
emperor.  When  this  early  date  (a.d.  68-70)  for 
the  Apocalypse  is  admitted,  the  apostolic  author- 
ship follows  almost  as  a  necessity.  The  place 
where  the  vision  was  written  down  was  proba- 
bly Patmos;  but  what  was  seen  on  the  island 
may  have  been  recorded  after  it  was  left.  The 
point  is  unimportant,  for  it  throws  no  light  on 
the  difficulties. 

Characteristics.— Although  several  books  of 
the  New  Testament  were  probably  written 
after  the  Revelation,  yet  its  position  at  the  end 
of  the  series  is  appropriate.  It  is  the  one  pro- 
phetic book  in  the  New  Testament,  which  it 
closes.  It  gathers  up  preceding  prophecies  re- 
specting the  coming  of  the  Messiah  and  the 
kingdom  of  heaven  upon  earth,  and  translates 
them  into  anticipations  of  the  new  advent,  the 
new  heavens,  and  the  new  earth.  Its  main 
theme  is,  "  I  come  quickly  ";  and  its  object  is  to 
awaken  in  the  believer  the  response,  "  Amen : 
come,  Lord  Jesus."  This  it  does  by  confirming 
his  faith  under  great  tribulation,  and  by  show- 
ing that  the  church,  while  in  conflict  with  evil 
and  enduring  much  suffering,  is  ever  winning 
victories,  and  will  absolutely  triumph  at  last. 
The  first  three  chapters  of  the  book,  and  the 
last  two,  are  comparatively  easy  to  understand, 
and  are  full  of  instruction  and  encouragement 
to  the  simplest  Christian.    But  the  intermedi- 

ate chapters  are  full  of  dark  visions,  the  exact 
meaning  of  which  we  are  not  likely  to  discover 
until  the  Lord  comes.  They  are  allegories  and 
parables,  for  the  interpretation  of  which  we 
at  present  lack  the  means.  But  even  in  this 
obscure  portion  of  the  book  there  are  occa- 
sional passages  of  very  great  beauty  and  com- 
parative clearness. 

Interpretations.— There  are  three  schools  of 
interpreters,  the  Prseterist,  the  Continuous,  and 
the  Futurist.  The  Prseterists  consider  that  the 
prophecies  refer  to  events  which  are  now  past, 
and  especially  the  overthrow  of  Jerusalem  and 
of  heathen  Rome.  The  Continuous,  or  Historical, 
interpeters  regard  the  book  as  a  series  of 
prophecies  which  have  always  been,  and  con- 
tinue to  be,  in  course  of  fulfillment.  Some  of  its 
predictions  have  already  been  verified,  others 
are  in  process  of  being  so,  while  others  again  are 
as  ye,t  wholly  unfulfilled.  The  results  reached 
by  this  method  differ  enormously  in  details,  e.g., 
as  to  whether  the  millennium  is  past  or  future, 
and  what  is  the  meaning  of  the  number  of  the 
beast.  The  Futurists  place  the  fulfillment  of 
the  whole  series  of  predictions  immediately  be- 
fore or  after  the  second  coming  of  Christ. 

Summary.— Like  the  fourth  Gospel,  the  Revela- 
tion has  a  prologue  and  an  epilogue,  between 
which  (1:  19;  22:  5)  the  Revelation  proper  lies. 
This  consists  of  seven  visions,  in  which  the 
symbolical  numbers,  three,  four,  seven,  and 
twelve,  are  frequent.  There  are  occasional 
interludes  between  the  parts:  (1)  The  vision 
of  the  throne  of  God  and  of  the  Lamb  (chs.  4, 5) ; 
(2)  the  vision  of  the  seven  seals  (6:  1-8:  1);  (3) 
the  vision  of  the  seven  trumpets  (8:  2-11: 19);  (4) 
the  vision  of  the  woman  and  her  enemies  (12} 
1-13:  18);  (5)  the  vision  of  the  Lamb  and  the 
angels  of  judgment  (ch.  14);  (6)  the  vision  of 
the  seven  vials  of  wrath  (15:  1-16:  21);  (7)  the 
vision  of  final  triumph  (17 : 1-22 :  5).  The  book 
ends,  as  it  began,  with  the  certainty  of  Christ's 
coming,  and  of  his  perfect  victory  over  his 
enemies.  Satan,  and  sin,  and  death.  Those 
who  haxe  and  oppose  him  shall  be  destroyed. 
Those  who  love  and  serve  him  shall  reign  with 
him  in  everlasting  blessedness,  in  comparison 
with  which  their  sufferings  in  this  life  are  as 
nothing.  And  it  is  the  prayer  and  expectation 
of  the  seer  and  of  his  readers  that  the  glorious 
consummation  is  near  at  hand.  "  Yea:  I  come 
quickly."    "Amen:  come,  Lord  Jesus." 

Books  of  Reference:  Kerr's  Introduction  to  New 
Testament  Study;  Weiss'  Manual  of  Introduction  to  the 
New  Testament;  McClymount's  New  Testament  and  Its 
Writers;  Bleek's  Introduction  to  the  New  Testament; 
Godet's  New  Testament  Studies  and  Introduction  to  the 
Epistles  of  St.  Paul;  Dod's  Introduction  to  the  Neiv  Tes- 
tament; Salmon's  Introduction  to  the  New  Testament; 
Bengel's  Gnomon  of  the  New  Testament ;  Alford's  New 
Testament  for  English  Readers;  Upham's  Thoughts  on 
the  Holy  Gospels;  Gloag's  Introductions  to  the  Pauline 
Epistles,  Catholic  Epistles,  and  Johannine  Writings; 
Westcott's  Introductions  to  the  Epistles  to  the  Hebrews 
and  Epistles  of  St.  John.  Consult  books  under  Part 
II.,  New  Testament  Chronology,  Harmony  of 
the  Gospels,  Apostolic  History,  and  General 
List,  page  144. 

By  EEV.  WILLIAM  HEBER  WRIGHT,  M.A.,  Rector  of  St.  George's,  Worthing. 

A  number  of  writings  professing  to  supple- 
ment the  New  Testament,  and  which  may  be 
styled  for  convenience  "New  Testament  Apocry- 
pha," were  known  in  the  early  ages  of  the  church. 
These  writings,  which  were  always  carefully 
excluded  from  the  canon,  may  be  arranged  in 
four  divisions :  (1)  Gospels,  (2)  Acts,  (3)  Apoca- 
lypses, and  (4)  Epistles. 

I.  Gospels.— According  to  the  unanimous  opin- 

ion of  critics,  these  are  mostly  forgeries  of  little 
value,  of  no  literary  merit,  and  abounding  in 
inaccuracies.  They  throw  some  light  upon 
early  Christian  thought,  are  useful  in  tracing  the 
growth  of  legends,  and  of  value  in  the  defense  of 
the  canonicity  of  the  genuine  writings  of  the 
New  Testament.  The  apocryphal  gospels  presup- 
pose the  existence  of  the  canonical,  as  is  ap- 
parent not  only  from  their  quotations  from  the 



evangelists,  but  also  from  their  silence  in  refer- 
ence to  many  events  in  the  life  of  Jesus. 

1.  The  most  important  of  the  apocryphal 
gospels  is  the  Protevcmgelium  of  Jones,  extant  in 
some  56  M8&,  written  in  Greek,  and  containing 
25  chapters,  it  gi?ves  particulars  respecting  the 
birth  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  partly  in  imitation  of 
the  story  of  Hannah  in  the  Old  Testament. 

2.  The  Qospel  of  the  Pseudo-Matthew  consists  of 
42  chapters.  This  book  is  extant  only  in  Latin, 
though  perhaps  originally  written  in  Greek. 
The  date  of  this  work  is  about  the  fifth  century; 
its  contents  are  based  upon  the  Protevangelium. 

o.  The  Qospei  of  the  Nativity  of  Mary  is  a  short 
book  of  10  chapters,  in  Latin.  The  book  shows 
the  growing  veneration  for  the  Virgin. 

4.  The  History  of  Joseph  the  Carpenter  was  orig- 
inally written  in  Coptic,  but  was  also  translated 
into  Arabic.  The  book  was  written,  probably 
after  the  fourth  century,  with  the  object  of  giv- 
ing Joseph  a  share  in  the  honor  then  accorded 
to  the  Virgin. 

5.  The  Gospel  of  Thomas  is  contained  in  Greek 
MSS.  probably  of  the  fourteenth  and  sixteenth 
centuries,  though  it  is  probably  almost  as  old  as 
the  Protevangelium. 

6.  The  Arabic  Gospel  of  the  Infancy  also  con- 
tains legends  of  our  Lord's  childhood. 

7.  The  Gospel  of  Nicodemus  is  divided  into  two 
portions,  treating  of  different  subjects,  the  first 
being  "The  Acts  of  Pilate.11  The  second  part  re- 
lates Christ's  descent  into. the  underworld. 

8.  The  Gospel  of  Peter,  discovered  in  a  tomb  in 
Egypt  in  188(5,  published  in  1892. 

A  few  brief  documents  may  be  conveniently 
mentioned  here,  viz.:  The  Assumption  of  Mary ; 
The  Correspondence  between  Abgar,  King  of  Edessa, 
and  Jesus;  TJie  Epistle  of  Lentulus;  The  Story  of 
Veronica  ;  The  Giving  up  of  Pilate,  and  other  doc- 
uments relating  to  Pilate;  Tlw  Death  of  Pilate; 
The  Narrative  of  Joseph  of  Arimathea;  TJie  /Sav- 
iour's  Revenge. 

II.  The  Acts,  though  abounding  in  extrava- 
gances, are  superior  to  the  apocryphal  gospels. 
They  are  romantic  in  character,  and  tinged  with 
an  Oriental  coloring.  The  principal  ones  are  Acts 
of  Peter  and  Paid,  The  Acts  of  Paid  and  Thecla,  The 
Acts  of  Barnabas,  TJie  Acts  of  Philip,  The  Acts  and 
Martyrdom  of  Andrew,  The  Acts  of  Andrew  and 
Matthias,  Acts  and  Martyrdom  of  Matthew,  Acts  of 
Thomas,  The  Martyrdom  of  Thomas,  The  Martyr- 
dom of  Bartholomeiv,  The  Acts  of  Thaddceus,  The 
Acts  of  John. 

III.  Apocalypses.— Clement  of  Alexandria,  in 
the  third  century,  and  other  writers,  have  pre- 
served fragments  of  the  so-called  Apocalypse  of 

TJie  Apocalypse  of  Paul  is  a  description  of  what 
the  apostle  saw  and  heard  when  caught  up  into 
the  third  heaven  (II.  Cor.  12). 

IV.  Epistles.— The  books  grouped  under  this 
head  are  of  real  value,  and  ought  not  to  be 
classed  as  New  Testament  Apocrypha.  They 
may,  however,  conveniently  be  given  here,  as 
contained  in  Hilgenfeld's  Novum  Testamentum 
Extra  Canonem,  or  "New  Testament  Outside  the 
Canon."  Fragments  of  other  works  included 
by  Hilgenf  eld  are  here  passed  over. 

1.  TJie  Epistle  of  Barnabas  was  probably  writ- 
ten during  the  reign  of  Vespasian  (a.d.  70-79). 
The  original  Greek  text  forms  a  portion  of  the 
celebrated  Sinaitic  MS.  discovered  by  Tischen- 
dorf  in  18S8L  In  that  important  Codex,  Barna- 
bas and  the  Shepherd  of  Hennas  (see  below) 
come  after  the  book  of  the  Revelation.  The 
author  was  probably  a  Gentile  Christian,  poorly 
acquainted  with  the  Old  Testament,  who  occu- 
pied the  position  of  a  teacher  in  the  church  of 
Alexandria,  to  which  the  letter  is  addressed. 

2.  TJie  Epistle  of  Clement. — The  genuineness  of 
this  epistle  is  admitted  by  all.  The  writer  is 
often  reckoned  fourth  bishop  of  Rome.  The 
epistle  originated  as  follows:  The  church  at 
Corinth,  distracted  by  dissensions  culminating 
in  the  dismissal  of  certain  presbyters,  appealed 
for  advice  to  the  church  at  Rome.  The  counsel 
thus  solicited  came  after  some  delay  caused  by 
"  calamities  sudden  and  repeated."  These  calam- 
ities were  probably  entailed  by  the  persecution 
under  Domitian,  which  would  fix  the  date  of 
the  letter  near  the  close  of  the  first  century.  The 
epistle  contains  an  earnest  exhortation  to  hu- 
mility and  "godly  peace,"  enforced  by  exam- 
ples and  precepts  culled  from  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments.  The  style  approaches  most  nearly 
that  of  the  apostolic  epistles.  The  writer  inci- 
dentally alludes  to  the  martyrdom  of  Paul  at 
Rome,  and  also  of  Peter,  though  where  the  lat- 
ter suffered  is  not  stated.  This  epistle  is  quoted 
by  writers  of  the  second  century,  and  was  read 
in  churches,  which  shows  that  it  was  held  in 

3.  The  Second  Epistle  of  Clement  is  admitted  to 
be  spurious. 

4.  The  SJicphei*d  of  Hermas  occupies  a  unique 
position  among  the  writings  of  the  sub-apos- 
tolic age.  The  writer  speaks  of  himself  as  a 
contemporary  of  Clement  of  Rome,  which  city 
was  the  scene  of  his  visions.  The  first  part  of 
the  book  contains  four  visions,  in  which  the 
church  is  depicted  under  various  forms.  The 
second  part  contains  twelve  commandments,  given 
to  Hennas  by  an  angel.  The  last  portion  of  the 
book  contains  similitudes,  in  which  the  church 
and  Christian  virtues  are  represented  under 
symbolic  forms.  The  book  was  intended  to  de- 
nounce prevalent  sins  and  to  announce  im- 
pending judgment. 

5.  The  DidacJie,  or  Teaching  of  the  Twelve  Apostles, 
is  in  Eusebius'  list  and  in  the  enumeration  of 
Athanasius.  The  wTork  was  practically  un- 
known until  its  discovery  by  Bryennios  in  the 
MS.  at  Constantinople.  The  first  part  consists 
of  a  number  of  precepts  arranged  after  the  order 
of  the  Ten  Commandments,  and  as  comments 
on  them.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  the 
precepts  may  have  been  derived  from  some  pre- 
Christian  Jewish  manual  of  instruction  for 
proselytes,  and  that  the  author  of  the  Didache 
gave  it  a  distinctive  Christian  coloring,  pre- 
serving at  the  same  time  its  systematic  arrange- 

The  accepted  date  of  the  Didache  is  the  close  of 
the  first  or  the  beginning  of  the  second  century. 
Its  antiquity  gives  great  importance  to  its  con- 



By  REV.  OWEN  C.  WHITEHOTJSE,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hebrew,  Cheshunt 

College,  near  London. 

I.  Eras.— By  the  use  of  eras  in  chronology  we 
mean  the  precise  determination  of  dates,  by  a 
continuous  series  of  years,  reckoned  from  a 
definite  terminus  a  quo.  At  different  ages  in 
the  past  history  of  the  world,  and  among  differ- 
ent nations  at  the  present  time,  various  eras, 
or  chronological  starting-points,  have  been 
adopted,  for  the  purpose  of  measuring  and  re- 
cording the  progress  of  time  and  of  events.  Thus 
the  era  in  use  among  European  nations  is  the 
Christian,  the  starting-point  being  the  assumed1 
date  of  the  birth  of  Christ,  while  that  which  is 
employed  by  Turks,  Arabs,  and  other  nations 
of  Islam  is1  the  Mohammedan  era  of  the  I-Iejira, 
or  flight  of  the  prophet  from  Mecca  to  Medina, 
in  the  year  622  a.d.  of  our  Christian  era. 

II.  Seleucid  Era.— Passing  over  the  numerous 
modes  of  dating  events  in  use  among  the  na- 
tions of  antiquity,  the  biblical  student  should 
take  special  note  of  the  Seleucid  era,  which 
dates  from  the  occupation  of  Babylon  by  Se- 
leucus  Nicator,  in  the  year  §11  B.C.,  twelve  years 
after  the  death  of  Alexander  the  Great.  It 
became  the  current  mode  of  computing  chro- 
nology among  all  the  Greek  countries  border- 
ing upon  the  Seleucid  kingdom,  as  well  as  in 
that  kingdom  itself.  Among  the  Jews  it  pre- 
vailed as  late  as  the  loth  century  a.d.  It  is 
important  for  us  to  take  note  of  this  system,  as 
the  writers  of  the  books  of  Maccabees  date 
events  according  to  this  chronological  method 
of  computation,  which  prevailed  in  the  Seleucid 

III.  Persian  Period.— As  we  retrace  our  steps 
along  the  centuries,  we  pass  from  definite  to 
less  definite  landmarks  of  time.  As  we  pass 
from  the  Greek  period  into  the  Persian,  Baby- 
lonian, and  Regal  periods,  we  no  longer  possess 
the  guidance  of  a  definitely  fixed  chronological 
era  which  can  be  reduced  readily  to  terms  of 
our  own,  but  with  the  reign  of  each  successive 
monarch  there  is  a  fresh  chronological  adjust- 
ment, and  thus  with  each  fresh  adjustment 
arises  a  possibility  of  error  or  inaccuracy. 
Sources  of  error  we  shall  now  find  to  accumu- 
late, which  ultimately  render  the  absolute 
accuracy  of  chronological  statement  or  adjust- 
ment impossible.  During  the  Persian  period, 
however,  we  have  fairly  definite  data  to  guide 
us  in  the  literature  of  the  Old  Testament 
belonging  to  that  epoch,  for  in  the  post-exilian 
period  time  is  uniformly  reckoned  from  the 
accession  of  the  reigning  Persian  sovereign. 
The  last  chronological  reference  of  this  kind  to 
be  found  in  the  Old  Testament  is  that  of  Neh. 
13:  6,  where  Nehemiah  refers  to  a  visit  paid  to 
Artaxerxes  I.  (Longimanus)  in  the  thirty-second 
year  of  that  monarch's  reign,  i.e.,  433  B.C. 

IV.  Babylonian  Period.— Here  we  find  dates 
given  sometimes  in  terms  of  the  years  of 
Nebuchadnezzar's  reign,  and  sometimes  in 
that  of  the  Judean  king.    Jer.  25:  1;  26:  1,  are 

1  We  say  assupied  date,  since  our  chronology  is  based 
upon  that  of  Dionysius  Exiguus  (in  the  6th  century), 
which  places  Christ's  birth  in  the  year  754  of  the  Roman 
era  (reckoned  from  the  foundation  of  Rome),  But  it 
can  be  shown  that  Heiod's  death  did  not  take  place 
later  than  750  a.u.c. 

examples  of  this  latter  practice,  while  Jer. 
52:28-30;  II.  Ki.  24:  12;  25:  8,  are  examples  of 
the  former,  which  is  likewise  maintained  in 
the  book  of  Daniel  (2:1;  7:1;  8:1;  9:1;  10:  1). 
We  thus  see  that  there  is  no  difference  in  the 
mode  of  reckoning  time,  when  we  compare  the 
annals  and  prophetic  discourses  that  refer  to 
the  Babylonian  period  with  those  that  refer 
to  the  Persian  epoch  that  immediately  suc- 
ceeded it. 

V.  The  Hebrew  Regal  Period.— Here  again  the 
same  mode  of  chronological  statement  appears 
as  in  the  two  preceding  periods.  Events  are 
dated  from  the  year  of  accession  of  the  reigning 
monarch.  But  as  we  enter  the  8th  century  a 
new  element  complicates  the  chronological 
problem,  and  greatly  enhances  the  possibilities 
of  error.  We  refer  to  the  parallel  chronology 
of  the  reigns  of  the  kings  of  Judah  and  of  those 
of  the  kings  of  Israel.  It  is  not  possible  to  enter 
fully  into  the  vexed  question  of  the  chronology 
of  this  period.  It  is  sufficient  to  say,  at  the  out- 
set, that  it  is  impossible  to  maintain  the  abso- 
lute accuracy  of  the  numbers  as  they  stand  in 
the  biblical  records,  in  the  form  in  which  they 
have  come  down  to  us.  These  records  have 
passed  through  repeated  transcriptions,  and,  in 
earlier  periods,  redaction  and  revision.  This 
alone  is  sufficient  to  account  for  error,  espe- 
cially when  we  consider  the  many  difficulties 
arising  from  materials,  form  of  Hebrew  charac- 
ters, etc. 

But  there  were  doubtless  other  elements  be- 
sides the  conditions  involved  in  ancient  modes 
of  writing  which  contributed  to  produce  error. 

1.  Allusion  has  already  been  made  to  the 
multiplication  of  the  possible  sources  of  mis- 
take from  the  fact  that  each  successive  reign 
formed  a  fresh  point  of  departure.  Add  to  this 
that  we  have  likewise  two  series  of  reigns  with 
their  synchronistic  adjustments  or  cross-refer- 
ences, and  it  will  be  easily  perceived  that  a 
single  error  in  this  complex  harrnonistic  scheme 
will  be  likely  to  generate  others. 

2.  The  most  serious  difficulties  in  the  biblical 
chronology  occur  during  the  period  covered 
by  the  Assyrian  invasions  of  northern  Israel, 
when  the  annals  of  the  kings  of  Israel  must 
have  been  defective  because  of  the  ravages  of 
the  invaders. 

3.  Some  of  the  discrepancies  are  apparent 
rather  than  real,  and  were  due  to  the  different 
method  of  reckoning  which  prevailed  among 
the  ancients  (Romans  as  well  as  Jews)  as  com- 
pared with  our  own.  Thus,  in  computing  time, 
the  Hebrews  reckoned  both  the  initial  and  final 
date.  What  happens  on  the  third  day  is  said  to 
happen  "in  "  or  "after  three  days."  There  does 
not  seem,  however,  to  have  been  any  uniform 
mode  of  applying  this  principle.  We  do  not 
know  for  certain  whether  the  final  fractional 
year  of  the  king's  reign  was  counted  as  a  whole 
one  for  that  reign  or  for  that  of  his  successor. 
From  these  considerations  it  results  that,  in 
reducing  Hebrew  chronology  to  terms  of  our 
own,  it  may  be  possible  to  lengthen  or  shorten 
a  given  reign  by  a  year,  without  doing  any  vio- 
lence to  the  statement  of  Scripture. 




4.  Years  were  reckoned  by  months,  each 
month  being  a  "moon  "  of  29  or  80  days.  The 
entire  year  would  thus  consist  of  about  854  days. 
To  equate  this  with  the  solar  or  astronomical 
year,  intercalary  months  were  needed  from 
time  to  time,    i  See  Hebrew  Calendar,  p.  85.) 

When  we  examine  the  biblical  chronology,  in- 
ternal discrepancies  are  exhibited  as  we  compare 
the  total  of  successive  north-Israelite  reigns 
with  that  of  the  reigns  of  successive  Judean 

Among  the  contributing  causes  which  pro- 
duced this  discrepancy  the  most  potent  were 
probably:  (1)  the  defective  record  of  the  north- 
ern kingdom;  (2)  the  synchronistic  scheme 
which  introduced  consequent  errors  to  an  even 
more  serious  extent  in  Judean  chronology. 

VI.  Period  from  the  Exodus  to  the  Reign  of 
Solomon.— This  entire  period,  dating  from  the 
exodus  to  the  building  of  the  temple  in  the 
fourth  year  of  Solomon's  reign,  is  stated  in 
I.  Ki.  6:1  to  be  480  years.  On  the  other  hand, 
we  have  a  series  of  chronological  statements  in 
the  book  of  Judges.  It  must  be  confessed  that 
the  latter  chronology  is  full  of  uncertainty. 
The  successive  periods  of  rule  under  the  judges 
amount  to  410  years.  To  this  we  add  40  years  of 
Eli's  administration,  which  gives  us  a  total  of 
450  years.  This  exactly  coincides  with  Paul's 
statement  in  Acts  13:20.  But  it  will  be  seen 
that,  if  we  add  to  this,  on  the  one  side,  40  years 
of  desert  wanderings  and  Joshua's  life  in  the 
promised  land,  and,  on  the  other,  the  life  of 
►Samuel  and  Saul,  and  40  years  of  David's  reign, 
we  reach  a  total  considerably  in  excess  of  480 
years.  But  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  all 
estimates  based  on  a  summation  of  the  num- 
bers contained  in  the  book  of  Judges  are  greatly 
in  excess  of  the  actual  period  covered  by  their 
rule.  It  is  quite  possible  that  some  of  the  rulers 
were  contemporaneous,  and  that  the  narra- 
tives are  not  to  be  regarded  as  a  mere  sequence. 
This  of  course  would  greatly  reduce  the  length 
of  the  period. 

VII.  Period  of  the  Settlement  and  Oppression 
Of  Israel  in  Egypt.— Here  we  are  met  by  two 
traditions  respecting  the  duration  of  this  in- 
terval, based  respectively  upon  the  Hebrew 
Masoretic  text  of  Ex.  12:  40,  and  upon  that  of 
the  LXX.  The  Hebrew  text  translated  in  our 
Revised  Version  reads  thus:  "  Now  the  sojourn- 
ing of  the  children  of  Israel  which  they  so- 
journed in  Egypt  was  430  years."  But  the  LXX. 
renders,  "Now  the  sojourning  of  the  children 
of  Israel  which  they  sojourned  in  Egypt  and  in 
the  land  of  Canaan  [Codex  Alex,  adds,  "both  he 
and  their  fathers"]  was  430  years."  Thus  the 
LXX.  understood  the  period  of  430  years  to  in- 
clude the  stay  of  the  patriarchs  in  Canaan  and 
the  servitude  of  their  descendants  in  Egj-pt. 
The  Septuagint  tradition  was  very  largely  ac- 
cepted in  ancient  times.  It  is  adopted  by  the 
Samaritan  version,  by  St.  Paul  in  Gal.  3:  17, 
where  it  is  said  that  the  law  came  430  years 
after  the  covenant  with  Abraham;  also  by 
Joseph  us  {Antiq.,  ii.,  15,  2),  Targum  of  Jonathan, 
Aben  Ezra,  Rashi,  and  other  Jewish  and  Chris- 
tian writers.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Masoretic 
text  derives  most  support  from  the  Old  Testa- 
ment itself.  In  Gen.  15: 13,  400  years  are  given  in 
round  numbers  as  the  duration  of  Israel's  afflic- 
tion (so  also  LXX.  on  this  verse),  and  this  pas- 
sage is  cited  by  Stephen  (Acts  7:  6).  Moreover, 
the  Masoretic  tradition  is  upheld  by  the  Tar- 
gum of  Onkelos,  Peshitto  Vulgate,  and  Saadia. 

VIII.  Patriarchal  Period.— Again  we  are  con- 
fronted by  diverse  traditions.  These  we  shall 
content  ourselves  with  presenting  i  n  a  tabulated 
form.  From  the  tables  the  reader  will  observe 
that,  since  the  actual  passage  of  time  is  marked 
by  the  successive  ages  of  the  patriarchs  in  beget- 
ting their  respective  first-born  sons,  recorded 
in  the  genealogical  list,  the  summation  of  the 
left-hand  column  shows  us,  in  the  three  schemes 

appended  below,  the  length  of  the  patriarchal 
period  in  each  case  down  to  the  birth  of  Abra- 
ham. This  period,  according  to  the  computation 
of  the  LXX.,  is  1466  years  longer  than  the  same 
period  as  measured  by  the  data  of  our  Hebrew 








Age  at 
birth  of 


Ago  at 
birth  of 


Ape  at 
birth  of 


Adam,     .    . 
Seth,    .    .    . 
Enosh,    .    . 
Kenan,    .     . 
Jared,      .    . 
Enoch,    .    . 
Noah,      .    . 
Shem,      .    . 
(Kainan),    . 
Shelah,  .    . 
Eber,  .    .    . 
Peleg,      .    . 
Reu,    .    .    . 
Serug,      .    . 
Nahor,    .    . 
Terah,     .    . 








205  I 





















Total  yrs. 


1  2247 


IX.  External  Tests,  and  Construction  of  a  Def- 
inite Biblical  Chronology.— Having  traced  the 
chronology  of  the  Old  Testament  through  suc- 
cessive periods,  we  have  observed  that  difficul- 
ties increase  the  further  we  ascend  the  stream 
of  time.  Archaeology  has  provided  for  us  cer- 
tain external  tests  in  the  shape  of  the  monu- 
mental records  of  nations  whose  history  was 
contemporaneous  with  that  of  God's  ancient 
chosen  people,  and  during  certain  periods  was 
intimately  bound  up  with  the  destinies  of 
Israel.  These  data  increase  every  year  with  the 
progress  of  discovery.  With  the  results  hither- 
to attained,  we  will  construct,  as  far  as  possible, 
a  positive  chronology  reduced  to  terms  of  our 
own  era. 

1.  Egyptology,  unfortunately,  has  not  yet 
yielded  us  chronological  results  that  are  suf- 
ficiently definite.  Most  Egyptologists,  however, 
are  agreed  that  the  rabbinic  date  of  1314  for  the 
exodus  of  Israel  approximates  pretty  closely  to 
the  true  one.  We  must,  for  this  period,  content 
ourselves  with  approximations  only.  Modern 
research,  including  the  discovery  by  M.  Naville 
in  1883  of  the  site  of  the  ancient  store-city, 
Pithom,  establishes  the  position  of  the  illus- 
trious archaeologist  Lepsius,  that  the  Pharaoh 
of  the  oppression  was  the  great  conqueror 
Rameses  II.,  and  that  the  exodus  took  place 
during  the  reign  of  his  son  and  successor,  Mer- 
neptah.  Assuming,  therefore,  the  date  1320  as 
approximately  the  most  correct,  the  patriarchal 
history  of  the  Old  Testament  would  take  the 
following  form  when  carried  back  to  the  times 
of  Abraham: 

B.C.  1320.  Probable  date  of  the  exodus.  To  this 
add  430  years  assigned  by  our 
Hebrew  text  to  Israel's  settlement 
in  Egypt.    See  foot-note  (2),  page  60. 

1750.  Jacob's  entrance  into  and  settlement 
in  the  land  of  Goshen.  His  age  at 
that  time  was  130  (Gen.  47:  9). 

1880.  Jacob's  birth.  At  this  time  Isaac  was 
60  (Gen.  25:  26). 

1940.  Isaac's  birth.  At  this  time  Abraham 
was  100  years  old  (Gen.  21:  5). 

2040.    Abraham's  birth. 



Now  the  period  of  the  dominance  in  Egypt  of 
the  foreign  race  of  Hyksos,  usually  called 
"Shepherd"  (probably  Semitic),  kings,  extends 
from  the  latter  part  of  the  thirteenth  to  the 
end  of  the  sixteenth  dynasty.  To  this  period 
Prof.  George  Ebers  assigns  the  dates  2190  to 
1680  r,.c.  This  is  in  complete  accordance  with 
the  data  set  forth  above.  The  visits  of  Abra- 
ham and  the  other  patriarchs  to  Egypt,  and 
the  establishment  of  the  Hebrew  Joseph  in 
high  official  authority,  obviously  belong  to  this 
same  interval.  The  kings  who  "knew  not  Jo- 
seph" arose  in  the  seventeenth  and  follow- 
ing dynasties,  after  the  Hyksos  kings  were 
overthrown.  The  exodus  of  Israel  took  place 
under  the  nineteenth  dynasty.  A  partial  con- 
firmation of  these  results  may  also  be  found 
in  the  facts  recently  brought  to  light  by  ex- 
perts in  Assyriology. 

2.  Assyriology.— The  important  publication 
by  Mr.  Pinches,  of  the  British  Museum,  of  a 
cuneiform  list  of  early  Babylonian  kings,  has 
been  made  the  subject  of  an  interesting  investi- 
gation by  Prof.  Schrader  of  Berlin,  who  identi- 

enth  centuries  B.C.,  brought  over  by  Layard 
and  other  explorers  from  Nineveh.  Sir  Henry 
Rawlinson  snowed  these  tablets  to  be  lists  of 
Assyrian  officials,  each  official  representing  a 
particular  year,  like  the  pair  of  consuls  at  Rome. 
The  particular  year  in  which  an  event  happened 
was  therefore  marked  by  the  proper  name  of 
the  official,  who  was  eponym,  i.e.,  gave  his  name 
to  the  year. 

Four  copies  of  these  canons  or  lists  of  rulers 
have  come  down  to  us  in  a  more  or  less  muti- 
lated condition,  but  fortunately  they  supple- 
ment each  other's  defects.  In  addition  to  these 
we  have  three  other  canons,  which  not  only  con- 
tain lists  of  eponym  officers,  but  register  a  brief  mem- 
orandum of  some  event,  such  as  a  campaign,  revolt, 
or  pestilence,  which  took  place  each  year. 

One  of  these  brief  memoranda  is  of  unique 
importance.  It  occurs  in  the  eponymate  (limu) 
of  Purilsagali,  and  runs  thus:  "In  the  month 
Sivan  the  sun  suffered  an  eclipse."  Now  this 
eclipse  has  been  calculated  by  the  astronomer, 
Mr.  Hind,  to  have  been  a  remarkable  total 
eclipse  which  took  place  on  June  15,  763  B.C.    It 

Campaigns  of  Assur-nasir-apli,  king 

of  Assyria,  B.C.  884-860. 
(See  p.  120.) 

Men  and  horses  crossing  a  river. 

ties  one  of  these  Babylonian  kings,  Hammurabi, 
with  the  Amraphel,  king  of  Shinar,  referred  to 
in  Gen.  14:  1,  and  in  this  view  he  is  supported  by 
Prof.  Fried.  Delitzsch.  As  Dr.  Schrader  points 
out,  Hammurabi  was  a  contemporary  of  a  king 
of  Larsa  named  Eriaku.  Now  this  Eriaku  of 
Larsa  is  no  other  than  the  Arioch,  king  of 
Ellasar,  referred  to  in  the  same  passage  of  Scrip- 
ture. Both  of  these  kings  were  therefore  con- 
temporary with  Abraham.  Dr.  Schrader  would 
place  the  date  of  these  monarchs  at  2100  B.C. 
This  is  of  course  only  an  approximate  date,  and 
other  authorities  (Tiele  and  Pinches)  differ  con- 
siderably. Prof.  Sayce,  in  Ancient  Empires  of  the 
East  (p.  478),  places  Hammurabi's  reign  about 
2000  B.C.  Nevertheless,  the  results  are  highly 
important,  not  only  because  they  throw  a  most 
valuable  light  on  Gen.  14,  the  historical  charac- 
ter of  which  they  to  a  certain  extent  uphold, 
but  also  because  they  enable  us  to  fix  on  2250 
—2000  B.C.  as  the  probable  period  in  which  the 
age  of  Abraham  must  be  placed.  See  Postscript, 
page  63. 

Bat  cuneiform  discovery  has  given  us  a  far 
more  valuable  clue  to  a  definite  chronology  in 
the  terra  cotta  tablets  containing  the  "eponym 
lists,"  belonging  to  the  ninth,  eighth,  and  sev- 

is  not  improbable  that  the  prophet  Amos  refers 
to  it  in  8:  9. 

Now,  as  the  lists  are  continuous,  both  before 
and  after  the  eponymate  of  Purilsagali,  the  im- 
portance of  determining  its  date  as  703  B.C.  is 
obvious;  for  the  entire  series  of  events  re- 
ferred to  can  be  determined  with  nearly  as 
much  precision  as  any  event  of  modern  times, 
and  since  some  of  these  events  are  not  only 
contemporary  with,  but  form  a  part  of,  the 
incidents  described  in  Scripture,  we  have  now 
some  fixed  dates  to  guide  us  in  the  formation  of 
a  correct  biblical  chronology.  Among  these 
the  following  are  the  most  important: 

B.C.  854.  Battle  of  Karkar.  In  the  monolith  of 
Shalmaneser  II.,  describing  this  bat- 
tle, mention  is  made  of  a  detachment 
sent  by  "Ahab  the  Israelite." 

842.  Payment  of  tribute  by  "Jehu,  son  of 
Ornri  "  (a  successor  of  Omri),  recorded 
in  Shalmaneser  II. 's  "black  obe- 

742-740.  Reference  to  Azariah  (Uzziah)  of 
Judah  as  resisting  the  arms  of  Assyria 
in  the  records  of  Tiglath-Pileser  III. 
N.B.— The  discovery  of  the  "Baby- 



B.C.  738. 




Ionian  list  of  kings"  proves  that 
Tiglath-Pileser  and  Pul  are  different 
names  for  1  be  same  person. 

Payment  of  tribute  by  Menahem  of 
Israel,  recorded  in  the  annals  of 

Defeat  and  death  of  Pekah,  king  of 
Israel;  Hoshea  (called  Ausi  in  the 
tablet)  is  placed  on  the  throne  by 
Tiglath-Pileser.  [It  does  not  follow 
that  Hoshea  was  then  recognized  as 
king  by  the  people.  This  may  have 
taken  place  some  years  later.] 

Pall  of  Samaria,  and  deportation  of 
the  inhabitants  mentioned  in  Sar- 
gon'S  annals. 

Campaign  of  Sennacherib  described  in 
the  Taylor  cylinder,  in  which  special 
reference  is  made  to  "Hezekiah  the 

3.  The  MoaJbUe  Stone,  called  also  the  "Stone 
of  Diban  "  or  "  1  >ibon,"  or  sometimes  "  Stone  of 
Mesh  a,"  was  discovered  more  than  twenty  years 
ago  by  Dr.  Klein  at  Diban,  in  Moab.  It  is  now 
preserved,  though,  unfortunately,  in  a  defect- 
ive condition,  in  the  Louvre  at  Paris.  It  was 
erected  by  Mesha,  king  of  Moab,  to  commem- 
orate his  victory  over  [srael,  and  corroborates 
in  a  remarkable  manner  the  history  found  in 
II.  Ki.  3:  4-27.    See  Plate  II. 

4.  Among  Greek  authorities,  by  far  the  most 

valuable  chronological  aid  is  furnished  by  the 
Ptolemaic  canon  of  Babylonian  rulers. 

5.  The  Tel-el-Amarna  tablets,  found  in  1887, 
give  further  chronological  aid.  They  belong  to 
the  reigns  of  Amenophis  III.  and  IV.  (15th 
century  B.C.).    See  Plate  1. 


§  i 

S  o 













Biblicai,  Chronology. 

B.  C. 

b.  c. 

Approximate  date  for  Abraham, 
Israel's  entrance  into  and  settlement 

in  Egypt, 
The  exodus, 



David   (Judah,    101S-1011;    Israel   and 

Judah,  1011-978), 
Solomon  (Erection  of  temple,  975), 






Rehoboam,  938-921 

Siege  and  capture  of 

Jerusalem     by     Shi- 




Asa,  918-877 

Defeats     Zerah,    the 

Cushite  (Osarkon). 

Alliance  with  Syria. 

Jehoshaphat,       877-852 

Alliance  with   Ahab, 

and    battle    of    Ra- 

moth-Gilead,  853. 






Joash.  837-797 

Reformation  and  re- 
pair of  temple. 

Israel  (Ephraim). 
Jeroboam  I.,  938-916 



Omri,  900-875") 

Builds  and  fortifies 
Ahab,  875-853 

Elijah  prophesies, 
and  Micaiah,  son  of 
Imlah.  lb 

Ahaziah,  853-852  \  >> 

Jehoram,  852-842 

Career  of  Elisha  as 
prophet.  ^ 

Revolution    and    p 
overthrow    of    the 
dynasty  of  Omri. 

Jehu,  842-815 

Hazael,    king  of    Syria, 

takes  the  east-Jordan 

Jehoahaz,  815-798 

Synchronism  with  Biblical  Chro- 

Babylonia  and 


2200  (?),  Hammu- 

1350,  c.,  Pudilu. 

1325,  c,  Ram- 
man-nirari  I. 

1300,  c,  Shal- 
maneser  I. 

1150,  c,  Asshur- 

noo,  Tiglath- 
Pileser  I. 

911-890,  Ram- 
man-nirari  II. 

890-884,  Tiglath- 
Adar  II. 

884-860,  Asshur- 

800-825,  Shal- 
maneser  II. 
Battle  of  Kar- 
kar,  854,  in 
which  Ahab's 
troops  shared 
in  the  defeat. 

825-812,  Sham- 

812-783,  Ram- 

803,  Total  defeat 
of  Syria  and 
capture  of 


2190-1680,   c, 

Hyksos  pe- 

13th,  14th. 
15th,  and 

19  th  dynas- 
ty,     begin- 
ning   w  i  t  h 
Barneses  I. 
1450-1145,  c, 

Seti  I. 

1 ;  192-1 326,2  c, 

Rameses  II. 

1326-i306,  c, 

22d  dynasty. 

935,  c.  She- 
shenk  (Shi 
shak)  aids 
and  besieges 
and  cap 
tures  Jeru- 

Osarkon  (Ze- 
rah of  the 
Bible)  in- 
vades Pales- 
tine and  is 
repulsed  by 
Asa,  accord- 
ing  to  II. 



II.  of  Da- 
rn ascus 
by  Shal- 

Hazael  mur- 
ders Ben- 
hadad and 
the  throne. 
es against 

803,  Benha- 
dad III.1  of 
Damas  cus 
by  Ram- 
ri  III. 

1  Both  Israel  and  Judah  are  hard  pressed  by 
the  invasions  of  Hazael  and  of  his  son  and 
successor,  Benhadad,  kings  of  Syria.  But  Jeho- 
vah, in  response  to  the  prayers  of  Jehoahaz, 
sends  a  "  del  i  verer."  The  Assyrian  records  show 
that  this  was  Ramman-nirari  III.,  who  in  803 
B.C.  inflicted  a  crushing  defeat  on  Benhadad. 

See  Schrader's  Cuneiform  Inscriptions  and  the  Old 
Testament,  vol.  i.,  p.  203  If.;  vol.  ii.,  p.  324,  and 
cf.  II.  Ki.  13:  5. 

2  Some  Egyptologists  consider  it  probable  that 
the  reign  of  Rameses  II.  should  be  placed  about 
40  years  later.  This  would  place  the  exodus 
about  1280  B.C. 






Azariah,  or  Uzziah, 

Consecration  -vision 
of  Isaiah,  786. 
Prosperity  and  mili- 
tary strength  of  Ju- 

Jotham,  as  regent, 



Rev.  Chron'y. 



Rev.  Chron'y* 

Jehoash,  798-782 

Death    of    Elisha— Vic- 
tories over  Syria. 

Jeroboam  II.,  782-741 

Victories  over  Syria, 
Moab,  and  Amnion— 
Extension  of  the  fron- 
tiers of  Israel. 
Amos  and  Hosea  proph- 

Zechariah,  741— End  of 
Jehu's  dynasty. 

Jotham,  as  king,  736-735 

Ahaz,  735-726 

war,  begun  in  Jo- 
tham's  reign,  is  con- 
tinued (Isa.  7). 
Alliance  with  Tig- 
lath-Pileser  III. 
Foreign  innovations 
— an  altar  of  new  pat- 
tern set  up  in  the 

Hezekiah,1  726-697 

Isaiah  continues  his 
prophetic  activity. 

Ministry  of  the 
prophet  Micah. 

Embassy  of  Merodach 
Baladan,  king  of 
Babylon,  and  illness 
of  Hezekiah,  712  (?). 

Campaign  of  Sen 
nacherib  against  Ju 
dah — Loss  of  towns- 
Siege  of  Jerusalem- 
Destruction  of  Sen 
nacherib's  army  by 
pestilence,  701. 




Menahem,  741-738 

Pays  tribute  to  Tiglath- 

Pileser,  738 


Pekah,  736-734 

Alliance  with  Rezin, 
king  of  Syria,  and  in- 
vasion of  Judah. 
Invasion  of  the  north- 
ern kingdom  by  Tig- 
lath  -  Pileser,  734 —  De- 
feat and  death  of  Pe- 

Hoshea,  734  (730)-722 

Revolt  of  Israel  against 
Assyria— Siege  and  cap- 
ture of  Samaria  after 
three  years,  and  depor- 
tation of  the  inhabit- 
ants—Vain is  the  ap- 
peal to  So  (Sabaka), 
king  of  Egypt. 
End  of  the  northern,  or 
Ephraimite,  kingdom. 


783-773,  Shal- 
maneser  III. 

773-755,  Asshur- 
dan  III. 

755-745,  Asshur- 

745-727,  Tiglath- 
Pileser  III., 
called  Pulu  or 

738,  War  against 
Azariah  (Uz- 
ziah); receives 
tribute  from 

734,  Expedition 
to  Palestine. 

733-732,  Cam- 
paign against 
Rezin  of  Da- 

727-722,         Shal- 
maneser  IV. 
Siege    of    Sa 

722-705,  Sargon. 

Captures  Sa- 
maria, 722. 

Battle  of  Ra 

Defeat  of  Sa- 
baka (called 
Sabi),  720. 

Capture  of 
Ashdod,  711 
(Isa.  20). 

705-681,       Sen 

against  Egypt 
and  Judah. 

Siege  of  Jeru- 
salem, 701. 

Installs  As- 
shur  -  nadin  ■ 
shum  as  king 
of  Babylon, 


Greece  and 

776,        First 

753,  Founda- 

tion     of 


tyrant    of 


730,  24th  dy- 
nasty, Sa- 
ites  —  Egypt 
falls  into 
the  hands 
of  Ethiopia. 

730,  25  th  dy- 

Sabaka  (So 
II.  Ki.  17:4) 
Nubia  and 
Upper    E 


Defeated  by 
Sargon  at 

734,  Founda- 
tion of  Sy- 
racuse, by 
Archias  of 

710,  Croton 

708,  Founda- 
tion  of 

Taharka ( 
Tirhaka    of 
the    Bible), 

Tarku  of 
the  latter  at 
Altaku  {El- 
tekeh),  and 
thus  deliv- 
ers Heze- 
|    kiah. 

1  In  the  reign  of  Hezekiah  we  are  confronted 
by  a  serious  difficulty  in  chronology.  In  II. 
Ki.  18: 13  we  are  told  that  Sennacherib  invaded 
Judah  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  Hezekiah. 
This  invasion,  we  know  from  the  Assyrian 
documents,  took  place  in  701  B.C.  On  the  other 
hand,  we  read  in  II.  Ki.  18:  10  that  Samaria 
was  captured  in  the  sixth  year  of  Hezekiah, 
which  would  place  Hezekiah 's  accession  in  the 
year  727-726  B.C.,  thus  making  the  invasion  seem 
to  be  in  the  twenty-fourth  year. 

Various  methods  have  been  adopted  for  solv- 
ing the  chronological  difficulty  indicated  above. 
Among  these  are:  (1)  That  the  writer  in  II.  Ki. 
28:  13  is  blending  the  invasion  of  Palestine  and 
capture  of  Ashdod  by  Sargon  in  711  B.C.,  which 

would  fall  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  Heze- 
kiah's  reign,1  with  the  invasion  of  Sennacherib, 
which  happened  ten  years  later.  Cf.  Sayce, 
Fresh  Light  from  the  Ancient  Monuments,  p.  136 
ff.  (2)  That,  as  in  the  case  of  Jotham  (II.  Ki. 
15:  5),  Hezekiah  may  have  been  associated  with 
Ahaz  in  the  year  726,  and  hence  arose  a  double 
mode  of  reckoning,  viz.,  from  the  year  of  the 
conjoint  reign  and  from  that  of  the  sole  reign 
of  Hezekiah. 

1  As  we  have  already  explained,  726  would  probably 
be  reckoned  as  the  last  year  of  the  reign  of  Ahaz,  and 
725  would  count  as  the  first  full  year  of  Hezekiah 's 
reign.  This  date,  however,  is  not  free  from  difficulty 
(cf .  II.  Kings  18:  10). 




Rev.  Chron'y. 
B.C.  B.C. 

697   Manasseh,  6^7-641 

Carried    prisoner    by    As- 

shur-bani-pal  to  Babylon 

(II.  Chr.  33:  11). 
Manasseh's    repentance 

and  restoration. 

Amon,  641-639 

Josiah.    Nahum  prophesies. 
Great  reformation. 
Prophetic  activity  of  Jer- 
emiah, and  probably  also 
of    Obadiah    (at   a    later 

Habakkuk  5111  d  Zephaniah 
prophesied  during  this 

Josiah  slain  by  Pharaoh 
Necho's  archers  in  the 
battle  of  Megiddo. 

Jehoahaz,  608 

Jehoiakim,  608-597 

Jechoniah,   Coniali,   or  Je- 

hoiachin,  597 

Reigns  three  months,  and 
is  carried  away  by  Nebu- 
chadrezzar, with  10,000  of 
the  Jewish  population,  to 
Babylon.  Among  these 
captives  is  the  prophet 
Ezekiel  (II.  Ki.  24 :  12).  This 
was  the  eighth  year  of 
Nebuchadrezzar  (Jer.  24: 
I;  29:  1,2). 
Zedekiah,  597-586 

First  year  of  the  deporta- 
tion, or  exile,  of  Jehoia- 
chin.  This  is  the  event 
from  which  Ezekiel  con- 
tinually dates  his  events 
(II.  Ki.  24:  17;  cf.  Jer.  37:  1 
and  49:  34).    Daniel. 

Beginning  of  the  siege  of 
Jerusalem,  589-588 

Ninth  year  of  Zedekiah 
and  of  the  exile;  10th 
Tebet,  i.e.,  near  the  end  of 
December,  589  (II.  Ki.  25: 
1;  Jer.  52:  4  and  39:  1;  also 
Ezek.  21:  Iff.). 

Babylonian  army  before 
Jerusalem,  588-587 

Tenth  year  of  Zedekiah, 
eighteenth  of  Nebuchad- 
rezzar (Jer.  32: 1).  Ezekiel's 
prophecy  against  Egypt 
(Ezek.  29: 1)  on  12th  Tebet. 

Capture  of  Jerusalem,  587 
Eleventh  year  of  Zede- 
kiah (9th  Tammuz). 
BMight  and  capture  of 
Zedekiah  (II.  Ki.  25:  3= 
Jer.  52:  (i;  39:  2). 

Jerusalem  destroyed,  Ju- 
ly, 587,  Precise  date,  10th 
Ab  (II.  Ki.  25:  8;  Jer.  52: 

Assyria  and  Baby- 


688,    Destruction    of 
Babylon     by    Sen 
681-668,  Esarhaddon. 

Overthrow  of  Si- 
don,  678. 

Royal  palace  built 
at  Nineveh. 

Restoration  of  Bab- 
ylon, 677. 

Conquest  of  Egypt 

668-626,  Asshur-bani- 

Advances  agai  n  s  t 
Egypt  and  captures 
Thebes— Over- 
throw and  death  of 
Tirhaka— 668-663. 

These  events  are 
referred  to  in  Na- 
hum 3:  8-11. 

Rebellion  of  Sha- 
mash  -  shumukin 
crushed.  647. 

Manassen,  king  of 
Israel,  mentioned 
in  a  list  of  tribu- 
tary vassals. 

625-605,  Nabo-palas- 
sar,  king  of  Baby- 

Destruction  of  Nin- 
eveh, 607. 

foundation  of  the 

605-562,  Nebuchadrez- 
zar ( =  Nebuchad- 

All  the  Assyrian 
possessions  west  of 
the  Euphrates  and 
south  of  the  Ama- 
nus  subject  to  Bab- 
ylonia—Neb uchad- 
rezzar  rules  as  far 
as  the  river  of 
Egypt  ( W  a  d  y  el 
Arish),  600. 

Tyre,  besieged  by 
the  Babylonians, 
holds  out  success- 
fully for  thirteen 
years  under  Eth- 
baal  II. 

Cf.  Ezek.  26:  1  If.; 
28:  16-19. 



25th  dynasty. 

Taharka's  reign. 

Tirhaka=  Assyr  i  a  n 

Recapture  of  Mem- 
phis from  Assyri- 

Defeated  by  the 
troops  of  Asshur- 


Urdamani,  or  Rud- 
Amon,  succeeds  his 
father,  and  is  over- 
thrown by  the  As- 

A  fresh  rebellion 
of  twelve  vassal 
princes  against  the 
Assyrian  rule  is  led 
by  Psamtik,  son  of 
Necho.  It  succeeds 
mainly  by  the  help 
of  the  Greeks  of 
Asia  Minor. 

Greece  and  Home. 

26th  dynasty. 

650-610,  Psamtik  I 
[Wiedemann,  660  (?) 

Greek  mercenaries 
settled  in  and  near 

610-600,  Necho  I, 

Defeats  Josiah  of 
Judah  and  other 
allies  of  Assyria  at 
Megiddo ;  but  is 
himself  defeated 
by  Nebuchadrez- 
zar at  the  battle  of 
Carchemish,  605. 

600-590,  Psamtik  II. 

590-570,  Uaphris,  or 
Apries  (Egypt.  Ua- 
habra,  the  Hophra 
of  the  Bible),  ren- 
dered uneasy  by 
the  victorious  in- 
roads of  the  Baby- 
lonians in  Pales- 
tine, makes  a  de- 
scent on  Sidon  and 
captures  it,  defeats 
the  Cyprians  and 
Tyrians  in  a  naval 
battle,  and  urges 
Zedekiah  to  con- 
clude an  alliance 
(Jer.  37:3-10). 
When  Jerusalem, 
after  a  second  siege, 
has  been  captured 
by  Nebuchadrez- 
zar, the  king  of 
Egypt  opens  the 
frontiers  of  his 
realm  to  receive 
the  exiled  inhabit- 

625,  Periander  of  Cor- 

624,  Legislation  of 

612,  Cy Ion's  attempt 
to  seize  the  gov- 
ernment of  Ath- 

610,  Sappho,  Alcaeus, 
and  Stesichorus. 

600,  Foundation  of 
Massilia  (Mar- 

594,  Legislation  of 




Biblical  Chronology. 



The  prophecies  of  Isaiah  40-66  mainly  refer  to 
the  circumstances,  events,  and  anticipations 
of  this  interval,  and  herald  the  coming  res- 
toration of  the  Jews  by  Cyrus  II.  550-536 

Cyrus'  edict  for  the  restoration  of  the  Jews. 
First  caravan  journey  of  returning  exiles 
under  Zerubbabel  and  Joshua.  536 

Rebuilding  of  the  temple  commenced, 
opposed  by  the  Samaritans. 

It  is 

A  letter  is  sent  to  the  Persian  king  in  opposi 
tion  to  the  rebuilding  of  the  temple.  529 

The  building  is  arrested  by  decree  of  the  Per 
sian  king.  522 

Edict  of  Cyrus  to  the  Jews  is  reaffirmed  by 
Darius,  son  of  Hystaspes.  521 

Prophetic  ministry  of  Haggai  and  Zechariah 
commences.  Resumption  of  the  building 
(Hag.  1). 

Dedication  of  the  temple. 

Artaxerxes  commissions  Ezra  to  go  to  Judea  on 
a  journey  of  inquiry,  accompanied  by  several 
royal  counselors  and  Israelites,  priests  and 
Levites  (Ezra  7).  The  work  of  reformation 
and  reorganization  begins,  and  continues 
during  the  following  year.  Foreign  wives 
are  put  away  (Ezra  9).    Esther. 

New  commission  to  Nehemiah,  the  royal  cup- 
bearer, who  obtains  leave  of  absence  with  let- 
ters to  the  governors  west  of  the  Euphrates. 
In  spite  of  opposition,  plots,  and  accusations 
the  walls  are  rebuilt.  The  book  of  the  Law 
is  read  for  seven  days,  and  festival  of  rejoic- 
ing held  (Feast  of  Tabernacles),  followed  by 
a  fast  of  humiliation  and  repentance. 

3  Nehemiah  returns  to  the  Persian  court  and 
again  obtains  permission  to  return  to  Jeru- 
salem.   Prophetic  ministry  of  Maiachi. 

Babylonia  and  Persia. 


568,  Nebuchadnezzar  in- 
vades Egypt  in  the  37th 
year  of  his  reign  (cf. 
Ezek.  29:  17;  30:  19). 

562,  Evil-Merodach 
(Amil  (Avil)  Maruduk) 
succeeds  his  illustrious 
Decline  of  Babylonia 
under  his  successors, 
viz.,  (560)  Nergalsha- 
rezer  and  (556)  Nabu 
naid  {Nabonidus). 

550,  Cyrus  II.,  son  of 
Cambyses,  conquers 
Media,  Lydia,  and  sub- 
sequently Babylonia. 

538,  Capture  of  Babylon 
by  Cyrus,  and 

Downfall  of  Babylonian 

and  establishment  of  the 
Persian  Dominion. 

538-529,    Cyrus. 

529-521,  Cambyses  ad- 
vances against  Egypt, 
the  only  power 
remained  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  supremacy 
of  Persia.  Conquers 
Memphis,and  captures 
Psamtik  and  puts  him 
to  death. 
Dies  on  the  march  of 
his  army  to  suppress 
the  rebellion  of  the 
Magian,  who  had  given 
himself  out  to  be  Bart- 
ja  (Smerdis),  the  king's 
brother,  who  had  been 
put  to  death  some  years 

521-485,  Darius,  son  of 
Hystaspes,  an  enlight- 
ened ruler,  improves 
the  commerce  of  his 
kingdom— completes  a 
canal  from,  the  Nile  to 
the  Red  Sea. 
His  invasion  of  Scy- 
thia,  and  disastrous  re- 

485-465,  Xerxes  I. 

465-425,    Artaxerxes  I 



570-526,  Amasis  (Ma- 
netho:  Amosis)  or 
Aahmes  makes  al- 
liances with  the 
Greek  despot  Poly- 
crates  of  Sarnos. 

Foreign  colonists 
settle  in  Egypt. 

Prosperity  of  the 
Greek  Naucratis. 

Invasion  by  the 
Babylonians  (568). 

thatf526-525,    Psamtik  III. 
captured  and  slain 
by  Cambyses. 
27th  dynasty  (Per- 
525-521,  Cambyses. 

Greece  and  Rome. 

510,  Rome :  Expulsion 
of  the  Tarquins. 
The  Republic. 

510,  Greece:  Legisla- 
tion of  Cleisthenes. 

500,  Ionic  revolt,  Sar- 
dis  burnt. 

495,    Battle  of  Lade. 

490,  Defeat  of  Datis 
and  Artaphernes 
at  the  battle  of  Mar- 

480,  Battle  of  Salamis. 

479,  Battle  of  Platsea. 
Final  defeat  of  the 
host  of  Xerxes. 

478,  Confederacy  of 
Delos,  and  rise  of 
Athenian  power. 


431,  Outbreak  of  the 
Career  of  Pericles. 

Postscript. — Respecting  the  chronology  of  the  New 
Babylonian  and  Persian  periods,  see  Oppert  in  Zeit- 
schrift  fur  Assynologie,  May,  1893,  p.  56  ff.  Sayce  now 
places  Hammurabi  earlier  than  2200  B.C.  {Records  of 
the  Past,  new  series,  vol.  v.,  p.  11.)  So  also  Winckler 
in  his  History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria.  The  Assyr- 
ian Eponym  Canon,  by  George  Smith,  gives  lists  of  the 
eponyms.  See  Schrader's  Cuneiform  Inscriptions  and 
the  Old  Testament,  vol.  ii.,  p.  198;  p.  333;  the  Babylonian 
Chronicle,  by  T.  G.  Pinches,  of  the  British  Museum. 

Books  of  Eefeeence  on  chronology  and  the  ex- 
tended historv  of  Old  Testament  times:  Edersheim's 
The  Bible  History;  the  series,  Men  of  the  Bible;  F.  B. 
Meyer's  Old  Testament  Heroes,  7  vols.;  Dean  Stanley's 
History  of  the  Jewish  Church;  Blaikie's  Bible  History  ; 
Student's  Old  Testament  History;  Wilson's  Ilosaics  of 
Bible  History;  Ewald's  History  of  Israel;  Milman's 
History  of  the  Jews;  Hosmer's  Story  of  the  Jews.  Con- 
sult books  under  Part  II.,  Part  VI.,  and  the  other 
topics  of  this  division. 




Prepared  by  JESSE  L.  HURLBUT,  D.D.,  Corresponding  Secretary  of  the  Sunday- 
School  Union  op  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 


I.  Earlier  Prophets  of  Judah: 

Date  of 

Isaiah  , 

II.  Prophets  of  Israel: 


III.  Later  Prophets  of  Judah : 

Jeremiah. .. 


IV.  Prophets  of  the  Captivity: 

Obadiah  . 

V.  Prophets  of  the  Restora- 

Zechariah . 
Malachi  . . . 

875-850  B.C. 
750-700  .... 

790-725  .... 


630-585  . 


600-535  . 
595-570  . 






Jotham  to  Hez 


Jeroboam  II... 

Jeroboam  II. .. 

Jeroboam  II.  to 

Josiah . 
Josiah . 

Josiah  to  Cap- 

zar to  Cyrus. 



Darius  I 

Darius  I 

Artaxerxes  I. . 

Subjects  of 

The  Plagues  upon 

The    Kingdom    of 

The  Captivity,  and 


The    Fall    of   Nin- 
The  Sins  of  Israel. 

The  Sins  of  Israel. 

The  Fall  of  Nin- 

The  Captivity  of 

The  Captivity  of 
Judah.    [vasion. 

The   Chaldean    In 

The  Great  Empires 

The  Captivity  and 

The  Destruction  of 


The  Rebuilding  of 

the  Temple. 
The  New  Israel. 

[the  Messiah. 
Reformation    and 

Title  or 

The    First    of    the 

The  Evangelical 

The     Vehement 


The  Missionary 

The      Peasant 

The      Obscure 


The  Prophet  of 

The   Prophet  of 

The       Weeping 

The  PoeticProphet. 

The   Princely 

The     Priestly 

The    Unknown 



The  Prophet  of  the 


The  Prophet  of 


The   Last    of   the 

iJoel  was  the  earliest  prophet  whose  message  was        3Referring  to  peculiarity  of  style  and  difficulty  of 
committed  to  writing.  [heathen  people,     interpretation. 

2  Jonah  was  the  only  prophet  sent  to  preach  to  a  I      4With  Malachi  the  Old  Testament  prophecies  close. 

#^  t^T*H>ffrT^ 

fc|p>|=flf^E3J  # 


<m  np^r  >a-:s  $=q 





Text  of  Nebuchadnezzar's  Brick  Inscriptions,  found  in  large  numbers  at  Babylon,  Whose  temple  and 
palace  he  rebuilt  and  restored  (cf.  Dan.  4:  30).    The  text  reads  as  follows:    1,  Nebuchadnezzar;  2,  King  of 
Babylon  ;  :<,  Patron  of  E-sagila,  4,  and  E-zida;  5,  Eldest  Son,  6,  of  Nabopolassar;  7,  King  of  Babylon. 







By  REV.  OWEN  C.  WH1TEHOUSE,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hebrew, 
Cheshunt  College,  near  London. 

History  of  the  Jews. 

Joiada,  high  priest. 

Johanan  (or  Jonathan),  high  priest. 

Murder  of  Joshua  in  the  temple  by  his  brother 
Johanan,  the  high  priest. 

Jaddua,  high  priest. 

Alexander  besieges  Tyre,  demands  submission  of 
the  Jews,  and  marches  on  Jerusalem. 

Settlement  of  Jews  at  Alexandria. 

Onias  I.,  high  priest. 

Ptolemy  I.  Soter  takes  Jerusalem. 

Antigonus,  ruler  over  Palestine. 

War  of  the  Diadochi,  or  successors  of  Alexander, 
brought  to  an  issue  by  the  battle  of  Ipsus  in 

Death  of  Onias  I.  Simon  I.,  the  Just,  high  priest. 
He  was  greatest  of  the  later  line  of  priests, 
last  survivor  of  the  "Great  Synagogue"  of  120, 
who  returned  with  Ezra  from  the  Babylonian 
captivity.  The  "New  Synagogue"  succeeded, 
whose  office  was,  according  to  tradition,  to  in- 
terpret the  Old  Testament  Scriptures. 

Eleazar,  high  priest. 

Manasseh,  high  priest. 

Onias  II.,  high  priest.  He  refuses  to  pay  tribute 
to  Ptolemy  III.  Euergetes.  Joseph,  son  of 
Tobias,  high  priest's  nephew,  contrives  to  ap- 
pease Ptolemy. 

Simon  II.,  high  priest. 

Antiochus  III.,  of  Syria,  overpowers  Palestine, 
which  is  shortly  afterwards  recovered  by  Ptol- 
emy IV.,  of  Egypt  (Philopator),  217  B.C. 

N.B. — The  dates  of  the  high  priests  down  to  Onias 
III.  are  not  trustivorthy. 

Death  of  the  high  priest  Simon  II.  Onias  III., 
high  priest.  Ecclesiastic  us  written  by  Jesus 
Sirachides  about  180  B.C. 

Accession  of  Antiochus  IV.,  surnarned  Epiphanes 
(but  with  the  epithet  Epimanes,"  mad  ").  Onias 
III.  visits  Antioch  to  clear  himself  from  the 
charges  of  Simon,  treasurer  of  the  temple. 
Through  bribes  and  promises  of  tribute  Joshua 
(or  Jason),  brother  of  Onias,  representing  the 
Hellenizing  party  at  Antioch,  obtains  the  high- 
priesthood.  Onias  III.  deposed.  Temple  wor- 
ship neglected.  Gymnasium  erected  for  young 

Menelaus  outbids  Jason  in  bribes,  and  supplants 
him.  Summoned  to  Antioch,  he  sells  the  tem- 
ple vessels  to  the  Tyrians  in  order  to  bribe  An- 
dronicus,  governor  at  Antioch.  He  is  accused 
by  Onias,  and  the  latter  is  murdered. 

Deposition  of  Menelaus  by  Jason,  who  assaults 
Jerusalem  with  1,000  men.  Antiochus  invades 
Judea,  takes  Jerusalem  by  storm,  and  slaugh- 
ters without  distinction  of  age  or  sex ;  profanes 
the  temple. 

Glorious  resistance  of  the  aged  priest  Matta- 
thias  and  his  sons,  who  gather  Chasidim  (Assi- 
deans)  around  them  and  retire  to  mountain 
fastnesses,  whence  they  issue  and  slaughter  the 
idolatrous  worshipers. 

Battle  of  Beth-horon.    Army  of  Apollonius  routed 
by  Judas,  surnarned  Maccafcseus  (the  "Ham- 
merer"), son  of  Mattathias. 

Persia  and 


424,  Darius  II. 

336,  Darius  III. 

330,  Darius 
slain.      End 
of  Persian 

Nicator  con- 
quers Baby- 
lon. Seleucid 


414,*  Egypt  and 
from  Persia. 

331-320,  Jews 
settle  at  Al- 

323,  Ptolemy  I. 


187,  Seleucus 
IV.  Philopa- 
tor ascends 
the  throne. 

sent  to  Rome 
and  his  suc- 
usurped  by 

175,  Antiochus 
IV.  Epipha- 
nes (Epima- 

phus.  LXX. 
of  the  Old 
This  marks 
the  epoch  of 

succeeds  Pt. 
as  ruler  of 
Egypt  at  the 
age  of  five. 
III.  (the  Gt.,, 
of  Syria, 
makes  war 
upon  him, 
and  conq'rs 
Ccele- Syria 
and  Pales 
tine  (198). 

181,  Accession 
of  Ptolemy 
VI.  Philome 

171,  Antiochus 
E  p  i  p  h  a  nes 
Egypt,  but 
is  compelled 
to  withdraw 
by  the  Ro- 

168,  Ptolemy 
reign    to 

167,  Onias  IV. 
takes  refuge 
in  Egypt, 
and  founds 
a  new  tem- 
ple at  Leon- 

Greece  and 


359,  Philip, 

336,  Philip 

334,  Alexander 
invades  the 

331,  Battle  of 

323,  Death  of 
and  division 
of  his  em- 

266,  Romans 

masters  of 

all  Italy. 
264,  Beginning 

of     Punic 



197,    Battle  of 


168,  Defeat  of 
Perseus  by 
L.  TEmilius 
P  a  u  1  u  s  in 
the  Battle  of 
Conquest  of 



Jud<  'i. 

History  of  the  Jews— Continued. 

Battle  of Ashaod,  Gorgias,  attempting  t<>  sur- 
prise the  .I«'\\  ish  canip,  is  utterly  routed,  with 
immense  loss  of  booty. 

Battle  of  Bethsum%  Lysias,  with  Q5,000  troops,  de- 
feated by  Judas  with  much  interior  force.  Jeru- 
salem retaken. 

Judas  cleanses  the  temple  and  n  places  the 
sacred  vessels  from  the  captured  booty.  Sanc- 
tuary is  rededteatea  and  Weastof  Dedication  insti- 

Death  of  Antiochus  at  Tabse.  Succeeded  by  An- 
tiochus  V.  Eupator. 

Siege  ot  Bethsura  by  Lysias  with  100,000  troops. 

Alciru us  appointed  high  priest  by  Antiocb us;  is 
supported  by  Demetrius  Soter.  Nicanor  de- 
feated by  Judas  at  Capharsalama. 

Battle  of  Adasa  (near  Beth-horon).  Nicanor 
defeated  and  slain. 

Battle  oj  Eleasa.  Judas  attempts  to  fight 
against  overwhelming  numbers  with  a  body  of 
800  men,  and,  after  defeating  the  right  wing  of 
the  Syrians,  is  himself  slain.  Jonathan,  sur- 
named  Appnus,  youngest  son  of  Mattathias,  is 
chosen  leader. 

Bacchides  makes  peace  with  Jonathan,  who  gov- 
erns the  people  from  the  stronghold  of  Mich- 

Jonathan's  favor  is  sought  by  Demetrius  against 
his  rival,  Alexander  Balas.  The  latter  nomi- 
nates Jonathan  high  priest.  Jonathan  inau- 
gurates the  line  of  Asmonean  priest-princes. 

The  Jews  support  Alexander  Balas  in  spite  of 
the  lavish  promises  of  Demetrius. 

Apollonhcs,  governor  of  Ccele-Syria,  adherent  of 
Demetrius,  defeated  by  Jonathan  at  Azotus. 
The  latter  is  established  in  his  position  as  high 
priest  by  Demetrius. 

Jonathan  confirmed  in  his  authority  by  Anti- 
ochus  VI.  Theos.  Simon  appointed  governor 
of  the  country  from  Tyre  to  Egyptian  border. 
The  followers  of  Demetrius  overthrown  by  Jon- 
athan near  Gennesareth  and  Hamath.  Simon 
takes  Ascalon  and  Joppa.  Towns  of  Judea 
fortified,  and  walls  of  Jerusalem  heightened. 
Jonathan  is  slain  through  the  plots  and  treach- 
ery of  Tryphon. 

Simon,  surnamed  Thassi,  last  of  the  five  sons  of 
Mattathias,  becomes  high  priest. 

Tower  of  Jerusalem  purified  and  entered.  Pros- 
perity and  peace  enjoyed  by  Jews  (I.  Mace.  13: 
48-53;  14:  4  tf.).  First  year  of  the  freedom  of  the 
Jews  (141). 

Antiochus  VII.  refuses  the  aid  of  Simon  against 
the  usurper  Tryphon.  War  ensues  with  Syria. 
In  the  battle  of  Jamnia,  Cendebeus,  the  Syrian 
general,  is  completely  defeated  by  Simon's  sons, 
.1  udas  and  John. 

Simon  and  his  sons  Judas  and  Mattathias  treach- 
erously assassinated  by  Ptolemy. 

John  Hyrcanus,  second  son  of  Simon,  becomes 
high  priest.  He  is  compelled  by  famine  to 
surrender  Jerusalem  and  become  tributary  to 
Antiochus  Eusebes. 

Judea  recovers  independence  with  the  death  of 

Hyrcanus  conquers  the  east  of  the  Jordan,  de- 
stroys the  temple  on  Mount  Gerizim,  and 
builds  the  tower  of  Baris  northwest  of  the 
Jerusalem  temple  enclosure  (Antonda).  In 
consequence  of  a  quarrel  with  Eleazar,  he  turns 

Death  of  Hyrcanus.  Aristobulus  I.  seizes  the 
high-priesthood,  murders  in  jealousy  his 
brother  Antigonus;  dies  of  illness  and  remorse. 

Alexander  Jannseus.  The  Pharisees  instigate  a 
rebellion  against  him  (H2).  He  is  expelled,  but 
returns  to  Jerusalem  in  triumph. 


lf> 4,  Antiochus 
V.  Eupator. 

Demetrius  re- 
turns from 
Horn  e  a  n  d 
and  reigns 
over  Syria 

102,  Demetrius 
I.  Soter. 

150,  Alexander 
Balas  usurps 

140,  Demetrius 
II.  Nicator. 

145,  Antiochus 
VI.,  support- 
ed by  Try- 
phon, over- 
powers De- 

143,  Tryphon 
puts  Anti- 
ochus to 
death  and 
usurps  au- 

137,  Antiochus 
VII.  Sidetes, 
second  son 
of  Demetri- 
us I.,  and 
brother  of 
I) em  etrius 
II.,  defeats 
T  r  y  p  b  o  n 
and  besieges 
him  in  Dora. 

128,  Is  slain  in 
{{(lease   of 

More  than  10 
rulers  fol- 
low in  rapid 

83,  Tigranes, 
king  of  Ar- 
menia, be- 
comes ruler 
of  Syria. 


150,  Marriage 
of  Alexan- 
der Balas  to 
daughter  of 
Ptolemy  sup- 
ports Derne- 
his  rival,  Al 

145,  Ptolemy 
or  Euerge- 

U7,  Ptolemy 
VIII.  Lathy 

107,  He  is  ban- 
ished to  Cy- 
prus thro 'gh 
his  mother, 

106.  Ptolemy 

si,  Ptolemy  X 
so,  Ptolemy  XI 


146,  Destruc- 
tion of  Car- 
thage by 
Scipio,  and 
capture  of 
Corinth  by 

132-128,  Career 
of  Tiberius 

123-121,  Caius 
Leges  Sem- 
v  i  a  n  r  e- 

Ill,  War  with 

I06j  Birth  of 

102-101,  Cimbri 
and  Ten  to- 
nes defeated 
by  Marius. 

100,  Birth  of 
Julius  Csesar. 

90,  1st  Mithri- 
datic  War. 

86,  Death  of 

80,  2d  Mithri- 
datic  War- 
Sulla  dicta- 



History  of  the  Jews— Continued. 

Alexander  becomes  reconciled  to  the  Pharisees; 
dies  at  the  siege  of  Ragaba.  His  wife,  Alexan- 
dra, succeeds  him ;  encourages  Aristobulus,  her 
son,  to  resist  the  Pharisees;  makes  her  eldest 
son,  Hyrcanus,  high  priest. 

Hyrcanus  II.  succeeds  on  the  death  of  Alexandra, 
and  is  supported  by  Phaiixees.  Both  are  de- 
feated by  Aristobulus,  who  captures  Jerusalem. 

Aristobulus  II.,  high  priest  and  ruler.  Antipater 
supports  Hyrcanus.  The  latter  appeal  for  help 
to  Aretas,  king  of  the  Nabatheans,  who,  with 
50,000  men,  defeats  Aristobulus,  and  besieges 
him  in  the  temple. 

Scaurus,  Pompey's  lieutenant,  deposes  Antiochus 
XIII.,  and  annexes  Syria  to  the  Roman  domin- 
ions.   Rivalry  of  Hyrcanus  and  Aristobulus. 

Ponipey  holds  a  court  at  Damascus.  Antipater 
bribes  more  than  1,000  Jews  to  support  Hyrca- 
nus.   Pompey  decides  in  favor  of  Hyrcanus. 

Resistance  of  Aristobulus.  He  surrenders  Jeru- 
salem and  is  himself  taken  prisoner.  The  tem- 
ple still  resists,  and  after  three  months  is  cap- 
tured and  12,000  Jews  slain.  Pompey  enters 
the  holy  of  holies. 

Hyrcanus  II.  restored  to  authority.  Judea 
ruled  by  Rome  through  Antipater. 

Crassus  receives  Syria  as  his  province,  and  is 
overthrown  by  the  Parthians  (53). 

Aristobulus,  released  by  Caesar,  is  murdered  by 
Pompeian  adherents. 

Antipater  aids  Julius  Caesar  in  the  Egyptian  War, 
and  is  appointed  first  procurator  of  Judea, 
with  Hyrcanus  as  ethnarch. 

He  appoints  his  sons  Phasael  and  Herod  gover- 
nors of  Jerusalem  and  Galilee  respectively. 

Herod  is  betrothed  to  Mariamne,  granddaughter 
of  Hyrcanus,  and  daughter  of  Alexander. 

Antigonus,  last  of  the  Asmoneans. 

Herod  secures  the  favor  of  Octavian,  and 
also  of  Antony,  and  a  decree  from  the  Senate 
appointing  him  king  of  Judea. 

Jerusalem  is  besieged  for  six  months,  and  taken 
after  fearful  carnage.  Antigonus  sent  in  chains 
to  Antony,  who  puts  him  to  death  by  Herod's 

Herod  appoints  Aristobulus  high  priest. 

Herod  is  defeated  by  Malchus. 

Is  established  by  Octavian  in  his  kingdom. 

Puts  Mariamne  to  death. 

Builds  a  theater  at  Jerusalem  and  an  amphithe- 
ater at  Jericho.  Games  are  appointed  in  honor 
of  Augustus. 

Simon  appointed  high  priest,  whose  daughter 
Mariamne  is  married  to  Herod. 

Rebuilding  of  the  temple.  Herod  visits  Rome 
and  brings  back  with  him  his  two  sons  Alex- 
ander and  Aristobulus,  who  had  been  sent  there 
in  B.C.  24. 

Visits  Agrippa,  whom  he  invites  to  Judea. 

Accuses  Aristobulus  and  Alexander  before  Au- 
gustus, who  reconciles  them. 

Aristobulus  and  Alexander  condemned  to  death 
by  the  Council  and  strangled.  Antipater  plots 
against  Herod  and  goes  to  Rome. 

Simon  deposed  and  Matthias  made  high  priest, 
who  is  himself  deposed  in  favor  of  Joazar. 
Two  chief  rabbis  burnt  alive  for  resisting  the 
innovation  of  a  golden  eagle  placed  over  the 
temple  gate. 

Herod  orders  the  execution  of  Antipater,  and 
dies  of  a  painful  internal  disease.  Archelaus 


69,  Tigranes 
by  the  Ro- 
man general 
XIII,  set  up 
by  the  Ro- 
mans  as 

57,    Gabinius, 

54,  Crassus 

proconsul,  is 
by  the  Par- 

43,  C.  Cassius 

After  this  Sy- 
ria is  ruled 
by  legati. 


59,  By  bribes 
obtains  rec 
frOm  Csesar. 

58,  Ptolemy 
Auletes  is 
and  goes  to 

Reign  of  Be- 
renice and 

55,  Gabinius 
Ptolemy  Au- 

51,  Cleopatra 
and  Ptolemy 
XII.,  and 

48-47;  Alexan- 
drine War, 

27,  Syria  is 
made  an  im- 
perial prov- 
ince,  ruled 
by  a  prefect 
as  legatus 

232  M.  Vipsan- 
ius  Agrippa, 
legatus  of 

20,  Augustus 
visits  Syria 
and  meets 

16,  Agrippa 
once  more 

9-8,  C.  Sentius 

7.  Census  of 

36-31,  Antony 
and  Cleopa- 

an  imperial 


67,  Pompey's 
war  against 
the  pirates. 
Lex  Manilla. 

%,  He  defeats 

63,  Consulship 
of  Cicero  and 
of  Catiline. 

60,  1st  Triumvi- 
rate of  Julius 
Caesar,  Pom- 
pey,  and 

58-51,  Caesar's 
in  Gaul. 

49,  Civil  war 
Pompey  and 

48,  Battle  of 

44,  Assassina- 
tion of  Caesar. 

43,  td  Triumvi- 
rate of  Octa- 
vian, Anto- 
ny, and  Lep- 

42,  Battle  of 
Philippi.  De- 
feat of  Bru- 
tus and  Cas- 

40,  Antony 
and  O  c  t  a - 
vian  recon- 
ciled  at 

37-36,  War 
against  Sex- 
tus  Pompey. 

31,  Battle  of 
Actium.  De- 
feat of  An- 

30,  Octavian 
to  Egypt, 
Death  of 
Antony  and 

29,  Closing  of 
the  temple 
of  Janus. 

27,  Octavian 
assumes  the 
name  Au- 

21,  Augustus 
winters  in 

20,  Passes  into 

taken  from 
Crassus  re- 
stored by 

8,  Census  of 
Roman  citi- 
zens insti- 




By  REV.  J.  B.  HEARD,  M.A.,  Caius  College,  Cambridge;  Vicar  op  Queen-Charl- 
ton,  Bath;  Late  Hulsean  Lecturer  in  the  University  of  Cambridge. 

A  Preparation  for  Christ.— It  is  not  without 
significance  that  the  genealogical  tables,  as  re- 
corded by  St.  Matthew,  are  divided  into  three 
sections,  each  containing  fourteen  generations. 
In  all  probability  they  are  rounded  off  into 
equal  portions  by  the  omission  of  one  or  two 
insignificant  names  here  and  there;  but  the 
substantial  fact  remains  that  Hebrew  history 
from  Abraham  to  Christ  falls  into  three  equal 
portions— the  patriarch  and  prophet,  or  tribal, 
stage  of  the  nation's  growth;  the  kingly,  or 
national,  type  properly  so  called;  and  lastly, 
the  stage  from  the  captivity  to  Christ,  the  third 
and  last  evolution  of  Hebrew  history.  This  is 
its  decline  and  fall,  as  the  secular  historian 
would  describe  it;  but,  viewed  from  within,  it  is 
its  preparation  for  the  last  consummation  of  all 
in  the  times  of  the  Messiah.  As  the  keynote  of 
all  Jewish  story  is  the  "travailing  of  Israel  "  in 
birth  for  the  appointed  seed,  under  the  twofold 
conditions  of  Adamic  birth  and  Abrahamic 
descent,— "made  of  a  woman,  made  under  the 
law,"— so  the  stages  onward  towards  that  con- 
summation could  only  attain  to  their  full  real- 
ization when  the  seed  of  the  woman  and  the 
son  of  the  law  found  their  meeting-point  in 
the  one  perfect  flower  of  humanity.  The  course 
of  history  is  thus  tracked  to  the  point  when 
Jew  and  Gentile  flow  together  as  rivers  meet 
and  mingle  in  the  common  ocean.  The  cap- 
tivity, though  a  judgment  on  the  people  for 
their  sins  of  unfaithfulness  to  the  covenant, 
was  in  reality  an  unconscious  preparation  for 
the  times  of  the  Messiah.  Their  national  loss 
was  turned  to  gain:  not  only  were  they  weaned 
from  their  proneness  to  idolatry,  but  their  de- 
partures from  monotheism  were,  after  meeting 
with  Persian  types  of  thought,  corrected  and 
reformed.  Instead  of  a  local  covenant  God,  the 
patron  deity  of  a  solitary  Syrian  tribe,  whose 
power  as  El-Elohim  was  too  vague  to  become 
the  object  of  a  definite  worship,  they  rose  to 
the  clear  conception  of  their  God  being  also  the 
God  of  the  whole  earth,  and  the  All-Father  of 
men.  The  God  of  their  fathers  Abraham,  Isaac, 
and  Jacob  was  in  future  to  be  approached  as 
Absolute  and  Relative  in  one,  as  Jahveh-Elo- 
him  in  the  deepest  and  strictest  sense  of  the 

The  return  from  captivity  is  thus  the  third 
and  final  stage  in  the  growth  of  Israel  as  the 
covenant  people.  Monotheism,  exceptional  in 
the  days  of  Elijah  and  the  earlj^  prophets,  was 
burned  into  them  by  the  fires  of  persecution. 
This  highest  stage  of  monotheism  was  the  ele- 
vated point  of  view  which  they  had  reached 
in  the  third  and  final  stage  of  their  spiritual 
growth  on  the  return  from  captivity. 

But  we  must  not  exaggerate  or  antedate  events. 
The  times  of  the  fullness  of  the  Gentiles,  when 
Jew  and  Gentile  were  to  mingle  in  one  com- 
mon stock  in  Messiah's  day,  were  not  yet  come. 
If  the  Hebrews  went  into  captivity  for  their 
proneness  to  idolatry,  and  were  at  last  weaned 
from  that  tendency  under  the  chastisement  of 
a  seventy  years'  separation  from  their  land, 
they  only  returned  to  develop  a  fresh  spirit 
of  separation.  They  came  back  monotheists,  it 
is  true,  and  zealous  for  the  law,  but  in  a  nar- 
row, exclusive   spirit.     More   than   ever  they 

regarded  themselves  as  the  one  covenant  peo- 
ple, and  they  learned  to  hate  and  despise  the 
Gentiles  in  proportion  as  they  passed  under 
their  yoke.  It  was  the  same  theocracy  before 
and  after  the  captivity;  but  it  had  changed 
its  character.  From  a  state  which  was  also  a 
church  it  became  only  a  church,  in  which  the 
priests  ruled,  and  in  which  the  prophetic  order, 
that  admirable  safeguard  of  spiritual  liberty, 
sank  into  comparative  insignificance. 

The  Return  from  Captivity.— Cyrus,  the  con- 
queror of  Babylon,  in  the  first  year  of  his  reign 
(B.C.  536),  seventy  years  after  the  captivity,  but 
fifty-two  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  and 
the  temple,  caused  a  decree  to  be  proclaimed 
by  a  herald  throughout  the  whole  of  his  vast 
empire,  that  all  the  people  of  the  God  of 
heaven  were  free  without  exception  to  return 
to  Jerusalem  and  rebuild  the  temple.  This 
general  permission  therefore  extended  to  the 
children  of  the  ten  tribes  dispersed  through- 
out Assyria,  Halah,  Gozan,  and  Media,  as  well 
as  to  the  children  of  Judah  and  Benjamin, 
whose  settlements  were  confined  to  Che  bar  and 

The  return  of  the  remnant  of  the  tribes,  the 
difficulties  they  encountered,  the  wise  leader- 
ship of  Zcrubbabel,  Ezra,  and  Nehemiah,  the 
building  of  the  temple,  and  the  delays  and 
obstacles  put  in  the  way  by  the  mongrel  races 
remaining  in  Palestine,  are  fully  detailed  in 
the  Scriptures. 

Persian  and  Greek  Periods.— History  is  almost 
silent  regarding  the  condition  of  the  Jews  dur- 
ing the  century  and  a  half  extending  from  the 
times  of  Nehemiah  and  Malaehi,  during  that 
transition  time  between  the  dominion  of  Per- 
sian and  Greek,  down  to  the  period  of  the  wars 
of  Alexander.  Alexander's  brief  reign  of  five 
years  as  master  of  Asia  and  the  East  left  little 
or  no  impression  on  the  Jews,  who  became  sub- 
ject successively  to  Ptolemy,  then  to  Antigo- 
nus,  and  finally  to  the  Seleucidse.  So  quiet  was 
this  last  period  that  it  was  accepted  by  the 
Jews  as  a  recognized  starting-point  of  their 
chronology.  The  situation  changed  when  the 
Roman  entered  into  the  struggle  of  a  century 
before  the  Seleucian  dynasty  was  finally  broken. 

The  Maccabees  (Asmoneans),  b.c.  167-63.— 
In  170  the  unwise  decision  of  King  Antiochus 
to  force  on  the  Jews  entire  conformity  with  Hel- 
lenistic practices,  civil  and  religious,  set  in 
motion  a  rising  of  the  Jews  to  recover  their 
religious,  which  ended  in  their  regaining 
civil,  independence.  At  the  head  of  the  party 
in  Judea  attached  to  the  old  order  of  theocratic 
ideas  at  the  time  when  Antiochus  Epiphanes 
ascended  the  throne,  stood  the  high  priest 
Onias  III.  The  leader  of  the  Hellenizing  party 
friendly  to  the  Greeks  was  his  own  brother, 
Jesus,  or,  as  he  is  better  known  under  his  Greek 
name,  Jason.  In  Jerusalem  Antiochus  sought 
to  force  idolatry  upon  the  Jews,  to  compel  them 
to  burn  the  Scriptures,  and  to  forbid  circum- 
cision.   He  profaned  the  temple,  and  carried 

1  The  dates  of  the  leading  events,  are  given  in  the 
preceding  table;  this  article  .seeks  only  to  summarize 
the  drift  of  the  history  and  to  indicate  the  causes  of 
the  changes. 



away  its  greatest  treasures,  and  deported  many 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem. 

Mattathias,  an  aged  priest  of  Modein,  with 
his  five  sons,  John,  Simon,  Judas,  Eleazar,  and 
Jonathan,  led  a  national  rising,  the  hill  country 
of  Judea  being  their  stronghold.  In  106  B.C. 
Judas  succeeded  to  the  leadership,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  establishment  of  a  new  native 
dynasty— the  Asmoneans.  Alert  of  foot  and 
quick  of  brain,  Judas  soon  had  organized  a 
small  but  trained  army,  which  by  a  series  of 
decisive  victories  drove  out  the  Syrian  and 
strengthened  the  nation.  The  temple  was  re- 
dedicated,  and  forever  after  its  restoration  by 
Judas  Maccabeus  the  worship  of  the  covenant 
God  of  their  fathers  was  maintained  in  all  its 
integrity.  Judas  was  killed  in  battle  at  Eleasa 
in  1(51  B.C.,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
Jonathan,  and  later  by  Simon.  The  high  office 
of  king-priest,  or  priest-prince,  was  conferred 
upon  Judas,  and  later  upon  Jonathan  and  Si- 
mon. For  a  century  at  least,  until  the  subjuga- 
tion by  the  Roman,  Judea  had  rest. 

But  success  was  transient,  and  after  the  death 
of  the  last  of  the  sons  of  Mattathias  the  family 
began  to  degenerate  almost  as  quickly  as  it  had 
sprung  into  greatness.  Quarrels,  acceptance  of 
the  Hellenizing  customs,  irregularities  in  vari- 
ous forms,  soon  brought  the  Jews  to  the  last 
of  the  independent  princes  of  the  Asmonean 
dynasty.  Hyrcanus  II.,  high  priest,  weak  and 
indolent,  permitted  the  power  to  pass  to  the  Idu- 
mean,  Antipater,  father  of  Herod  the  Great,  at 
the  time  of  the  taking  of  Jerusalem  by  Pompey. 

The  Roman  Period.— Herod.— Even  Judas  had 
sought  an  alliance  with  Rome  against  Anti- 
ochus,  and  each  succeeding  generation  bound 
Judea  more  closely  under  the  control  of  Rome, 
the  world-governing  empire.  Antipater,  as  the 
actual  ruler,  kept  in  favor  with  the  Roman 
powers,  and  in  B.C.  47  was  appointed  by  Julius 
Csesar  procurator  of  Judea.  His  son  Herod  suc- 
ceeded him  in  B.C.  43. 

The  reign  of  Herod  as  supreme  ethnarch  of 
the  whole  of  Palestine  extended  from  b.  c 
37  to  a.d.  4.  It  was  distinguished,  as  perhaps 
no  monarch's  before  or  since  ever  was,  by  the 
most  brilliant  achievements  worthy  of  the  Au- 
gustan age,  and  darkened  at  the  same  time  by 
atrocities  which  would  have  disgraced  a  Nero 
or  a  Domitian.  Pie  laid  out  a  new  palace  on 
Zion,  renewed  the  city  walls,  and  rebuilt  the 
temple  in  great  magnificence.  But  he  used  his 
power  to  betray  his  country,  to  foster  immoral- 
ity, to  weaken  the  religious  faith,  to  corrupt  the 
priesthood,  and  to  destroy  all  that  was  noble  in 
the  Jewish  character.  The  gospel  narrative 
throws  a  side-light  on  his  character,  which,  per- 
haps, is  all  the  more  instructive  because  the 
corroboration  of  other  historians  is  an  object  of 
the  sacred  record.  The  motive  of  the  massacre 
of  the  innocents  of  Bethlehem  is  distinctly 
ascribed  to  suspicion  of  the  coming  of  a  possi- 
ble Messiah,  to  whom  he  knew  he  must  yield, 
when  challenged,  the  place. 

The  brief  success  of  the  Maccabees  had  only 
inspired  the  Jews  with  false  ideals  as  to  the 
true  nature  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Messiah  for 
whom  they  were  looking.  The  subsequent  loss 
of  political  liberty  filled  them  with  hatred  of 
their  oppressors,  drove  them  into  greater  ex- 
clusiveness,  and  intensified  their  spiritual  pride 
and  extreme  formality.  The  numerous  sects 
and  parties  (see  chapter  on  Sects,  etc.)  simply 
expressed  in  outward  form  the  varied  opinions 
and  ambitions  of  a  narrow,  dogmatic,  and  dis- 
putatious people.  It  was  into  the  midst  of  such 
a  people,  at  such  a  time  of  oppression,  that  the 
Messiah  came. 

Books  of  Reference:  Schiirer's  Jewish  People  in 
the  Time  of  Christ;  Josephus'  Antiquities  of  the  Jews; 
Ewald's  History  of  Israel;  Hosmer's  Story  of  the  Jews; 
Milman's  History  cf  the  Jews.  See  under  Old  Testa- 
ment Chronology. 



By  REV.  A.  R.  FAUSSET,  D.D. 
Antipater,  an  Idumean,  made  procurator  of  Judea  by  Julius  Caesar,  B.C.  47,  m.  Cypros,  an  Arabian. 

Phasael.    Herod  the  Great,  "  the  king  V  (Matt.  2:1;  Luke  1: 5). 

Made  by  Antony  joint  tetrarchs  of  Judea,  B.C.  41.  Herod,  made  by 
the  Senate  king  of  Judea,  B.C.  40.  After  battle  of  Actium,  Octavian 
confirmed  him  in  the  kingdom,  B.C.  31.    Died,  B.C.  4. 

m.  1.    Mariamne,  grand-dau.  of  Hyrcanus. 

Aristobulus  m.Berenice. 

m.  2.    Mariamne, 
daughter  of  Simon,  high  priest. 

Herodias,  wife  of       Herod  Agrippa  I.  ra.Cypros, 

(1)  Philip  I.,  and  (Acts  12: 1.)  a  cousin. 

(2)  Herod  Antipas 
(Matt.  14 : 3-11 ;  Mark  6 :  17-28 ;  Luke  3 :  19). 

Herod  Philip  I.  m.Herodias. 


m.  3.  Malthake,  a 


Agrippa  II. 

(Acts  25: 13.) 

Bernicem.  her  uncle, 
Herod,  king  of 
Chalcis,  at  whose 
death  she  returned 
to  her  brother  (Acts 
25:  13,  23),  Agrippa 
II.,  with  whom  she 
was  suspected  of 
intimacy.  He  and 
she  heard  Paul's 
defense  before  Festus 

Drusilla,  a 
(Acts  24:24), 
m.  1.    Aziz,  king 

of  Emesa 
m.  2.    Felix. 

Salome  m.  Herod  Philip  II., 
son  of  Herod  the 
Great  and  Cleo- 
patra. Tetrarch 
of  Itursea  and  Tra- 
chonitis  (Luke 

Herod  Antipas  ("  the> 
tetrarch, "  Matt.  14 : 1  ; 
Luke   3:1,   19;    9:7),  . 
called "KingHe rod,"  f 
Mark  6: 14.  Deposed. 
A.D.  40. 

m.  Herodias. 

Archelaus  (Matt. 
2:22).  Deposed 
and  banished, 
a.d.  6. 





By  REV.  OWEN  C.  WHITEHOUSE,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hebrew, 
Cheshunt  College,  near  London. 








(  !  II  K  I  ST  f  A  N   H ISTOR  y. 

[For  details  of  incidents  in  our  Lord's  life,  con- 
sult the  Harmony,  p.  76.] 

xProbable  date  of  our  Lord's  birth.  Herod's 
death.  Archelaus  becomes  ethnarch  of  Judea, 
Samaria,  and  klnmea. 

Jesus  visits  Jerusalem  at  the  age  of  twelve,  and 
converses  with  the  rabbis  in  the  temple. 

Ministry  of  John  the  Baptist. 

Baptism  of  Jesus  Christ  at  the  age  of  thirty. 

First  Passover.  First  Galilean  Circuit  with  the 
disciples  (Matt.  4:23-25;  Mark  1:35-39;  Luke 

March  29.  Christ's  Second  Passover  (John  5). 
Second  Galilean  Circuit  (Matt.  13: 1-53). 

Third  Galilean  Circuit  (Matt.  9: 35  ft'.;  10: 1;  Mark 
6:7-13;  Luke  9:1-6).  Third  Passover,  April  16, 
Jesus  stays  in  Galilee  (John  7:1)2. 

Feast  of  Tabernacles  (October)  (John  7). 

Feast  of  Dedication  (December)  (John  10:22). 

March  30.  Arrives  at  Bethany  six  days  before 
the  Passover.    Passion  Week. 

April  6.  Crucifixion.  Third  day  after,  Resurrec- 

May  17.    Ascension. 

Day  of  Pentecost  and  descent  of  the  Holy  Spirit 
(Acts  2). 

Imprisonment  of  Peter  and  John  by  order  of 
Sanhedrin  (Acts  4). 

Growth  of  the  Christian  community.  Death  of 
Ananias  and  Sapphira.  Increasing  activity 
and  influence  of  the  Christians  awaken  the 
hostility  of  the  Sanhedrin.  Imprisonment  of 
the  apostles.  They  are  miraculously  liberated, 
and  are  ultimately  allowed  to  depart  by  the 
Sandedrin  on  the  advice  of  Gamaliel. 



4,     Birth  of  Jesus  Christ. 
Death  of  Herod  the  Great. 
Archelaus,  ethnarch  in  Ju 

dea,  Samaria,  and  Idumea. 
Herod   Antipas    in   Galilee 

and  Perrea. 
Philip    in    Au  ran  His    and 

Trachonitis,  etc. 


6,  Archelaus  banished  by  Au 
gustus.  Judea  incorporated 
with  Syria,  under  a procura 

7,  Coponius,  procurator. 
Ananus  made  high  priest  in- 
stead of  Jesus. 

9,    M.  Ambivius, procurator  in 

12,    Annius  Rufus,  procurator 

in  Judea. 

15,  Valerius  Gratus,  procura 
tor  in  Judea.  Ishmael,  and 
afterwards  Eleazar,  made 
high  priest. 

16,  Eleazar  deposed  for  Simon. 

17,  Simon  deposed  and  Caia- 
phas  made  high  priest.  Cn. 
Calpurnius  Piso,  governor  of 
Syria.  Terrible  earthquakes. 

19,    Death  of  Germanicus  near 

26,    Pontius  Pilate,  procurator 

in  Judea. 



27,    Augustus 

14,    Accession 
of  Tiberius. 

'Note  on  the  Birth  of  Our  Lord.— From  Jose- 
phus  {Antiq.,  xjvii.,  8,  1;  Wars,  i.,33,  8)  we  learn 
that  Herod  died  in  the  thirty-seventh  year  of 
his  reign.  Now  Herod  was  made  king  in  the 
consulship  of  Cn.  Domitius  Calvinus  and  C. 
Asinius  l'ollio,  i.e.,  B.C.  40  (714  A.u.c).  Most 
writers  have  supposed  thatthe  year  is  reckoned 
by  Joseph  us  from  the  month  Nisan;  moreover, 
we  may  conclude  from  Josephug  (Anti(/.  xvii.  9, 
3)  that  Herod  died  at  the  beginning  of  the 
thirty-seventh  year,  or  immediately  before 
Passover,  Consequently  we  must  add  thirty- 
six  years  to  71 1  a.u.c.  Hence  we  get  750 
B.C.  4  as  the  date  of  Herod's  death,  and  since 

this  took  place  subsequent  to  the  birth  of  Jesus, 
B.C.  1  is  the  latest  possible  date  that  can  be  assigned 
to  the  birth  of  our  Lord.  (See  Wieseler's  Chrono- 
logical Synopsis  of  the  Four  Gospels,  sec.  i.,  chap.  2.) 

Thus,  our  Christian  era  is  really  calculated 
from  a  wrong  starting-point.  This  was  derived 
from  the  defective  chronology  of  Dionysius  Exig- 
uits  (0th  century)  who  made  the  year  of  our 
Lord's  nativity,  or  a.i>.  1,  correspond  to  754  a.u.c. 

2  At  this  point  in  the  life  of  our  Lord  it  becomes 
especially  difficult  to  arrange  the  events  with 
any  approximation  to  their  actual  sequence. 
Wieseler's  Chronological  Synopsis  considers  the 
topic  with  great  care  and  fullness. 





Christian  History. 

Trial  and  martyrdom  of  Stephen  (Acts  6:  9-7). 

Rapid  growth  in  numbers  of  the  Christians. 
They  are  persecuted  by  their  Jewish  brethren, 
in  which  persecution  Saul  takes  an  active  part. 
Philip  the  deacon  preaches  in  Samaria, 
whither  St.  Peter  and  St.  John  follow.  Philip 
converts  the  Ethiopian  eunuch  (Acts  8). 

Conversion  of  Saul.  He  spends  three  years  in 

Paul  returns  to  Jerusalem.  The  Jews  plot  to 
take  away  his  life.  He  departs  for  Tarsus 
(Acts  9). 

Cessation  of  persecution  and  increase  of  Chris- 
tian believers. 

Peter  visits  and  baptizes  Cornelius,  a  Roman 
centurion.  Christianity  extended  to  the  Gen- 
tiles (Acts  10-11: 18). 

Growth  in  numbers  of  the  Gentile  Christians  in 
Antioch.  They  are  visited  by  Barnabas.  They 
are  now  first  called  Christians. 

Paul  brought  by  Barnabas  from  Tarsus,  and  they 
labor  together  at  Antioch.  Severe  famine 
prophesied  by  Agabus  (Acts  11 :  21-30). 

Herod  Agrippa  puts  James,  brother  of  John,  to 
death,  and  imprisons  Peter.  He  dies  at 
Csesarea  (Acts  12). 

Paul  and  Barnabas  set  apart  to  preach  to  the 
Gentiles.  Their  first  missionary  journey  (Acts 
13, 14). 

Dissensions  awakened  by  the  Judaizers  at  An- 
tioch. Paul  and  Barnabas  sent  as  representatives 
to  Jerusalem.    Decree  in  favor  of  Gentile  liberty. 

St.  Paul's  second  missionary  journey,  with  Silas 
(Acts  15-17). 

After  preaching  in  Phrygia,  Galatia,  Mysia,  and 
Troas,  he  is  joined  by  Luke,  and  crosses  over 
into  Macedonia  and  visits  Philippi,  Thessa- 
lonica,  and  Berea,  whence  Jewish  opposition 
drives  him  to  Athens. 

Paul  at  Corinth  with  Aquila  and  Priscilla.  Epis- 
tles to  Thessalo7iians. 

Proconsulship  of  Gallio  in  Achaia.  Paul  quits 
Corinth  for  Ephesus  (Acts  18: 1-22). 

Paul  at  Jerusalem.     Third  missionary  journey. 

Sets  out  from  Antioch  for  Galatia  and  Phrygia. 
Paul  at  Ephesus  for  two  years.  Writes  perhaps 
First  Epistle  to  Corinthians,  and  perhaps  also 
Epistle  to  Galatians  (see  below). 

Compelled  by  a  tumult  at  Ephesus  to  leave  for 
Macedonia  (Acts  18:  23-19). 

Writes  Second  Epistle  to  Corinthians  (and  about 
this  time  perhaps  the  Epistle  to  Galatians).  Paul 
reaches  Corinth  probably  at  the  end  of  the  year. 

Stays  three  months  at  Corinth.  Epistle  to  the 
Romans.  He  quits  Corinth  in  the  early  part  of 
the  year,  returns  to  Macedonia,  revisits  Philippi 
in  company  with  Luke,  and  departs  after  Pass- 
over (Acts  20: 1-6).  Leaves  Troas,  bids  farewell 
to  Ephesian  elders  at  Miletus  (Acts  20:  7-38). 

Visits  Tyre,  then  Csesarea,  and  arrives  at  Jerusa- 
lem before  Pentecost.  Violent  outburst  of  feel- 
ing against  Paul.  Pie  is  rescued  by  Claudius 
Lysias  at  the  head  of  his  troops.  Defends  him- 
self before  the  Jews;  is  sent  to  Csesarea.  Defends 
himself  before  Felix  (Acts  21-24). 

Paul  still  prisoner  at  Ceesarea.  Defends  himself 
before  Festus  and  Agrippa  (Acts  25,  26).  He  is 
delivered  with  other  prisoners  to  the  centurion 
Julius.  Voyage  to  Rome.  Shipwreck  at  Melita, 
where  he  winters. 

Sails  for  Rome.  Visits  Syracuse,  Rhegium,  Pu 
teoli.  At  length  he  reaches  Rome,  and  is  placed 
under  custody  of  the  pretorian  prefect  Burrus. 
Lives  two  years  in  his  hired  house  (Acts  27,  28). 

Writes  Epistles  to  the  Ephesians  and  Colossians,  to 
Philemon,  and  to  Rhilippians.  Close  of  book  of 

Neronian  persecution. 

Note.— Conybeare  and  Howson  continue  the  life  of 
Paul  as  follows: 

Voyage  to  Spain. 



34,    Vitellius,  legal  us  in  Syria. 

36,  Deposition  of  Pilate. 

37,  Caiaphas  deposed,  and 
Jonathan  made  high  priest 
by  Vitellius. 
i,  Marcellus,  procurator  in 

39,    P.    Petronius,    legatus    of 

41,  Herod  Agrippa  appointed 
over  the  kingdom  of  Judea 
and  Samaria. 

42,  Matthias  made  high  priest ; 
Elionseus,  high  priest  in  43. 

44,  Herod  dies  at  Csesarea. 
Cuspius  Fadus,  procurator 
in  Judea. 

45,  TJieudas  executed.  Joseph, 
high  priest, 

46,  Tiberius  Alexander,  pro 
curator  in  Judea. 

47,  Joseph  deposed  and  Ana- 
nias made  high  priest  by 

48,  Cumanus,  procurator  in 

51,  Quadratus,  legatus  of 
Syria,  deposes  Cumanus  and 
sends  Ananias,  high  priest, 
a  prisoner  to  Rome. 
Antonius  Felix,  procurator 
in  Judea. 


37,     Caligula, 
Agrippa  re- 

39,  He  endeav- 
ors to  place 
his  statue  in 
the  temple 
of  Jerusa- 

59,  Ishmael,  made  high  priest 
in  place  of  Ananias. 

60,  Felix  recalled;  Porcius 
Festus,  procurator. 

62,    Gessius  Floras,  procura- 

Jewish  war  begins. 

41,    Claudius, 


52,  Agrippa  II. 
(son  of  Her- 
od Agrippa 
Impleads  for 
the  Jews  at 

54,  Nero,  em- 





Christian  History. 

Visit  to  Asia  Minor. 

Writes  First  Epistle  to  Timothy  and  Titus. 

Second  imprisonment.     Second  Epistle  to  Timothy. 
Martyrdom  of  Paul. 

Persecution  of  Christians  by  Domitian. 
St.  John  m till  living. 


70,    Siege  and  capture  of  Je- 
rusalem by  Titus. 


OS,  Galba,  em- 

09,  Otho,  em- 

69,  Vitellius, 

09,  Vespasian, 

79,  Titus,  em- 

81,  Domitian, 

96,  Nerva,em- 

98,  Trajan, 

Note. — The  details  of  the  writing  of  the  Gos- 
pels, Acts,  Revelation,  and  Epistles  other  than 
Paul's  are  too  uncertain  for  insertion  in  this 
table.  For  full  diseussion  regarding  each,  con- 
sult the  article  by  Dr.  Plummer  on  the  Books  of 
the  New  Testament,  p.  43. 

Note  by  Prof.  Whitehouse.— The  chronological 
scheme  set  forth  above  can  only  be  regarded  as 
the  best  approximation  that  can  be  obtained 
from  a  careful  examination  of  the  facts  of  the 
narrative  both  of  our  Lord's  life,  described  in 
the  Gospels,  and  of  the  followers  of  our  Lord, 
related  in  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  supple- 
mented by  occasional  references  in  the  Epis- 
tles. Particular  importance  belongs  to  all  allu- 
sions to  the  occurrence  of  Jewish  festivals  as  a 
means  of  marking  the  progress  of  time.  The 
occasional  mention  of  the  name  of  the  reigning 
Roman  emperor  also  furnishes  certain  time 

Books  of  Referexce:  On  the  apostolic  period  the 
most  valuable  authority  is  the  treatise  by  Wieseler  on 
the   Chronology  of  the  Apostolic  Age.    An   appendix 

(containing  tables  of  dates)  on  the  "  Chronology  of  the 
Life  of  St.  Paul,"  in  Archdeacon  Farrar'B  Life  and 
Work  of  St.  J ?aul,  will  be  found  useful.  With  regard 
to  the  Gospels,  the  problem  is  complicated  by  questions 
regarding  the  structure  of  the  Gospels.  On  these  the 
reader  is  referred  to  Prof.  Sunday's  article  "  Gospels," 
in  the  last  edition  of  Smith's  Dictionary  of  the  Bible. 

Schiirer's  Jewish  People  in  the  'rime  of  Clirist;  Stu- 
((>  nt's  ftew  T(  stament  History;  Dolitzsoh's  Jewish  Art- 
izan  Life;  Merrill's  Galilee  in  the  Timrof  Christ;  Stapf- 
er's  Palestine  in  the.  Tune  of  Clirist;  Delitzsch's  A  Bay 
in  Capernaum;  Fisher's  Beginnings  of  Christianity. 

SchatPs  Apostolic  Christianity;  Neander's  First  Plant- 
ing of  Christianity;  Vedder's  Iknm  of  Chr,s(ianity; 
Stirrer's  Introduction  to  the  Bool:  of  Acts;  Pileiderer's 
Influence  of  the  Apostle  Paid  on.  tin  Development  of 
Christianity;  Bartlett's  Early  Church  History. 

Lewin's  life  and  Epistles  of  St.  Paul;  Conybeare  & 
Howson's  Life  and  Epistles  of  St.  Paul;  Farrar's  Life 
and  Work  of  St.  Paid;  Stalker's  Life  of  St.  Paul;  Tay- 
lor's Paul  the  jrissionaryimd  Peter  1 he  Apostle;  Mathe- 
son's  Spiritual  Development  of  St.  Paul;  Ciloag's  Intro- 
duction to  the  Pauline  Epistles.  See  under  Summary 
of  Gospel  Incidents  and  under  Books  of  the 
New  Testament. 






By  Rev.  A.  R.  FAUSSET,  D.D.,  Canon  and  Prebendary  of  York;  Sometime  Uni- 
versity Scholar  and  Senior  Classical  Moderator  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 


The  separation  of  the  sacred  Scriptures  from 
uninspired  writers  is  sealed  by  the  twofold  in- 
spiration, (1)  that  of  the  inspired  authors,  and 
(2)  that  of  the  judges,  i.e.,  the  prophets  and  "the 
discerners  of  spirits"  (I.  Cor.  12:  10;  I.  John  4: 1). 
Paul  appeals  to  the  latter  as  attesting  his  epistle 
(I.  Cor.  14:  37).  First  came  belief  in  Christ,  the 
incarnate  Word;  then  the  oral  word,  about  Christ; 
then  gradually  arose  the  written  word,  which  ul- 
timately, with  the  other  Scriptures,  was  formed 
into  a  canon,  The  gospel  was  first  spoken  whilst 
the  apostles  were  living;  but  before  their  death 
provision  was  made  for  their  testimony  becom- 
ing a  continuous  legacy  for  the  church.  The  four 
therefore,  and  no  more,  were  recognized  by  the 
Christian  church  at  that  early  date.  The  con- 
currence of  the  four  in  certain  unusual  expres- 
sions, and  in  the  choice  of  incidents,  implies 
that  there  was  at  first  a  common  oral  gospel 
(referred  to  in  Luke  1:4,  as  "taught  by  word 
of  mouth"  to  Theophilus,  R.  V.  margin).  The 
three  synoptical  Gospels  are  called  so  from  their 
giving  a  synopsis  (in  the  main  alike)  of  Christ's 
ministry  in  Galilee.  St.  John,  long  after,  treats 
of  Christ's  ministry  in  Judea,  His  incidents  are 
new,  except  the  events  of  Passion  Week,  the 
feeding  of  the  five  thousand,  and  the  storm 
at  sea  (recorded  to  introduce  the  discourse  in 
Galilean  Capernaum,  eh.  6) ;  also  incidents  of  his 
Galilean  ministry  in  chs.  2,  7,  and  21,  which  they 
have  not.  They  also  hint  at  Christ's  ministry  in 
Judea  (Matt.  23 :  37 ;  Luke  13 :  34).  If  the  total  con- 
tents be  taken  as  two  hundred,  there  are  seven 
peculiarities  in  Mark,  forty-two  in  Matthew, 
fifty-nine  in  Luke,  ninety-two  in  John  (West- 
cott).  Mark  is  no  mere  copyist  of  Matthew;  for  of 
all  four  he  has  the  most  graphic  touches,  as  of 
an  eye-witness  of  the  scenes  (for  internal  evi- 
dence confirms  the  saying  of  the  fathers  that 
he  was  "Peter's  interpreter"),  though  his  Gospel 
is  shortest.  Luke's  details  are  almost  peculiar  to 
himself,  from  9:51  (which  refers  to  Christ's  last 
journey  towards  Jerusalem)  on  to  18: 15,  the  bless- 
ing of  the  children,  where  he  joins  Matthew  and 
Mark.  Matthew  writes  for  Jews,  his  theme  being 
"the  kingdom  of  heaven"  (in  Mark  and  Luke, 
"the  kingdom  of  God")  as  opposed  to  the  earth- 
ly kingdom,  which  the  Jews  were  then  expect- 
ing. Mark's  Gospel  has  a  Roman  aspect;  his 
theme  is  Christ's  practical  service  as  the  serv- 
ant of  God  for  man.  His  very  name  is  Roman. 
The  Gospel  of  Luke,  whose  name  is  Greek,  has 
a  Greek  aspect;  his  theme  is  Christ  "the  Son 
of  man  "  in  his  sympathizing  humanity.  John 
writes  for  the  spiritual  of  every  race;  his  theme 
is  the  Son  of  God  manifested  as  our  light  and 
life.  His  Gospel  is  the  complement  of  the  three 
synoptists.  Christ  appears  as— (1)  the  Son  of 
David  in  Matthew ;  (2)  the  Servant  of  God  in 
Mark;  (3).  the  Son  of  man  in  Luke;  (4)  the  Son 
of  God  in  John.  As  Matthew's  Gospel  is  charac- 
terized by  discourses  of  Jesus,  so  Mark's  Gospel 
by  his  acts.  We  have  thus  the  three  chief  hu- 
man civilizations  meeting— the  Hebrew  theoc- 
racy answering  to  Matthew's  aspect  of  Christ, 
the  Roman  polity  answering  to  Mark's,  the 
Greek  literature  and  art  answering  to  Luke, 
whilst  in  John  the  spiritual  predominates.  John 
forms  the  climax,  portraying  Christ's  divinity, 
as  the  synoptists  portray  his  humanity. 


Seeming  discrepancies  occur.  The  modes  of 
harmonizing  these  may  not  be  the  right  ones, 
but  they  prove  at  least  that  the  discrepancies 
are  not  necessarily  irreconcilable.  Reconcilable 
diversity  is  a  confirmation  of  the  truth,  because 
it  disproves  collusion  and  shows  the  witnesses 
to  be  independent.  Sameness  in  all  four  would 
make  all  but  the  first  mere  copies.  Variation 
in  the  order  of  events  in  different  Gospels  shows 
that  chronological  sequence  is  not  the  aim  al- 
ways, but  that  the  spiritual  connection  is  as 
true  in  those  Gospels  which  do  not  observe  the 
chronological  ordei\as  in  those  which  do.  There 
are  not  four  different  gospels,  but  one  fourfold 
gospel  of  Jesus  Christ  from  the  Holy  Ghost, 
who  inspired  four  intelligent  writers  to  present 
him  from  a  fourfold  point  of  view,  forming  one 
complete  whole. 


The  inspired  summary  of  Jesus'  life  is,  "God 
anointed  him  with  the  Holy  Ghost  and  with 
power:  who  went  about  doing  good,  and  healing 
all  that  were  oppressed  of  the  devil;  for  God 
was  with  hirn  "  (Acts  10:  38,  R.  V.).  In  Jesus  God 
is  manifested  as  he  is,  and  man  as  he  ought  to 
be.  He  brings  back  to  man  the  image  of  God  in 
which  man  was  made,  but  which  man  had  lost. 
"If  the  apostles  or  any  one  else  had  invented  Christ, 
the  inventor  would  be  more  wonderful  than 
the  hero"  (Rousseau).  His  claim  to  Godhead 
and  Messiahship  rests  on — (1)  Fulfilled  prophecy, 
as  Isa.  53,  and  Holy  Scripture  (John  5:  39) ;  (2)  Mira- 
cles, confirmed  by  Scripture  (John  5:36;  7:31; 
10:  25,  38);  (3)  His  peerless  character,  excluding 
alike  the  theory  of  fanaticism  and  of  impos- 
ture; (4)  His  resurrection  (Rom.  1:4);  (5)  The  moral 
and  social  changes  wrought  in  the  world  through  the 
church  of  Christ,  in  which  his  Spirit  works  (Col. 
1:  0);  (6)  The  transformation  of  individuals  (I.  Cor. 
6:  10,  11),  the  witness  of  his  Spirit  with  their 
spirit  that  he  satisfies  all  their  soul's  needs 
(Rom.  8:  16;  Eph.  3:  17-20). 

Jesus  is  the  Greek  form  of  Joshua  (Acts  7:  45; 
Heb.  4:8);  it  means  Jehovah- Saviour,  for  "he 
himself  [Greek]  saves  his  people  from  their  sins" 
(Matt.  1 :  21) ;  not  merely  as  Joshua,  God's  instru- 
ment; Christ  (Greek),  Messiah  (Hebrew),  anointed 
as  Prophet,  Priest,  and  King,  alone  combining 
the  three.  Others,  as  Moses,  David,  etc.,  were 
only  anointed  to  one  or  two  of  the  three  offices. 

Books  of  Reference:  Westoott's  Introduction  to 
the  Study  of  the  Four  Gospels;  Dale's  Jiving  Christ  and 
the  Jour  Gospels;  Thompson's  Four  Evangelists ;  Greg- 
ory's Why  Four  Gospels?  Genung's  The  Fourfold 
Story ;  Robinson's  Harmony  of  the  Gospels;  Cadrnan's 
Critical  Harmony  of  the  Gospels;  Broadus'  Harmony 
of  the  Gospels  (Revised  Version);  Strong's  Our  Lord's 
Life;  Geikie's  Life  of  Christ;  Andrews'  Life  of  Our 
Lord;  Stalker's  Life  of  Christ ;  Edersheirn's  Jesus  the 
Messiah  (1  vol.)  and  Life  and  Times  of  Jesus  the  Messiah 
(2  vols.);  Farrar's  Fife  of  Christ;  Kephart's  Jesus  the 
Nazarene  and  Public  Life  of  Christ  (chart) ;  Weiss'  Life 
of  Christ;  Wendt's  The  Teachings  of  Jesus;  Schaff's 
Person  of  Christ;  Hurlbut's  Studies  in  the  Four  Gospels; 
TJllmann's  Sinlessness  of  Jesus;  Bushnell's  Character  of 
Jesus;  Broadus'  Jesus  of  Nazareth;  Fairbairn's  Place 
of  Christ  in  Modern  Theology;  Geikie's  New  Testament 
Hours:  The  Gospels. 











Incidents  of  the  Birth  and  Boyhood  of  Jesus  Christ 
Till  He  Was  Twelve  Years  of  Age. 

1.  Introduction, 

2.  The  genealogies— Matthew  the  legal,  Luke  the 

natural  descent,      ------- 

3.  Birth  of  John  announced  to  Zacharias,  - 

4.  Birth  of  Jesus  announced  to  Mary  at  Nazareth 

six  months  later,        ------ 

5.  Mary's  visit  to  Elizabeth,  and  her  hymn,  - 

6.  John  the  Baptist's  birth,  and  Zacharias'  hymn, 

7.  The  angel  appears  to  Joseph,          - 

8.  Birth  of  Jesus  at  Bethlehem,      - 

9.  Angelic  announcement  to  the  shepherds.    (In 

spring  flocks  are  watched  by  night.), 

10.  Circumcision  of  Jesus,  and  presentation  in  the 

temple,  where  he  is  welcomed  by  Simeon  and 
Anna,  41  days  after  nativity  (Lev.  12:  3,  4)  - 

11.  Visit  of  the  Magi,  in  the  house— no  longer  in 

manger;  epiphany  to  Gentiles,      -       -       - 

12.  Flight  into  Egypt, 

13.  Herod's  murder  of  the  innocents,      -       -       - 

14.  Return  to  Nazareth,  fearing  Archelaus'  cruelty, 

shown  from  the  first, 

15.  Jesus,  at  the  age  of  twelve,  goes  up  to  the  Pass- 

over, and  is  found  with  the  doctors  in  the 
temple ;  then  follows  his  18  years'  retirement, 

Inauguration  of  Christ's  Public  Ministry. 

16.  Preparatory  preaching  of  John  the  Baptist, 

17.  Christ's   baptism   in   river  Jordan   at  Perean 

1:     1-4 

3:  23-38 
1:    5-25 

1:  26-38 
1 :  89-56 
1:  57-80 

1:    1-14 

1:     1-17 

6,  Nov. 

5,  May 


1:  18-25 

4,  Feb.1 

2:    1-7 
2:    8-20 

2:  21-38 


2:    1-12 
2:  13-15 
2:  16-18 

2:  19-23 

3,  Apr. 

2:  39,40 

2:  41-52 

3:    1-18 
3:  21-23 
4:    1-13 



27,  Jan. 

3:    1-12 
3:  13-17 

1:    1-8 
1:    9-11 
1:  12,13 

18.  The  Spirit  leads  him  to  desert  of  Judea,  where 

Satan  tempts  him,          - 

19.  The  Baptist's  witness  to  Jesus,   -       -       -       - 

20.  Two  of  John's  disciples  follow  Jesus;  Andrew 

brings  his  brother  Simon,        - 

21.  Christ  returns  to  Galilee ;  finds  Philip,  who  in 

turn  finds  Nathanael,        ----- 

22.  First  miracle  at  Cana,  and  visit  to  Capernaum, 

Public  Ministry  of  Christ  from  the  First  Passover 
to  the  Second. 

23.  Christ  goes  up  to  Jerusalem  for  the  Passover, 

and,  with  a  scourge,  expels  the  sellers  and 
money-changers  from    the    temple;    works 
miracles,  convincing  many,        - 

24.  Nicodemus  is  convinced;    has  a  night  inter- 

view with  Jesus, 

25.  Christ  leaves  Jerusalem,  stays  eight  months  in 

N.  E.  Judea,  and  baptizes  by  his  disciples, 

26.  John,  baptizing  in  iEnon,  again  witnesses  to 

the  Christ, 

27.  Imprisonment  of  John, 

28.  John  being  cast  into  prison,  Jesus  leaves  Judea 

for  Galilee;   John  beheaded— not  till  28  a.d. 
(Matt.  14:  12-21), 

29.  Passing  through  Samaria,  he  converts  a  wom- 

an of  Sychar,  and  through  her  many  of  the 
Samaritans,  four  months  before  harvest,    - 

30.  Commencement  of  his  public  ministry  in  Gal- 


31.  Visiting  Cana  again,  he  heals  a  nobleman's  son 

sick  at  Capernaum,    ------ 

From  His  Second  to  His  Third  Passover. 

32.  Returns    to   Jerusalem   at  the  Passover,   "the 

feast."    His  second  Passover.    From  this  t<> 
the  third,  his  main  Galilean  ministry.    Jesus 
cures  an  infirm  man  at  Bethesda  pool  on  the 
Sabbath.  The  Jews  seek  to  kill  him  for  declar- 
ing himself  one;  with  the  Father  in  working. 

4:    1-11 

"l:  15-34 

1:  35-42 

1:  43-51 

2:    1-12 



2:  13-25 

3:    1-21 

3:  22 

"3:  19, 20 
4:  14,15 

3:  23-36 


4:  12 

1:  14 

4:    1-3 
4:    4-42 

4:  17 

1:  14,15 

4:  14,15 

4:  43-45 
4:  46-54 


5:    1-47 

1  The  date  of  the  birth  of  Jesus  is  usually  given  as    Where  this  is  accepted  the  preceding  month  should 
December,  b.  c.  5,  a  difference  of  about  two  months.  I  be  changed  accordingly.— Editor. 







33.  Returns   to   Galilee.     A   chasm   between   the 

earlier  visit  to  Nazareth,  whilst  fresh  from 
the  Spirit's  baptism,  and  this  later  visit  to 
Galilee,  and  his  sermon  at  Nazareth,  as  Luke 
4:  23  proves, 

34.  He  settles  at  Capernaum,  and  teaches  in  public, 

35.  Miraculous  draught  of  fishes;   call  of  Simon, 

Andrew,  James,  and  John,      - 

36.  Jesus  casts  out  a  demon,  ------ 

37.  Cure  of  Simon's  wife's  mother,  and  other  sick 

people, -- 

38.  Circuit  with  the  disciples  through  Galilee,     - 

39.  He  heals  a  leper,  and,  shunning  popularity, 

retires  to  the  desert, 

40.  Returning  to  Capernaum,  he  heals  a  palsied 

man  let  down  through  the  roof,     -       -       - 

41.  Call  of  Matthew,  the  feast,  and  discourse  at  his 

house— the  new  garment  and  new  wine,     - 

42.  He  answers  objections  as  to  the  reason  of  his 

not  fasting, 

43.  Returning  towards  Galilee,  the  disciples  pluck 

corn  ears  on  the  Sabbath,         - 

44.  Healing  a  man's  withered  hand  on  the  Sabbath, 

the  Pharisees  plot  his  death  with  the  Hero- 
dians,     --------- 

45.  He  withdraws  to  the  lake  and  heals  many, 

46.  Ascending  a  hill  west  of  the  lake,  after  prayer 

all  night,  he  chooses  the  Twelve;  his  charge, 

47.  Sermon  on  the  mount,  on  the  level  below  the 

hilltop,      --------- 

48.  Healing  of  the  centurion's  servant,  -       -       - 

49.  Raising  of  the  widow's  son  at  Nain,     -       -       - 

50.  John  Baptist's  mission  of  inquiry    from  his 

dungeon  at  Maehserus, 

51.  Jesus  upbraids  Chorazin,  Bethsaida,  and  Caper- 

naum ,  and  invites  the  heavy-laden, 

52.  Anointing  of  his  feet^  in  the  Pharisee  Simon's 

house,  by  the  sinful  but  forgiven  woman,     - 

53.  Short  circuit  of  two  days'  preaching  through 

Galilee ;  women  ministering,     -       -       -       - 

54.  Returning  to  Capernaum,  he  heals  a  blind  and 

dumb  demoniac,  the  Pharisees  attributing 
the  miracle  to  Beelzebub,        - 

55.  Seeking  a  sign,  and  the  answer,    -       -       -       - 

56.  His  kinsfolk  try  to  lay  hold  on  him  as  mad, 

57.  From  a-  fishing  vessel   he  speaks  a  series  of 

seven  parables,  beginning  with  the  parable 
of  the  sower,    -------- 

58.  Jesus  crosses  the  lake  with  his  disciples,  and 

calms  a  storm,        ------- 

59.  He  cures  two  demoniacs  of  Gadara,  one  being 

prominent,       --- 

60.  Returning  to  the  west  shore,  he  raises  Jairus' 

daughter,  and  heals  a  woman  with  an  issue 
of  blood,        -------- 

61.  He  heals  two  blind  men  and  casts  out  a  demon, 

62.  Jesus  visits  Nazareth  again,  when  his  country- 

men disbelieve  in  him,         - 

63.  Christ  teaches  throughout  Galilee,  -       -       - 

64.  Sends  forth  the  Twelve, 

65.  Herod,  who  has  murdered  John  the  Baptist, 

fears  that  Jesus  is  John  risen  from  the  dead, 

66.  The  Twelve  return  to  Jesus,  telling  all  they  have 

done  and  taught.  He  withdraws  with  them 
to  a  desert  on  the  other  side  of  the  Sea  of 
Galilee,  and  feeds  five  thousand  people,  - 

67.  He  sends  the  disciples  across  the  lake  westward 

to  Bethsaida  (close  to  Capernaum,  distinct 
from  Bethsaida  Julias,  northeast  of  the  lake, 
Luke  9:  10),  and  at  night  comes  walking  to 
them  upon  the  water, 

68.  The  miraculously-fed  multitude  seek  and  find 

Jesus  at  Capernaum.  His  discourse  in  the 
synagogue  and  Peter's  confession,    -       -       - 

From  the  Third  Passover  to  the  Beginning  of  the 
Last  Passover  Week. 

69.  Healings  in  the  Gennesaret  plain  for  a  few  days, 

70.  Pharisees  from  Jerusalem  object  to  his  neglect 

of  washing  hands,  ------- 

4:  13-17 
4:  18-22 

8:  11-17 
4:  23-25 

8:    1-4 

9:    2-8 

9:    9-13 

9:  14-17 

12:    1-8 

12:    9-14 
12:  15-21 

10:    1-42 

8:    5-13 

11:    2-19 
11:  20-30 

12:  22-37 
12-  38-45 
12:  46-50 

13:    1-53 

8:  18-27 
8:  28-34 

9:  27-34 

13:  54-58 

9:  35-38 


14:    1-12 

14:  13-21 

14:  22-33 

1:  21,22 

1:  16-20 
1:  23-28 

1:  29-34 
1:  35-39 

1:  40-45 

2:    1-12 

2:  13-17 

2:  18-22 
2:  23-28 

3:    1-6 
3:    7-12 

3:  13-19 

4:  14-30 
4:  31,32 

5:    1-11 
4:  33-37 

4:  38-41 
4:  42-44 

5:  12-16 

5:  17-26 

5:  27-32 

5:  33-39 

6:    1-5 

6:    6-11 

6:  12-19 

6:  20-49 
7:  1-10 
7:  11-17 

7:  18-35 

3:  22-30 


4:    1-34 

4:  35-41 

5:    1-20 

5:  21-43 

7:  36-50 

8:    1-3 




8:  19-21 



8:  40-56 

6:    1-6 
6:    6 
6:    7-13 

6:  14-29 
6:  30-44 

6:  45-56 

9:    1-6 
9:    7-9 

9:  10-17 

14:  34-36 
15:    1-20 

6:  55,56 
7:    1-23 




Mutt.         Mark.        Luke.         John. 

..  Jesus  goes  northward  towards  Tyre  and  Sidon. 
The  Syrophenician  woman's  faith  gains  a 
cure  for  her  daughter, 

72.  He  returns  through  Decapolis,  and,  ascending 
a  mount  near  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  heals  many 
and  feeds  four  thousand, 

73.  He  crosses  the  lake  to  Dalmanutha, 

74.  Pharisees  and  Sadducees  require  a  sign,     - 

75.  Embarking  in  the  ship,  he  comes  to  Bethsaida 

(Julias).    He  warns  against  leaven  of  doctrine, 
7G.    Healing  of  a  blind  man, 

77.  Journey  to  the   region   of  Ceesarea  Philippi. 

Peter's  confession,     ------ 

78.  He  foretells  his  death  and  resurrection.    Re- 

proof of  Peter,     ------- 

79.  The  t  ransnguration  on  Mount  Hermon  six  days 

80.  Descending,  the  following  day  he  casts  out  a 
demon  which  the  disciples  could  not  cast  out, 

81.  Jesus  again  foretells  his  death  and  resurrection, 

82.  Temple-tribute  money  miraculously  provided 
from  a  fish  at  Capernaum, 

83.  The  disciples  strive  which  shall  be  greatest. 

Jesus  teaches  a  childlike,  forgiving  spirit. 
John  tells  of  the  disciples'  forbidding  one 
who  cast  out  demons  in  Jesus'  name,  - 
Journey  to  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles,  six  months  after 
the  third  Passover;  this  period  ends  tvith  his  ar- 
rival at  Bethany  before  the  last  Passover,  - 

84.  He  goes  up  from  Galilee  about  the  midst  of  the 

feast  and  teaches  in  the  temple,    -       -       - 

85.  The  people  are  .divided  in  opinion;  the  rulers 

try  to  seize  him;  Nicodemus  remonstrates, 

86.  His  charity,  yet  faithfulness,  towards  the  adul- 

teress,    --------- 

87.  Jesus  in  the  temple  declares  himself  the  Light 

of  the  world,  preexi stent  before  Abraham. 
The  Jews  seek  to  stone  him,       - 

88.  Healing  of  the  beggar,  blind  from  his  birth,  - 

89.  Christ's  discourse  on  himself  as  the  Good  Shep- 

herd and  the  Door, 

90.  Final   departure  for  Jerusalem   from   Galilee 

through  Samaria,       ------ 

91.  Warnings  to  certain  who  would  follow, 

92.  Sending  forth  of  the  seventy,     - 

93.  The  seventy  return,  announcing  their  success- 

ful mission, 

94.  In  reply  to  a  lawyer's  general  question  about 

the  whole  law,  Christ  speaks  the  parable  of 
the  good  Samaritan,      ------ 

95.  Jesus  in  Bethany  visits  Mary  and  Martha,    - 

96.  He  again  teaches  the  disciples  how  to  pray, 

97.  Cure  of  the  dumb   demoniac;    the   Pharisees 

again  attribute  his  miracles  to  Beelzebub; 
dines  with  one*  woes  to  hypocritical  law- 
yers ;  doom  of  the  nation, 

98.  Exhortation  to  disciples, 

99.  Appeal  to  Jesus  to  arbitrate  about  inheritance ; 

parable  of  the  rich  fool,    - 

100.  Discourses,-       - 

101.  God's  judgments;  motive  to  repentance, 

102.  Parable  of  the  barren  fig-tree,      -       -       -       - 

103.  Cure  of  a  woman  with  a  spirit  of  infirmity, 

104.  Jesus,  at  the  Feast  of  Dedication  in  Jerusa  le  in, 

proclaims  his  divine  oneness  with  God.  The 
Jews  a  third  time  seek  to  kill  him,  when 
consequently  he  withdraws  to  Pera?a,  - 

105.  His  second  journey  toward  Bethany  on  hear- 

ing of  the  sickness  of  Lazarus,       - 

106.  Pharisees  urge  him  to  depart  quickly  from 

Persea,  on  the  plea  that  Herod  will  kill  him, 
and  his  answer, 

107.  Cure  of  a  man  with  the  dropsy,       - 

108.  Parable  of  the  great  supper,  -        -       -       -       - 

109.  He  warns  the  multitude  to  count  the  cost  of 


110.  Many  publicans  crowd  to  him,  and  on  the 

Pharisees'  murmuring,  he  utters  the  para- 
bles of  the  lost  sheep,  the  lost  coin,  and  the 
prodigal  son, 

15:  21-2S 



16:    4-12 





17:  24-2 

18:     1-35 

J:  24-30 

8:  10 
8:  11,12 

S:  13-21 
8:  22-26 

8:  27-30 

8:  31-38, 

[9:  1 

9:    2-13 

9:  14-29 
9:  30-32 

9:  33-50 

9:  18-21 

9:  22-27 
9:  28-36 

9:  37-43 

9:  44,45 

9:  46-50 

9:  51-56 

9:  57-62 

10:  1-16 

10:  17-24 

10:  25-37 

10:  38-42 
11:    1-13 

11:  14-54 

12:  1-12 

12:  13-21 

12:  22-59 

13:  1-5 

13:  6-9 

13:  10-17 

13:  22 

13:  31-35 
14:    1-6 
14:    7-24 

14:  25-35 


7:     1-10 
7:  14 
7:  11-53 
8:    1-11 



:  12-59 
:    1-21 

10:  22-42 
11:    1-16 








111.  To  the  disciples  he  speaks  the  parables  of  the 

unjust  steward  and  the  rich  man  and  Laza- 
rus,        -- 

112.  Sayings   as   to   offenses;    mutual    forgiveness 

and  profitableness  never  exceeding  duty,  - 

113.  Arriving  at  Bethany,  he  raises  Lazarus  from 

the  dead, - 

114.  Caiaphas  and  the  Sanhedrin  determine  to  put 

Jesus  to  death ;  unconscious  prophecy, 

115.  Jesus  withdraws  to  Ephraim  on  the  borders  of 

Samaria,       -------- 

The  Last  Journey  to  Jerusalem  through  the  midst 
of  Samaria  and  Galilee. 

116.  He  heals  ten  lepers  on  the  Samaritan  frontier, 

117.  The  Pharisees  ask  when  the  kingdom  of  God 

shall  come;  he  foretells  its  concomitants, 

118.  Parables  of  importunate  widow,  and  the  Phar- 

isee and  publican,  ------- 

119.  Journey  from  Galilee  through  Peraaa,    - 

120.  Pharisees  question  him  about  divorce, 

121.  Parents  bring  their  children  to  Jesus  to  bless 

them,         --------- 

122.  The  rich  young  ruler  declines  the  discipleship ; 

Peter  contrasts  the  disciples'  self-sacrifice,     - 

123.  Parable  of  the   laborers  in   the  vineyard  to 

warn  against  mercenary  service,       -       -       - 

124.  Jesus  goes  before  on  his  way  to  Jerusalem, 

and  a  third  time  foretells  his  death  and  res- 
urrection,       -- 

125.  James  and  John  desire  highest  places  next  to 
Christ  in  the  temporal  kingdom,  - 

126.  He  heals  two  blind  men  near  Jericho, 

127.  Zaccheus  climbs  a  sycamore  tree,  and  is  called 
down  by  Jesus;  salvation  comes  to  his  house, 

128.  Nigh  Jerusalem,  when  men  think  the  king- 
dom of  God  shall  immediately  appear,  Jesus 
checks  this  thought  by  the  parable  of  the 
pounds,     --------- 

The  Last  Sabbath,  Saturday,  beginning  at  Friday 

129.  The  hostile  Jews  seek  him  at  Jerusalem ;  Phar- 
isees command  to  take  him.  Jesus  reaches 
Bethany  six  days  before  the  Passover.  In 
the  house  of  Simon  the  leper,  Mary  anoints 
his  head  and  feet, 

130.  Jews  come  to  Bethany  to  see  Jesus,    -       -       - 

The  Last  Passover  Week,  Ending  with  the 

First  Day  of  the  Week — Sunday,  April  2. 
Jesus  triumphantly  enters  Jerusalem.  He 
weeps  over  the  city  as  doomed.  At  eventide 
he  returns  to  Bethany,  having  first  entered 
the  temple,  and  sternly  looked  round  about 
upon  all  things  (Zeph.  1 :  12),       - 

Second  Day—Monday,  April  3. 

On  his  way  from  Bethany,  Jesus  curses  the 
barren  fig-tree.  He  purges  the  temple  at  the 
close  of  the  ministry  as  at  the  beginning,  but 
without  the  scourge,  and  again  returns  to 
Bethany,  after  detecting  at  a  glance  the  dese- 
cration in  the  court  of  the  Gentiles, 
Third  Day— Tuesday,  April  h. 

On  his  way  to  Jerusalem,  the  fig-tree  being 
now  withered  up,  Jesus  teaches  the  lesson 
"that  believing  prayer  can  move  mountains 
of  hindrance,"         ------- 

Teaches  in  the  temple.  Deputation  from  the 
Sanhedrin  challenges  his  authority.  Parables 
of  the  two  sons  and  the  vineyard, 

Parable  of  the  marriage  feast,      - 

The  Pharisees,  with  the  Herodians,  try  to  en- 
tangle him  in  his  words.  His  reply  from 
Csesar's  image  on  the  coin,      - 

He  baffles  the  Sadducees'  cavil  about  the  res- 
urrection,      -- 








17:    1-10 

11:  17-46 
11:  47-53 
11:  54 

19:    1,2 
19:    3-12 

19:  13-15 

19:  16-30 

20:    1-16 

20:  17-19 

20:  20-28 
20;  29-34 

10:    1 
10:    2-12 

10:  13-16 
10:  17-31 

17:  11-19 
17:  20-37 
18:    1-14 

18:  15-17 
18:  18-30 

10:  32-34 

10:  35-45 
10:  46-52 

18:  31-34 

19:    2-10 

19:  11-27 

26:    6-13 

14:    3-1 

[12:  1-8 
12:    9-11 


[18, 19 

21:  20-22 

21:  23-46 
22:    1-14 

22:  15-22 
22:  23-33 

11:    1-11 

11:  12-19 

11:  20-26 

[12:  1-12 

19:  29-44 

19:  45,46 

12:  12-19 

20:    1-19 

12:  13-17 
12:  18-27 

20:  20-26 
20:  27-40 






Mark.        Luke. 




138.  He  replies  to  a  lawyer  on  which  one  is  the 

great  commandment,       - 

139.  Our  Lord  leaves  them  without  answer  to  his 

question,  If  Christ  be  Son  of  David,  how 
does  David  call  him  Lord?  - 

140.  Warns  against  scribes  and  Pharisees.    Woe  to 

Jerusalem,       -------- 

141.  He  commends  the  widow's  offering  to  God's 

treasury,  --------- 

142.  Some  Greeks  desire  to  see  Jesus.    He  accepts 

this  as  a  pledge  of  his  coming  glory  and  the 
gathering  in  of  the  Gentiles.  Jesus'  prayer 
and  the  Father's  answer  heard  by  the  disci- 

143.  Leaving  the  temple,  Jesus,  sitting  on  Olivet, 

with  Peter,  James,  John,  and  Andrew,  fore- 
tells the  destruction  of  the  temple  and  Jew- 
ish theocracy.    The  last  days,         - 

144.  Parables:     The  goodman  of   the    house,  the 

wise  and  the  evil  servant,  the  ten  virgins,  the 
talents,  the  sheep  and  the  goats,       -       -       - 

Fourth  Day — Wednesday,  April  5. 

145.  Beginning  at  sunset:     Jesus,  two  days  before 

the  Passover,  announces  his  betrayal  and 
crucifixion;  the  Sanhedrin  consult  to  kill 
Jesus  by  subtlety.  Judas,  availing  himself 
of  his  Master's  retirement  from  them,  cove- 
nants to  betray  him.  Most  disbelieved ;  some 
rulers  believed,  but  loving  men's  praise  con- 
fessed him  not.    Jesus' judgment,    -       -       - 

Fifth  Day—TJiursday,  April  6. 

146.  Jesus  sends  two  disciples  into  the  city  to  pre- 

pare for  the  Passover;  follows  with  the  rest 
in  the  afternoon,    ------- 

Sixth  Day —Friday,  April  7. 

147.  At  sunset:    Jesus  celebrates  the  Passover  by 

anticipation,    -------- 

148.  Reproves  the  ambition  of  disciples,  yet  prom- 

ises the  kingdom,  -  

149.  He  teaches  love  and  humility  by  washing  dis- 

ciples'feet,       -------- 

150.  He  indicates  his  betrayer,  who,  however,  did 

not  leave  till  after  the  Lord's  Supper  (Luke 

151.  He  foretells  Peter's  sifting  by  Satan,  and  res- 

toration by  his  intercession;  and  scattering 
of  the  Twelve,  -------- 

152.  Ordains  the  Lord's  Supper  (I.  Cor.  11:  23-25),  - 

153.  Farewell  address  and  intercessory  prayer  in 

the  paschal  chamber,  all  standing  (John 

154.  His  agony  in  Gethsemane,        -       -       -       - 

155.  His  betrayal  with  a  kiss,  and  apprehension. 

Peter  cuts  off.  and  Jesus  heals,  Malchus'  ear, 

156.  He   is   brought  before   Annas  first  at  night. 

Peter's  three  denials:  (1)  The  flesh  (Mark  14: 
54);  (2)  the  world  (Matt.  26:  70— first  cock- 
crowing,  Mark  14:  68);  (3)  the  devil  (Mark 
14:  71,  72— the  second  cock-crowing;  Ps.  1:"1), 

157.  Before  Caiaphas,  at  first  dawn,  Jesus  avows 

his  Messiahship  and  Godhead.  He  is  con- 
demned for  blasphemy  and  mocked, 

158.  Brought  before  Pilate  for  sentence  of  cruci- 


159.  Pilate  sends  him  to  Herod ;  Herod  sends  him 

back  to  Pilate, 

160.  Pilate  seeks  to  release  him,  but  the  Jews  de- 

mand Barabbas.  To  appease  them,  Pilate 
scourges  him;  the  Jews  clamor  for  his  cruci- 
fixion as  making  himself  a  king.  Pilate, 
notwithstanding  his  wife's  warning,  sen- 
tences him,      -------- 

161.  Jesus  mocked  by  Roman  soldiers  with  scarlet 

robe,  crown  of  thorns,  and  reed,        - 

162.  Judas'  remorse;  he  presumptuously  enters  the 

temple,  flings  down  the  silver,  and  hangs 
himself  (Acts  1:  18,  19), 

22:  35-40 

22:  41-46 

24:    1-42 



26:    1-5, 



26:  20 

26:  21-25 

26:  31-35 
26:  26-29 



26:  47-56 


26:  59-68 

27:    1,2, 

27:  15-26 
27:  27-30 

27:    3-10 

12:  28-34 

12:  35-37 
12:  38-40 
12:  41-44 

13:    1-37 

14:     1,2, 
[10,  11 

14:  12-16 

14:  17 

14:  18-21 

14:  27-31 
14:  22-25 

14:  26, 

14:  43-52 



14:  55-65 
15:    1-5 

15:    6-15 
15:  16-19 

20:  41-44 
20:  45-47 
21:    1-4 

12:  20-36 

21:    5-36 

22:    1-6 

22:    7-13 

22:  14 
22:  24-30 

12:  36-50 

22:  21-23 

22:  31-38 
22:  15-20 

22:  39-46 
22:  47-53 

22:  54-62 

22:  63-71 
23:  1-5 
23:    6-12 

23:  13-25 

13:    1-20 
13:  21-35 

13:  36-38 

14-17:  26 
18:  1,4 

18:    2-12 


18:  19-24 

18:  28-38 

18:  39, 
[19:  1-16 













Jesus  bears  his  own  cross  to  the  city  gate, 
where  he  is  relieved  by  Simon  of  Cyrene; 
refuses  stupefying  myrrhed  wine,    - 

Crucified  at  Golgotha,  probably  outside  the 
Damascus  gate.  Seven  sayings  on  the  cross, 
three  relating  to  others,  four  to  himself:  (1)  For 
his  murderers— "Father,  forgive  them,''''  etc. 

(2)  The  penitent  thief  promised  paradise—''  To- 
day." etc.,  -       -       -       - 

His  garments  divided  and  vesture  cast  lots  for ; 
(3)  commends  his  mother  to  the  care  of  John 
—"Behold  thy  son,"  etc., 

Darkness  over  the  land  from  sixth  to  ninth 
hour.  Jesus'  loud  cry,  (4)  "Eli,  Eli,"  etc. 
Saith,  (5)  "I  thirst,"  and  receives  the  vinegar 
to  fulfill  Scripture;  (6)  "It  is  finished";  (7) 
"Father,  into  thy  hands  I  commend  my  spirit"; 
gives  up  the  ghost;  the  veil  of  the  temple 
rent.    Centurion's  testimony,     - 

The  side  pierced  by  the  soldier's  spear  and  the 
blood  and  water  attest  his  death  and  the 
truth  of  Scripture  (Gen.  2:  21-23;  Eph.  5:  30, 
32 ;  I.  John  5:6;  Zech.  12 :  10).  The  body,  taken 
down,  is  wrapped  up  with  Nicodemus'  aloes 
and  myrrh,  and  buried  in  new  tomb  of  Joseph 
of  Arimathea,  ------- 

Seventh  Day — Saturday,  April  7. 
Pilate  grants  a  guard,  and  they  set  a  seal  upon 
the  sepulcher, 

Christ's  Resurrection,  His  Appearances  during  Forty 
Days,  and  Ascension. 

First  Day—Easter  Sunday,  April  8. 

Resurrection  at  first  dawn,    ----- 

The  women,  coming  with  spices,  find  the  sep- 
ulcher open  and  empty.  Mary  Magdalene 
returns  to  tell  Peter  and  John,       - 

The  other  women,  remaining,  see  two  angels, 
who  declare  the  Lord's  resurrection,     - 

Mary  Magdalene  returns  to  the  sepulcher. 
Jesus  reveals  himself  to  her.  She  reports 
to  the  disciples— First  appearance,  -       -       - 

Jesus  meets  the  women  (Mary  mother  of 
James,  Salome,  and  Joanna)  on  their  return 
to  the  city — Second  appearance,      -       -       - 

Peter  and  John  find  the  sepulcher  empty, 

Report  of  the  watch  to  the  chief  priests,  who 
bribe  them,  -------- 

Jesus  seen  by  Peter  (Cephas,  I.  Cor.  15:5)— 
Tliird  appearance,  ------- 

Seen  by  the  two  disciples  on  way  to  Emmaus 
—Fourth  appearance,         ----- 

Jesus  appears  to  the  ten,  Thomas  being  absent 
—Fifth  appearance,        ------ 



Apr.  15 

May  17 









Subsequent  Appearances. 

Evening  of  Sunday  after  Easter  day.  Jesus 
appears  to  them  again,  Thomas  being  pres- 
ent— Sixth  appearance,  ------ 

The  eleven  go  into  Galilee,  to  a  mountain  ap- 
pointed. Jesus  appears,  and  commands  them 
to  teach  all  nations — Seventh  appearance,    - 

Jesus  shows  himself  at  the  Sea  of  Tiberias— 
Eighth  appearance.  Charges  Simon  to  feed 
his  lambs,  sheep,  and  young  sheep,  -       -       - 

Seen  of  above  five  hundred  brethren  at  once 
(I.  Cor.  15 :  6),  probably  along  with  the  eleven— 
Ninth  appearance,  ------- 

He  is  seen  by  James,  then  by  all  the  apostles 
(Acts  1:3-8;  I.  Cor.  15:  7)— Tenth  appearance. 
In  all,  538  (549  if  the  eleven  (Matt.  28: 16)  be 
distinct  from  the  500)  persons  are  specified  as 
having  seen  the  risen  Saviour ;  also,  after  his 
ascension,  St.  Paul  (I.  Cor.  15 : 8),    - 

The  ascension,  forty  days  after  Easter  (Acts 

Purpose  and  conclusion,     - 

27:  31-34 

27:  35-44 

15:  20-23 

15:  24-32 

27:  45-54 

27:  57-61 




15:  33-41 

15:  42-47 










23:  26-32 

23:  33-38 
23:  39-43 

23:  44-49 

23:  50-56 

19:  16,17 

19:  18-27 

19:  23-27 

19:  28-30 

19:  31-42 

















By  REV.  A.  R.  FAUSSET,  D.D. 


Octr  authority  for  the  foundation  and  first  ex- 
tension of  the  Christian  church  is  the  book  of 
Acts  of  the  Apostles,  the  remaining  historical 
book  of  the  New  Testament.  Chrysostom  calls 
it  "the  Gospel  of  the  Holy  {Spirit  ":  for  as  in  the 
Gospels  the  presence  of  Jesus  in  the  flesh  is  de- 
scribed, so  in  Acts  his  presence  with  the  church 
by  his  Spirit.  It  links  itself  with  the  Gospels 
by  continuing  the  work  begun  in  them,  the 
foundation  of  the  church,  as  Christ  had  prom- 
ised; and  with  the  Pauline  and  Petrine  Episl  Les 
by  undesigned;  because  not  obvious,  coinci- 
dences. Thus  the  four  Gospels  and  Acts  fonn 
one  Christian  historical  Pentateuch,  on  which 
the  Epistles  are  an  inspired  commentary. 

There  is  a  unity  and  a  progressive  develop- 
ment in  this  history,  of  which  Christ's  words 
(I :  S)  are  the  summary— "Ye  shall  be  witnesses 
unto  me"  (1)  "in  Jerusalem,"  6-8:  1;  (2)  "in  all 
Judea,"  8:  1;  (3)  "in  Samaria,"  8:  1-25;  and  (4) 
4i  unto  the  uttermost  part  of  the  earth."  It  be- 
gins wit  h  Jerusalem,  the  metropolis  of  Judaism, 
and  ends  with  Rome,  the  metropolis  of  the  Gen- 
tiles. The  book  is  divisible  into  three  portions— 
(1)  From  the  ascension  to  the  close  of  ch.  11,  which 
describes  the  rise  of  the  first  purely  Gentile  churcJi, 
viz.,  Antioch,  where,  accordingly,  the  disciples 
were  first  called  Christians;  (2)  Thence  down  to 
the  msiori  at  7 Voas,  which  caused  the  passing  over 
of  the  gospel  to  Europe  (10:  9);  (3)  Thence  dbivn  to 
its  reaching  Rome  (eh.  28).  In  the  first  period  the 
aspect  of  the  church  was  Jewish;  in  the  second, 
Gentile,  but  with  a  strong  Jeimsh  element;  in  the 
third,  the  Gentiles  preponderate.  At  first  the  gos- 
pel was  preached  to  the  Jews  (chs.  1-7);  then  to 
the  Samaritans  (8:  1,  5);  then  to  the  eunuch,  "a 
proselyte  Of  righteousness,"  i.e.,  a  " circumcised 
Jew  by  religion^ though  not  by  birth  "  (8 :  27) ;  then 
to  Cornelius  (ch.  10),  "a -proselyte  of  the  gate," 
i.e.,  a  Jew  in  religion,  though  not  circumcised 
(had  he  been  circumcised  there  would  have  been 
no  need  of  a  special  revelation  to  Peter  as  his 
warrant,  forthere  wasnone  such  in  the  eunuch's 
case);  then  to  the  Gentile  Greeks  (as  the  oldest 
MSS.  read,  not  Grecians,  which  would  mean 
Greek-speaMng  Jews)  at  Antioch  (11:  20,  21,  26). 
Then  Peter,  who,  as  "the  apostle  of  the  circum- 
cision," in  the  first  portion  was  the  chief 
preacher,  gives  place  (from  ch.  13  forwards)  to 
Paul,  the  "apostle  of  the  unci  rcumcision,"  who 
proclaimed  the  word  successively  in  Asia  Minor, 
Greece,  and  Rome. 


First  Period,  A.D.  30-U. 
Chapters  1-11. 

The  period  of  earliest  development  of  the 
Church  includes  Pentecost  (ch.  2);  the  healing 
of  the  lame  man  by  Peter  and  John,  and  the 
consequent  arrest  of  the  apostles  (3-1:  22);  their 
release  and  successful  preaching  with  "bold- 
ness" (1:  23-31);  t  lie  selling  of  the  lands  and  dis- 
tribution to  the  needy  (4: 32-37) ;  death  of  Anan  Las 
and  Sapbhira  .(5:1-11);  the  apostles'  second  'arrest 
and  release  hy  the  "angel  of  the  Lord"  (.">:  17-19); 
t  he  choice  of  deacons,  of  whom  Stephen  was  the 
most  prominent  (6:  1-7);  Stephen's  trial  and 
martyrdom  (6:8-7:60).  In  the  persecution  by 
the  Sanjhedrin  the  gospel  was  carried  into  Sa- 
maria, by  Philip  and  others  (ch.  8)  and  the  eunuch 
was  converted  (ch.  8).    Saul's  conversion  while 

leading  the  persecutions  (ch.  9)  was  the  most 
important  incident  Which  prepared  the  way  for 
the  second  period  of  the  church;  for  his  work 
was  to  preach  to  the CrCntiles.  At  this  time,  too, 
Peter  is  senl  fc6,1  he  Roman  centurion  (ch.  10)  and 
the  idolatrous  Greeks  are  taughtat  Antioch  (11: 
20),  win  ire  the  disciples  are  first  called  Christians 

Second   7V/  i •-,',   A.D.  U1-U9. 
Chapters  U-15 :  35. 

In  the  begin  ning  of  the  second  period  was  Her- 
od's persecution  and  the  martyrdom  of  James 
(12:  2  it'.).  It  was  at  this  time,  while  working  at 
Antioch,  that  Saul  and  Barnabas  were  sent  by 
the  Spirit  to  the  Gentiles,  and  the  first  mission- 
ary journey  was  begun. 

First  Mis.sionai //  ,/ou>  neti. — Leaving  Antioch  (13: 
1)  Barnabas,  Saul,  and  John  Mark  sail  from  Se- 
ieucia  to  (Cyprus,  stopping  first  at  Salamis.  At 
Paphos,in  the  western  partof  the  island.  Sergi us 
Paulus  is  converted,  and  Elymasis  struck  blind 
(13:  G-12).  Paul,  as  he  is  now  called,  and  his  com- 
panions sail  to  Perga in  Pamphylia,  from  which 
point  John  Mark  returns  home  (13 :  13).  Paul  and 
Barnabas  then  go  to  Antioch  in  Pisidia,  preach- 
ing two  sermons  (13:  14-50).  Driven  hence,  they 
come  to  Iconium  (13:  51),  from  which  they  are 
driven  to  Lystra  (11:  G).  Here  they  are  at  first 
worshiped,  then  stoned.  Thence  they  go  to  Derbe 
for  rest,  p reaching  and  teaching  (14:  20).  From 
Derbe  they  return  by  way  of  Lystra,  Iconium, 
Antioch,  and  Perga  to  Attalia,  from  which  they 
sail  for  Antioch  to  report  1 14:  21-28,  R.V.).  While 
here  the  First  Council  at  Jerusalem was| held, at 
which  it  was  decided  that  the  ©entiles  need  not 
be  circumcised. 

TJiird  Period,  A.D.  A9-63. 
Chapters  15:36-28. 

Second  Missionary  Journey.— -In  the  year  A.D.  49 
Paul  and  Silas  begin  the  second  missionary 
journey  (15:40,  41);  leaving  Antioch  and  passing 
by  land  through  Syria  and  Cilicia  to  Derbe  and 
Lystra,  where  Timothy  joins  them  (16:  1-3).  In 
Phrygia  and  Galatia  they  establish  churches, 
being  detained  at  Galatia  because  of  sickness 
(Gal.  4:  13).  Forbidden  by  the  Holy  Ghost  to 
preach  in  Asia  and  in  Bithynia,  they  pass 
through  Mysia  t  o  Alexandria  Troas,  where  Ln  ke 
joins  them.  Here  Paul's  vision  of  the  man  of 
Macedonia  leads  them  to  sail  for  Europe  (16:0). 
By  way  of  Samothracia  they  sail  to  Neapolis, 
thence  to  Phiiippi,  where  the  first  converts  in 
Europe  are  gained  (16: 12-40).  Leaving  Luke  and 
Timothy  at  Phiiippi  for  a  time,  Paul  and  Silas 
pass  through  Amphipolis  and  Apollonia  to« 
Thessalonica,  Here  Paul  labors  day  and  night 
for  his  living,  and  teaches  v  ith  much  success 
(17:  1-9).  He  is,  however,  d riven  out  and  goes  to 
Berea,  where  lie  has  many  followers  (17:  10-14). 
He  is  sent  away  by  sea  to  Athens,  where  he 
preaches  on  Mars'  Hill,  going  thence  to^ Corinth 
(17:  1,3-18:  1).  He  is  jomnl  again  by  Silas  and 
Timothy,  and  makes  Corinth  his  headquarters 
for  about  eighteen  months  (IS:  1-18).  lie-  then 
sails  with  Aquilla  and  Priscilla  to  Syria  byway 
of  Cenchrea,  Fphesus,  and  C;esare;i;  thence  he 
goes  to  Jerusalem  for  tin  teas!  oi  Pentecost, 
afterward  returning  to  Antioch  i\X:  18-22). 

Third  Missionary  Joumt -//.—After  remaining 
some  time  at  Antioch,  Paul]  with  Timothy  and 
perhaps  Titus,  begins  his  third  missionary 
journ  [siting  Phrygia  and  Galatia,  and 



proceeding  to  Ephesus  (18:23).  Here  he  labors 
and  preaches  for  two  or  three  years  (19:1-20). 
After  the  uproar  created  by  Demetrius  he  goes 
to  Philippi,  where  he  meets  Titus,  who  is  re- 
turning from  Corinth.  Traveling  probably  as  far 
as  Illyricum,  he  comes  again  to  Corinth  for  three 
months  (20:3).  To  avoid  a  Jewish  plot  he  and 
Luke  (20:5)  return  through  Macedonia  byway 
of  Philippi,  Troas,  Assos.  Mitylene,  Chios,  Samos, 
and  Trogyllium  to  Miletus.  Here  the  elders  of 
Ephesus  meet  him  and  take  final  leave  of  their 
leader  (20: 17-38).  Sailing  by  Coos  and  Rhodes  to 
Patara  he  reaches  Tyre,  where  he  remains  seven 
days  with  the  disciples ;  thence  by  way  of  Ptol- 
eniais  he  goes  to  Csesarea,  and  from  thence  to 
Jerusalem  for  his  last  visit  (21: 1-17). 

Arrest  at  Jerusalem,  A.D.  58.— By  the  counsel  of 
James,  to  conciliate  the  prejudices  of  the  Jewish 
converts,  Paul,  with  four  men,  completes  a  Naz- 
arite  vow  (21:  20-26).  Near  the  close  of  the  seven 
days  he  is  seized  by  a  mob  of  Jews,  alleging  that 
he' brought  Greeks  into  the  temple.  Rescued  by 
Claudius  Lysias,  commander  of  the  castle,  he 
addresses  the  crowd  from  the  stairs,  proclaiming 
his  commission  to  the  Gentiles  (21:27-22:29). 
After  an  examination  before  the  Sanhedrin  (22: 
30-23:  10),  he  is  sent  to  Felix  at  Cwsarea  (ch.  23). 
Having  passed  two  years  of  varied  experience, 
Paul  finally  appeals  from  the  tribunal  of  Festus 
to  that  of  the  emperor  at  Rome  (25:  11). 

Voyage  to  Borne,  A.D. 60 ichs.  27, 28).— Paul,  under 
care  of  a  centurion,  with  Luke  and  Aristarchus, 
sets  sail  from  Csesarea,  touching  at  Sidon,  sailing 
"  under  the  lee  "  of  Cyprus  and  coming  to  Myra 
in  Lycia.  Taking  another  ship,  of  Alexandria, 
they  sail  for  Italy.  Passing  Cnidus  and  Salmone, 
on  the  island  of  Crete,  they  reach  Fair  Havens 
on  its  southern  shore.  Instead  of  wintering 
here,  they  seek  to  reach  Phoenix,  R.V.  (Phenice, 
A. V.).     Driven  by  a  violent  wind,  Euraquilo 

[27:  14,  R.V.),  they  pass  under  the  lee  of  Clauda 
(Cauda,  R. V.),  and  to  avoid  the  "  quicksand  " 
(Syrtis,  27 :  17,  R.V.)  drive  slowly  before  the  wind. 
After  fourteen  days  they  are  shipwrecked  on 
the  island  of  Malta  (27 :  21-28: 10).  Three  months 
later  they  sail  for  Italy,  via  Syracuse  and  Rhe- 
gium,  landing  at  Puteoli,  in  the  Bay  of  Naples. 
Here  brethren  meet  Paul,  and  again  at  Appii 
Forum  and  The  Three  Taverns.  At  length  Paul 
reaches  Rome,  where  he  "  dwelt  two  whole  years 
in  his  own  hired  house  "  (28 :  30, 31).  Here,  though 
a  prisoner,  he  preached  and  wrote  with  freedom 
and  success. 


The  formal  history  of  the  New  Testament  ends 
with  the  book  of  Acts.  From  the  Epistles  are 
evident  Paul's  release  and  second  imprisonment. 
He  was  at  Ephesus  again  (I.  Tim.  1:3;  4:  13;  II. 
Tim.  1:  18),  at  Crete  (Tit.  1:5),  Asia  Minor  (Tit. 
3  12),  Miletus  and  Corinth  (I.  Tim.  1:  3;  II.  Tim. 
4:  20),  Troas  (II.  Tim.  4:  13).  and  perhaps  other 
cities.  He  was  sent  to  Rome  in  bonds  (II.  Tim. 
2:  9).  Here  Luke  alone  was  with  him,  and  here 
he  suffered  martyrdom  with  the  sword. 

Of  the  other  early  leaders  Peter  seems  to  have 
spent  his  later  years  at  Babylon,  a  seat  of  the 
dispersed  Jews  (I.  Pet.  5:  13) .  and  to  have  suf- 
fered martyrdom  some  time  after  the  death  of 
Paul.  John  presided  over  the  seven  churches 
of  western  Asia,  and  after  Paul's  martyrdom 
wrote  his  Gospel,  Epistles,  and  Revelation,  and 
was  banished  to  Patmos  under  Domitian  (prob- 
ably in  a.d.  95).  He  lived  to  a  great  age,  spending 
many  years  in  directing  and  teaching. 

The  church  organization  was  now  more  set- 
tled and  its  growth  fully  begun. 

Books  of  Reference  :  Consult  list  of  books  on  New 
Testament,  Apostolic  History,  and  under  Chron- 
ological, Table,  page  72. 


By  EEV 

HENEY  COWAN,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Church  History,  University 
of  Aberdeen. 

The  sub-apostolic  age  extends  from  the  death 
of  St.  John,  about  98  a.d.,  to  the  martyrdom  of 
Polycarp,  one  of  his  last  surviving  disciples,  in 
155.  It  is  the  period  during  which  the  church's 
life  and  development,  work  and  worship,  were 
under  the  guidance  mainly  of  those  who  had 
been  personally  associated  with  the  apostles. 

I.  Prominent  Names.— Among  these  leaders 
were:  Clement,  leading  bishop  of  Rome,  author 
of  an  epistle.  Tradition  says  he  was  martyred 
in  102.  Simeon,  bishop  or  presiding  presbyter  of 
Jerusalem,  brother  of  James,  was  crucified,  at 
the  age  of  120,  in  a.d.  107.  Ignatius  of  Antioch, 
thrown  to  the  wild  beasts  of  the  Coliseum  at 
Rome  in  115.  Telesp>horus,  the  earliest  bishop 
of  Rome  to  endure  martyrdom— in  138.  Papias. 
bishop  of  Hierapolis,  "a  disciple  of  John  and 
friend  of  Polycarp."  Polycarp  of  Smyrna  suf- 
fered death  at  the  stake  in  155.  Justin  Martyr, 
the  strong  defender  of  the  Christian  faith,  was 
born  about  100,  and  educated  in  the  pagan  phi- 
losophies. After  conversion  he  wrote  his  Apol- 
ogies.   He  was  martyred  in  Rome  about  166. 

II.  Christian  Literature  of  the  Age.— The  prin- 
cipal writings  of  this  period  are  included  in  the 
so-called  apocryphal  books  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment (see  p.  55).  Besides  the  Epistles  of  Clement 
and  Barnabas  and  the  Shepherd  of  Her  mas,  there 
are  the  seven  Ignatian  Epistles,  vindicated  by 
Bishop  Lightfoot,  written  not  later  than  115; 
Epistle  of  Polycarp,  written  to  the  Philippians 
116-140 ;  fragments  of  a  lost  Exposition  of  Our  Lord's 
Discourses  by  Papias.  These  constitute  the  "Apos- 
tolic Fathers. "  In  addition  the  Didache,  or  Teach- 
ing of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  the  Apology  of  Aristides, 
the  anonymous  Epistle  to  Diognetus,  the  two  Apol- 

ogies of  Justin  Martyr,  are  all  intrinsically  in- 
teresting and  historically  valuable. 

III.  Missionary  Activity.— Within  apostolic 
times  Christianity  had  been  diffused  from 
Babylon  to  Rome,  and  also,  according  to  ante- 
Nicene  traditions,  in  Scythia,  Persia,  and  "In- 
dia" (perhaps  Arabia);  while  a  statement  by 
Clement  that  St.  Paul  "reached  the  furthest 
bounds  of  the  West"  gives  countenance  to  the 
early  belief  that  the  apostle  accomplished  his 
"journey  into  Spain."  Records  of  sub-apos- 
tolic missions  are  scanty;  but  Pliny,  governor 
of  Bithynia,  reported  to  Trajan  in  112  a.d.  that 
"even  through  the  villages  and  rural  districts 
the  Christian  contagion  had  spread,"  and  Justin 
testifies,  rhetorically,  yet  significantly,  that 
"  there  is  no  single  race  of  men  .  .  .  among  whom 
prayers  are  not  offered  up  in  Jesus'  name." 

IV.  Persecutions.— Down  to  near  the  close  of 
the  apostolic  age  Christians  were  regarded  by 
the  Roman  government  as  a  Jewish  sect,  and 
the  toleration  accorded  to  national  religions  was 
thus  extended  to  the  Christian  faith.  Roman, 
as  distinguished  from  Jewish,  persecution  of  the 
apostolic  church,  accordingly,  was  mainly  due, 
not  to  the  Christians'  creed,  but  to  alleged  crime, 
as  when  Nero  accused  them  of  burning  Rome,  or 
to  supposed  revolutionary  aims,  as  when  Domi- 
tian regarded  expectations  of  Christ's  millennial 
reign  as  incipient  treason.  In  the  sub-apostolic 
age  circumstances  changed.  The  emperors- 
Trajan,  Hadrian,  and  Antoninus  Pius— were  too 
just  to  punish  Christians  for  imaginary  crimes, 
and  too  enlightened  to  fear  them  as  political 
revolutionists.  But  a  new  peril  arose.  Christian- 
ity was  now  recognized  to  be  independent  of 



Judaism,  and  thus,  having  no  national  connec- 
tion, became  an  "illicit  religion,"  whose  adher- 
ents were  liable  to  prosecution  according  to  old 
Roman  laws.  Christianity  was  officially  pro- 
scribed as  penal,  hut  prosecution  was  not  encour- 
aged, while  informal  charges  were  disallowed: 
search  tor  christians  and  anti-Christian  clamor 
were  prohibited.  During  this  age,  persecution 
arose  not  from  imperial  hostility,  but  from  per- 
sonal animosity  and  local  fanaticism,  through 
winch  here  and  there  the  imperial  statutes  were 
put  in  force,  as  at  Jerusalem,  Ant  inch,  Smyrna, 
At  lu-ns,  and  Rome. 

V.  Christian  Life.— The  sub-apostolic  church 
has  its  moral  shadows.  Clement  rebukes  Corin- 
thian strife;  Aristides  represents  the  church 
weeping  over  members  who  have  died  in  sin; 
i  olycarp  deplores  a  backsliding  presbyter;  the 
Lhctac/ie  alludes  to  covetous  prophets:  germs  of 
false  asceticism  appear.  Yet  Christian  life  as  a 
whole  is  depicted  by  contemporaries  in  bright 
colors,  as  if,  after  the  sun  of  apostolic  ( Jurist  ian- 
ity  had  gone  down,  there  remained  a  spiritual 
afterglow.  Justin,  Pliny,  Galen,  Lucian,  Aris- 
tides. Clement,  and  others  testify  to  the  purity 
devotion,  charity,  industry,  high  mechanical 
skill,  and  beneficence  of  the  Christians  of  their 
time,  who  "did  good  to  their  persecutors"  and 

comforted  those  who  made  them  grieve." 

VI.  Worship  and  Sacraments.— Partly  through 
poverty,  and  still  more  for  privacy  (to  avoid  per- 
secution), social  worship  was  held  chiefly  in  pri- 
vate nouses.  Catacombs  were  also  used,  but  only 
to  a  limited  extent,  for  in  none  of  them  could 
more  than  thirty  persons  conveniently  congre- 
gate. Christians  usually  met  for  worship  "before 
dawn  "on  the  Lord's  day;  on  the  Sabbath,  also, 
where  Jewish  believers  abounded.  On  Wednes- 
day and  Friday  a  fast  was  held.  The  anniversary 
of  our  Lord's  death  and  resurrection  was  observ- 
ed. Lord's  day  worship  culminated  in  the  holy 
communion.  In  apostolic  times  this  sacrament 
was  celebrated  along  with  a  love-feast  {aqape)  in 
the  evening;  and  traces  of  this  custom  are  found 
in  the  beginning  of  the  second  century.  Early  in 
that  century,  however,  partly  perhaps  to  avoid 
risk  of  profanation  and  to  silence  the  pagan  cal- 
umny of  "secret  orgies,"  but  chiefly  to  remove  the 
suspicion  that  the  Christian  brotherhoods  might 
become  semi-political  clubs,  the  agape  and  com- 
munion were  dissociated,  and  the  eucharist  be- 
came part  of  the  morning  service.  The  worship 
r,V;ls'cto  a  eonsiderable  extent,  non-liturgical. 
Ihe  Scripture  was  read,  including  parts  of  the 
New  Testament,  an  exhortation  was  given,  pray- 
ers were  offered,  bread  and  wine  were  distributed, 
and  a  collection  wras  taken,  each  giving  what  he 
pleased.  Besides  the  Psalter,  Christian  hymns 
were  used.  In  baptism  the  general  usage  was 
triple  immersion;  but  affusion  was  permitted 
when  immersion  was  inconvenient.  Catechet- 
ical instruction  preceded,  and  not  only  the  cate- 
chumen, but  the  celebrant  and  friends,  fasted 
beforehand.  The  first  reference  to  infant  bap- 
tism is  by  Irenreus  (c.  180  a.d.)  ;  but  Origen  traces 
the  usage  to  apostolic  sanction.  Adult  baptism, 
however,  of  the  offspring  of  Christian  parents 
was  a  frequent  practice. 

VII.  Ecclesiastical  Organization.— In  two  par- 
ticulars our  period  is  one  of  transition.  (1)  In  apos- 
tolic times,  while  the  church  was  being  founded 
extraordinary  office  bearers— apostles,  apostolic 

delegates,  and  prophets— were  naturally  more 
prominent  than  locally  appointed  presbyters  or 
bishops,  whose  original  function  wTas  govern- 
mental, although  aptness  to  teach  ere  long  be- 
came a  requisite  (I.  Tim.  5:17).  Early  in  the  sub- 
apostohe  age,  special  honor  and  authority  con- 
tinued to  belong  to  extraordinary  office  bearers 
(2)  During  this  period,  mainly,  the  transition  was 
accomplished  from  the  original  episcopate,  iden- 
tical with  the  presbyterate,  to  monarchical  epis- 
copacy. Mono-episcopacy  became  general  in 
Christendom  about  the  close  of  the  sub-apostolic 
age.  The  episcopacy,  however,  thus  established 
Was  congregational,  not  diocesan.  Diocesan  epis- 
copacy was  the  later  outcome  of  congregational 
missionary  effort  combined  with  the  natural ten- 
dency to  centralization.  The  distinction  of  clergy 
from  laity  as  a  separate  priestly  caste  is  not  found 
in  the  sub-apostolic  age,  though  Clement  and  the 
Didaehe  tract'  analogies  between  the  Christian 
ministry  and  Jewish  priesthood.  Ignatius  never 
ascribes  priest  hood  to  bishops;  Justin  refers  to  all 
believers  as  "the  true  high-priestly  race  of  God." 

VIII.  Bible  and  Creed.— The  New  Testament 
canon  was  in  course  of  formation,  the  standard 
of  canonicity  being  apostolic  authorship  actual 
or  virtual.  No  extant  canon  belongs  to  this  age, 
except  that  of  the  Gnostic  Marcion  (including 
ten  epistles  of  Paul  and  a  mutilated  Luke);  but 
from  our  knowledge  of  three  independent  lists 
of  New  Testament  books  which  existed  about 
170  a.d.  (Canon  Muratori,  Syriac  version,  and 
Old  Latin)  we  conclude  that  the  New  Testament 
of  the  sub-apostolic  church  was  substantially 
that  of  later  times.  The  so-called  Apostles' 
Creed  is  not  found  in  present  form  before  the 
sixth  century,  and  was  gradually  built  up  from 
apostolic  times  on  the  basis  of  the  baptismal 
formula.  Sub-apostolic  theology,  as  a  whole, 
embraces  the  cardinal  doctrines  of  the  faith, 
without  that  precision  of  conception  and  state- 
ment which  is  the  outcome  of  controversy. 

IX.  Sub-Apostolic  Heresy  was  JudaisticGnos- 
tic,  or  both  combined.  After  the  destruction  of 
Jerusalem,  moderate  Jewish  Christians  amalga- 
mated with  Gentile  believers,  but  some  stood 
aloof:  (1)  Nazarenes,  who  constituted  an  ortho- 
dox schism,  observing  the  Mosaic  Law;  (2) 
Lbionites,  who  denounced  Paul  as  heretic,  de- 
clared circumcision  essential  for  salvation,  and 
accepted  Jesus  as  a  mere  human  Messiah,  di- 
vinely inspired.  A  section  of  these,  the  Elke- 
saites,  represent  Christ  as  Lord  of  angels,  and 
the  Holy  Spirit  as  a  divine  female  essence.  They 
constitute  a  bridge  between  Judaistic  and 
Gnostic  heresy.    (For  further  details  see  p.  1(3.) 

Bo°*s  °,F  Reference:  Li^htfoot's  Apostolic  Fath- 
ers; Schaff  's  Antc-Nicene  Christianity;  Bunsen's  Hip- 
polytus  and  His  Age;  Crutt well's  Literary  History  of 
Early  Christianity;  Roberts  <fc  Donaldson's  Ante-Ki- 
cene  Fathers;  Farrar's  Lives  of  the  Fathers;  McDon- 
nell's Bay  Barvn  of  Christianity;  Harris'  Great  Commis- 
sion; Early  Christian  Literature  Primers;  Hurst's  Short 
History  of  the  Early  Church;  riumruer's  Church  of  the 
Early  Fathers;  Conybeare's  Monuments  of  Early  Chris- 
tianity; Lea's  Historical  Sketch  of  Sacerdotal  Celibacy  in 
the  Christian  Church;  Etter's  Doctrine  of  Christian  Bap- 
tism; Dale  on  Baptism;  Hitchcock  &  Brown's  Teach- 
ing of  the  Twelve  Apostles;  Schaff's  Teaching  of  the 
1  welve  Ajyostles;  Neandor's,  Fisher's,  and  other  Church 
Histories;  Biekell's  Lord's  Supper  and  BassoverBitual- 
Bamsey's   The  Church  in   the  Roman  Empire,  before 


By  EEV.  OWEN  C.  WHITEHOUSE,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hebrew, 
Ciieshunt  College,  near  London. 

The  word  festival  is  employed  to  designate 
certain  regularly  recurring  days  or  periods  cele- 
brated in  some  marked  manner,  i.  e.,  by  special 
acts,  as  sacred.    In  Israel  these  occasions  and 

gatherings  were  for  special  acts  of  homage  to 
God,  and  for  celebrating  the  fellowship  of  a  peo- 
ple with  their  divine  Founder  and  Lord,  and  of 
members  of  the  race  with  one  another.     The 



Beginning  with  the  Sabbath,  there  were  week- 
ly  monthly,  and  annual  days  of  worship  and 

0erSThneVaUateh.-Botnh  new  moon  and  Sabbath 

nbPtio  oracles.  Isaiah  (1:  13,  14)  expresses  xne 
Lorn  and  disgust  of  Jehovah  for  the  weari- 
some iteration  of  these  recurring  festivals  with 
thSr  formal [offerings  and  crowded  assemblies 
Compare  Hos.  2 :  13  (11  He  h.).  The  invective  of  the 
prmmlt  Amos  (8:  5)  against  the  grasping  trader 
shows  that  abstinenc?  from  buying  and  selling 
on  Sabbath  and  new  moon  was  strictly  enforced. 
Thfsabbath  is  the  only  season  of  worship  to 
which  the  decalogue  makes  any  reference  and 
It  stands  first  among  the ;  "feasts'  m  the ^cata- 
logue contained  in  Lev.  23.  Like  the  otner  ies 
tivals,  it  is  called  a  "holy  convocation."  Its 
maintenance  as  a  strict  day  of  wrtj w« \™*%d 
on  even  in  the  "earing  time"  and  harvest 
(Ex.  34:  21).  In  the  later  days  of  the  exile,  the 
prophets  gWspecia^ 

ing  to  the  sanctity  of  the  Sabbath  (Ezek.  22   26 
cf    Jer    17:19-27;  Ezek.  44:24;  Isa.  56:  2;  58:  lo), 
enforcing  the  precepts  that  found  legislative 
expression  in  stringent  regulations  (Ex.  31.  14 
|?-2  3-  Num.  15:  32-fe,  and  in  the  reforming  zeal 

°fWhat  mf  pfflL  of  Sabbath  worship 
was,  both  before  and  after  the  exile,  we  cannot 
determine.  Probably  in  earlier  times  it .mamly 
consisted  in  sacrificial  acts;  probably  also  it  was 
employed  as  a  day  for  consulting  the  prophets 
incases  of  difficulty,  or  the  priests  for  responses 
with  ephod  or  with  Urim  and  Thummim  (cf. 
II  Kings  4:  23).  During  the  Greek  and  Roman 
periods? when  synagogue  worship  became  estab- 
lished among  all  the  Jewi  sh  settlements  throu  gh- 
out  Asia  Minor,  Egypt,  and  Europe,  the  reading 
of  the  Jewish  Scriptures-more  especially  of 
the  Torah  and  Prophets-became  the  regular 
characteristic  feature  of  Sabbath  ritual. 

Sabbatic  Cycles.— Starting  from  the  sacred  sev- 
enth day  of  the  week-cycle  of  days,  we  next 
observe  the  cycle  of  seven  months,  the  first  da> 
of  the  seventh  month  being  a  ''solemn  rest' 
and  "  holy  convocation,"  celebrated  by  Wowing 
of  trumpets  and  "an  offering  made  by  fire" 
(Lev  23:24,25).  Next  in  order  comes  the  seventh 
orsacredyearoi  release.  The  regulations  respect- 
ing the  sabbatic  year  are  clearly  set  foith  in 
Ex.  21:  2-6;  23:  10, 11;  Deut.  15:  1-18.  Lastly  came 
the  year  of  jubilee,  which  marked  the  close  ot 
the  seventh  in  the  series  of  seven-year  periods. 
It  is  not  easy  to  determine  satisfactorily  whethei 
this  meant  the  fiftieth  or  the  forty-ninth  year 
(Lev.  25 :  10, 11).  From  Lev.  25 :  8-18  we  learn  that 
the  jubilee  year  was  inaugurated  on  the  10th  ol 
the  seventh  month  (Tishri)  by  a  loud  blast  on 

thIItlNewMoon.-Respecting  the  new  moon  fes- 
tival, we  have  no  information  as  to  its  inaugu- 
ration among  the  local  sanctuaries  in  the  earlier 
period  of  Israel's  national  history.  From  I. 
Sam.  20:  5,  6,  24-29  we  learn  that  in  the  days  of 
David  each  clan  had  its  new  moon  celebration 
at  its  local  sanctuary.  Once  yearly  every  mem- 
ber was  expected  to  be  present,  even  the  younger 
sons.  The  practice  in  the  post-exilian  days, 
and  perhaps  in  the  reformed  cultus  of  the  se\  - 
enth  century,  seems  to  have  followed  the  rule 
laid down  in  km.  10:  10  that  on  the  first  day  of 
the  month  the  blowing  of  trumpets  should 
accompany  the  celebration  of  burnt-offerings 
and  peace-offerings.  To  this  we  have  an  allusion 
fn  Ps.  81 :  3°4  Hebf).  The  special  detailed  regula- 
tfoni  will  be  found  in  Num.  28: 11-14. .A  so  com- 
pare the  following  references  in  exilian  and 
post-exilian  literature:  Ezek.  46:  1,  3,  b,  Ezra  6. 
5;  Neh.  10:33,  34. 

III.  Annual  Festivals.-There  were  three  great 
yearly  festivals,  at  which  every  male  Israelite 

romtwelve  years  of  age  (Luke  2:  42)  was  com- 
manded to  "appear  before  the  Lord,"  in .the 
court  of  the  tabernacle  or  temple  (Ex.  23.  14-17, 
34-23;  Deut.  16:  16).  These  were  the  Passover, 
Pentecost,  and  Tabernacles.  There  were  other 
annual  gatherings,  which  will  be  fully  explained. 
1  Passover  and  Unleavened  Bread.-For  the 
institution  and  meaning  of  this  feast  consult  Ex. 
12  The  Passover  was  the  covenant  feast  ol  Isi  ael, 
kept  on  the  14th  Abib,  or  Nisan,  followed  by  the 
Feast  of  Unleavened  Bread,  which  lasted  seven 

d?t  was  Itrictfy  ordained  that  all  leaven  should 
be  removed  from  the  dwellings  of  the  Hebrews 
on  the  14th  Nisan.  This  was  the  preparation  for 
the  Passover  {napaoncevr)  tov  -naaxo-)  W°i -?ni  'r £ti 
The  presence  of  women,  boys,  and  little ^chil- 
dren,as  well  as  men  was  permitted  at  this  as 
well  as  other  festivals  (Luke  2:  41;  cf.  I.  Sam. 
1-  24)  for  the  festival,  though  national,  was 
domestic.  The  victim  might  be  either  a  lamb 
or  a  kid  (Ex.  12:  5),  and  it  was  to  be  selected  four 
da|s  beforehand,!  e.,  10th  Nisan,  by  the  head  of 
the  family.  If  a  household  was  too  small,  .it 
might  unite  with  another  small  household  in 
moviding  a  single  lamb  for  both.  The  lamb 
v/as  slalnat  sunset  of  the  14th  Nisan,  and  what- 
ever remained  uneaten  was  consumed  by  me. 
The  blood  of  the  animal  was  sprinkled  with  a 
bunch  of  hyssop  on  the  two  side  posts  and  lintel 
o?the  house  door.  The  paschal  feast  was  eaten 
bv  the  family  with  unleavened  cakes  and  bittei 
herbs? with  loins  girded,  sandals  on  the  feet,  and 
staff  in  hand.  The  animal  was  eaten  entire,— 
head,  legs,  and  entrails -without  breaking  a 
bone  (Ex.  12:  7-11),  so  far  as  this  was  possible. 

Later  Jewish  usage  enacted  elaborate  details. 
There  were  extended  ceremonies  at  the  temple. 
Probably  at  the  commencement  of  the  least  in 
the  house  a  wine  cup  was  filled  and  the  bene- 
diction was  pronounced.    After  the  wine  was 
drunk!  a  basin  of  water  with  a  towel  was  handed 
round,  and  the  members  of  the  party  washed 
their  hands   (cf.   John   13:  4-12).     Bitter   herbs 
and  unleavened  bread  were  then  brought  m,  as 
well  as  the  haroseth  made  of  dates,  raisins,  etc., 
also  the  paschal  lamb  and  the  chagigah  or  festal 
offering     The  president  at  the  table  then  took 
bitter  herbs  and  dipped  them  in  the  haroseth, 
and,  after  takin  g  a  small  portion  himself,  handed 
alike  morsel  to  the  other  members  who  partic- 
ipated.   It  is  possible  that  we  ought  to  compare 
with 'this  Matt.  26:  23;  John  13:  26     Before  the 
lamb  was  eaten,  a  second  cup  of   wine  was 
poured  out  (cf.  Luke  22:  17,20),  and  then  the 
formal  questions  were  asked  in  accordance  with 
Ex.  12:  26,  to  which  suitable  replies  were  given, 
affording  instruction  as  to  the  meaning  of  the 
feast.    The  first  part  of  the  Iiallel  (Ps.  113,  114) 
was  then  sung,  after  which  the  lamb  was  divided 
and  eaten.    Then  followed  a  third  cup  succeeded 
bv  the  chanting  of  the  second  part  of  the  Hallel 
(Ps.  115-118) u    Compare  Matt.  26:  30;  Mark  14:  26. 
1  The  15th  Nisan  Vas  a  day  of  ''holy  convoca- 
tion," and  also  the  21st.    On  the  former  the  rules 
prohibiting  all  manner  of  work  were  almost  as 
rigidly  applied  as  on  the  Sabbath  day.    The  16th 
was  rendered  memorable  by  the  presentation of 
the  omer,  or  first  harvest  sheaf  (of  barley),  which 
was  waved  by  the  priest  before  the  Lor(L    The 
Passover  corresponded  in  the  year  to  our  Easter 
2.    Feast  of  Weeks,  or  Pentecost.-Pentecost  is 
a  Greek  word,  rj  irevnjKocrn)  U^epa),  the  A/"^a«2/- 
This  followed  the  last  day  of  the  seven  weeks 
reckoned  from  "the  morrow  of  the  babbath 
f£ev  23  •  1 1  15716).    The  Feast  of  Weeks  thus  fell 
on  the  etri  Sivan.    This  day  of  Pentecost  was 
marked  bv  the  offering  of  two  loaves  made  with 
Saven  tobe T presented  by  way  of  Tenufah  as 

a  first-fruit.  They  Yere^acco?Jipan+ieKiP^^rilnf 
offerings  of  seven  lambs  without  blemish,  ot 
a  year  old,  together  with  meat-offerings  and 



drink-offerings.  In  addition  to  these  there  was 
a  sin-offering  of  a  he-goat  and  a  peace-offering 
consisting  of  two  male  Lambs  of  the  first  year 
these  likewise  were  to  he  presented  as  a  wave- 

<;<'<;  ring  by  the  priest  (Lev.  28:  16-20;  Num.  28: 

Pentecost  corresponds  to  the  Whitsuntide  of 
the  modern  church,  in  commemoration  of  the 
great  day  of  Pentecost  when  the  Holy  Spirit 
was  bestowed  upon  the  church  (Acts  2). 

3.  The  Feast  of  Tabernacles,  beginning  on 
the  loth  day  ot  the  seventh  month,  or'Tishri,  and 
continuing  for  one  week.  Fruit,  palm  branches, 
boughs  of  Large  trees,  and  willows  from  the 
brook  were  gathered  by  the  pilgrim  crowd,  and 
booths  erected.  The  first  day  (the  15th)  was  a 
day  of  holy  convocation  or  public  worship,  on 
which  there  was  to  be  a  cessation  from  all  servile 
labor  i  Lev.  23:  35).  In  Num.  29  we  have  special 
details  respecting  the  sacrifices  to  be  presented 
on  this  day,  both  for burnt*offerihgS)fd#ink-oflfer 

...  ^x*,., ,,..,, ,,,.,,  ii  iui  uiiiiii-«)iiiiiim^!uu]  K-oirer- 
jngs,  and  meat -offer  in  us,  and  for  the  daiJv  obla- 
tions which  followed.  The  following  six  days,  10th 
to  2ist,  were  devoted  to  the  free  "enjoyment  of 
this  festal  season. 

_  We  find  a  variation  upon  the  usage  prescribed 
in  the  Pentateuch  in  the  book  of  Nehemiah 
(<s:  15,  16).  The  branches  for  the  booths  are  there 
specially  determined  as  olive,  wild  olive,  myrtle 
and  palm.  Moreover,  the  booths  Werei  erected  on 
the  roofs  of  the  houses,  or  their  courts— "  in  the 
courts  of  the  temple,  in  the  open  street  of  the 
Watergate,  and  in  that  of  the  gate  of  Ephraini." 
In  later  limes  a  part  of  each  day's  ceremony 
was  the  drawing  of  water  from  the  pool  of  Si- 
loam,  so  intimately  connected  with  our  Lord's 
words  m  John  7:  37,  38.    They  were  uttered  in 

?£fer£nce  to  tnis  act  on  tne  last  diW  of  the  feast 
(21st  ris&ri).  Another  feature  was  the  lighting 
of  four  great  candelabra,  which  were  set  up  in 
the  middle  of  the  court,  and  illuminated  all 
Jerusalem.  Compare  John  8:  12. 
Connected  with  these  great  festivals: 

1.  Feast  of  Trumpets,  called  in  Lev.  23:  24 
a  "blowing  commemoration"  by  trumpets 
marked  the  commencement  of  the  seventh' 
month  (Tishri)  of  the  ecclesiastical  and  of  the 
first  of  the  civil  year.  It  was  therefore  a  new- 
year  festival  {JR6sh  hash-shanah).  It  was  a  sol- 
emn rest  day,  or  Sabbath,  on  which  no  work  was 
done,  being  a  new  moon  feast.  In  Num.  29:  i-ti 
we  have  detailed  regulations  respecting  the 
burnt-offerings  and  meat-offerings  which  were 
to  be  offered  on  this  day. 

In  the  modern  Jewish  worship  there  are  serv- 
ices not  only  on  the  1st  Tishri,  but  also  on  the 
preceding  day. 

2.  Day  of  Atonement  was  a  fast  of  peculiar 
solemnity,  hence  called  in  Acts  27:9  ij  vyjareia, 
"the  fast."  It  was,  moreover,  a  day  on  which 
no  work  could  be  done.  This  day  was  called 
a  '-high  Sabbath"  as  well  as  a  day  of  "holy 
convocation"  (Lev.  1G). 

It  lasted  from  the  evening  of  the  9th  Tishri 
till  that  of  the  10th.  The  ritual  acts  were  per- 
formed by  the  high  priest.  Having  bathed  his 
body  in  water,  he  clothed  himself  with  a  white 
linen  coat,  hose,  and  girdle,  and  with  a  white 
J  men  turban.  Then  he  brought  a  young  bullock 
a ,'  a  sin-ottering  for  himself  and  his  house,  and 
a  ram  as  a  burnt-offering.  In  making  atone- 
ment  for  the  people,  there  were  two  hergoats 
selected,  as  well  as  a  ram  for  a  burnt-ottering 
(eh  Heb.  7:  27).  Lots  were  cast  with  respect 
to  the  two  he-goats,  and  thereby  it  was  deter- 
mined that  one  he-goat  was  for  Jehovah  and 
the  other  for  Azazel.  The  builook  was  then 
slaughtered  as  an  expiation  for  the  high  priest 
himself  and  his  family.  Taking  then  a  censer 
lull  ot  coals  from  off  the  altar,  and  having  tilled 
his  hands  with  sweet  incense  pounded  small, 
the  high  priest  entered  the  holy  of  holies  (cf. 
Heb.  9:  7,  11,  24-26).  As  he  east  the  ineense  upon 
the  coals,  the  clouds  rose  in  thick  volumes,  and 

enveloped  the  covering  of  the  ark  (or  "niercv- 
seat  ")•  The  blood  of  the  high  priest's  sin-offer- 
ing was  then  sprinkled  seven  times  upon  and 
gerore  the  oovering  of  the  ark  with  the  fingers 
Emerging  from  the  holy  of  holies,  the  Eteh 
priest  nexl  sacrificed  the  goat  reserved  as  a  sin- 
ofienng  lor  tne  people  to  .Jehovah.  The  blood 
was  then  conveyed  by  him  -within  the  veil" 
and  sprinkled  in  like  manner  both  on  the  cover- 
ing of  the  ark  and  before  it.  Coming  once  more 
out  ol  the  holy  of  holies,  he  made  atonement 
for  the  hojy  place,  some  of  the  blood,  both  of 
the  bnllock  and  the  goat,  being  sprinkled  on 
the  altar  ol  ineense  (Ex.  30:  10).  During  these 
proceedings  the  high  priest  was  the  only  per- 
sonage that  could  remain  within  the  "tent  of 
meeting.''  1  he  goat  devoted  to  Azazel  was  then 
hi  ought  forward,  and  tie-  high  priest,  laving 
both  his  hands  upon  it,  confessed  over  it  all  the 
iniquities  ot  the  Israelites.  The  goaf  was  then 
consigned  to  the  care  of  an  appointed  person, 
who  carried  him  ohto  a  lonely,  untrodden  spot 
and  set  him  free.  The  high  priest  then  disrohed 
himself  of  his  holy  linen  vestments  in  the  tent 
ot  meeting,  and,  having  resumed  Ins  ordinary 
garb,  made  burnt-offerings  for  himself  and  for 
the  people,  and  also  consumed  upon  the  altar 
the  fat  of  the  sin-offering.  After  the  man  ap- 
pointed to  set  free  the  goat  for  Azazel  had  dis- 
charged his  task,  he  was  regarded  as  unclean, 
and  was  not  permitted  to  return  to  the  camp 
until  he  had  bathed  his  flesh  in  water. 

IV.  Post-Exilian  Festivals.-l.  The  Feast  of 
Acra,  on  the  28d  of  the  second  month  (Jvvar) 
was  established  by  Simon  the  Maecabce,  in  141 
B.C.,  to  celebrate  the  capture  and  purification  of 
Acra,  and  the  expulsion  of  the  Hellenizing  party 
from  Jerusalem  (1  Mace.  13:  50-52).  This  festival, 
however,  appears  to  have  soon  become  obsolete 
°«  lnT,Jo,seijhu,s  there  is  no  mention  of  it. 
<  2- ,,Feaft  of  Wood-Carrying  ft  w  £vAo(/,oP«d„ 
eoprr?)  on  the  15th  of  the  fifth  month  (  \b)  The 
institution  of  this  festival  dates  from  an  earlv 
period  after  the  return  from  the  Babylonian 
captivity  (Nch.  10:  35;  cf.  13:  31).  According  to 
Josephus ;  ( Wars,  ii.,17,  6),  it  was  the  custom  on 
this  day  for  the  people  to  bring  wood  to  supply 
the  ever-burning  altar  tire  in  the  temple. 

3.  Feast  of  Dedication,  still  called  among  the 
Jews  Chanuccah.  St.  John  in  his  Gospel  ilo-  22) 
gives  it  the  current  name  r*  eyKaivta.  This  festi- 
val was  instituted  by  Judas  Maccabseus  in  com- 
memoration of  the  purification  of  the  temple 
on  the  2oth  Kislev  (about  December),  164  bc 
this  purification  took  place  exactly  three  years 
after  the  pollution  of  the  temple  with  heathen 
sacrifices  by  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  167  b  c  The 
festival  lasted  eight  days,  corresponding  to  the 
full  duration  of  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles  (if  we 
include  the  final  day  of  holv  convocation) 

4.  Feast  of  Nicanor,  called  in  Megillatli  Taa- 
nith  "day  ot  Nicanor,"  was  instituted  by  Judas 
Maccabaais  as  a  festival  to  be  commemorated 
on  the  13th  day  of  the  twelfth  month,  viz.,  Adar 
(February-March),  in  remembrance  of  the  vic- 
tory achieved  over  Nicanor  in  B.C.  161 

T-h  f  ®ast\of  Purim  took  place  on  the  14th  and 
lath  of  the  twelfth  month  (Adar),  to  commemo- 
rate the  deliverance  of  the  Jews  from  destruction 
pI°At(^  a^inst  them  by  Hainan.  In  the  book 
of  Esther  it  is  expressly  laid  down  that  the  Jews 
should  make  these  two  days  "days  of  feasting 
and  gladness,  and  of  sending  portions  to  one 
another,  and  gifts  to  the  poor"  (Ksth.  9:  22).  The 
day  preceding  the  festival  (13th)  is  called  the 
Fast  of  Esther  (Esth.  4:  16). 

Books ,  op  Reference:  The  following  should  be 
consulted  respecting  Hebrew  festivals:  Articles  on 
the  separate  leasts  in  Kitto's  Cyclopedia  of  Biblical 
Literature  (chiefly  by  Dr.'Gihsburg)-  Smithes  JHdttdh- 
aryof  th<  Bible;  Riehm'a  WanUwtirterMieh  des  biblisbhen 
Alterfhums;  Sohenkel's  BtoUlcccicon*  KwuUVxAnrrt/rii- 
mrr;  Encyclopcedia  BrUdnnim  d»lh  e<U:  iSchafi-Her- 
zog's  Religious  Encyclopaedia. 




By  REV.  OWEN  C.  WHITEHOUSE,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hebrew, 
Cheshunt  College,  near  London. 

The  Year.— The  primitive  character  of  the 
arrangement  of  the  Jewish  year  is  shown  by  its 
close  correspondence  to  the  course  of  agricul- 
tural life,  beginning  in  early  times  after  the 
close  of  harvest.  This  earlier  method  is  reflected 
in  what  is  called  the  Jewish  civil  year.  The  Jew- 
ish sacred  or  ecclesiastical  year,  on  the  other  hand, 
follows  the  Babylonian  system.  One  main  stim- 
ulating cause  for  the  adoption  of  this  new  ar- 
rangement, which  made  spring,  and  not  autumn, 
the  commencement  of  the  year,  was  the  great 
importance  of  the  Passover  festival,  which 
marked  the  commencement  of  the  Jewish  festal 

The  Months.— The  year  consisted  of  twelve 
lunar  months,  and  the  month  contained  from 
twenty-nine  to  thirty  days.  The  Jewish,  like 
the  Babylonian,  month  began  with  the  evening 
when  the  new  moon  was  first  observed,  and  the 
entire  length  of  the  year  of  twelve  months  was 
three  hundred  and  fifty-four  days.  This  dis- 
crepancy between  the.*  lunar  and  the  solar  year 
made  intercalary  months  necessary,  both  in  the 
Babylonian  and  Jewish  systems.  Thus  we  have 
an  intercalary  (or  second)  Adar,  called  Ve-adar. 

The  Day  and  the  Night.— The  civil  day  of  twen- 
ty-four hours  was  reckoned  from  sunset  to 
sunset.  This  is  clear  from  the  express  injunc- 
tion in  Lev.  23:  32  to  reckon  the  Sabbath  from 

evening  to  evening.  The  reference  in  Gen.  1:  5 
is  far  from  clear,  and  therefore  should  not  be 
quoted  in  this  connection. 

The  following  terms  were  employed  by  the 
ancient  Hebrews  to  mark  the  progress  of  the 
day:  (1)  Shachar,  the  early  dawn;  (2)  Boker, 
early  part  of  the  morning;  (3)  "Heat  of  the 
day,"  about  ten  o'clock  (Gen.  18:  1);  (4)  Noon 
(Gen.  43:  16;  Deut.  28:  29);  (5)  "Cool  {lit.  breeze) 
of  the  day,"  near  sunset  (Gen.  3:  8);  (6)  Evening. 

{Note.— The  later  division  of  the  day  was: 
Third  hour,  6  to  9  A.M. ;  Sixth  hour,  9  to  12  a.m.  ; 
Ninth  hour,  12  to  3  p.m.  ;  Twelfth  hour,  3  to  6  p.m.) 

The  night  was  divided  by  the  ancient  Hebrews 
into  three  watches,  so  far  as  we  can  gather  from 
scattered  notices.  The  first  probably  lasted  till 
about  ten  at  night  (Lam.  2:  19),  the  second  till 
about  two  in  the  morning—"  the  middle  watch  " 
(Judg.  7: 19),  and  "  the  morning  watch  "  till  sun- 
rise (Ex.  14:  24).  But  in  the  Greek  and  Roman 
periods  there  were  four  watches,  viz. :  (1)  From 
six  till  nine  (Mark  11 :  11 ;  John  20 :  19,  6^e,  6i/u'a 
wpa) ;  (2)  from  nine  till  midnight  (Mark  13:  5) ;  (3) 
from  midnight  till  3  a.m.  (Mark  13:  35) ;  (4)  from 

3  A.M.  till  6  A.M.  (John  18:  28,  7rpcoi'  Or  irptota  u>pa). 

The  following  table  will  be  found  useful  as 
containing  the  Jewish  calendar  for  the  entire 
jea,r,    with    the   accompanying    festivals    and 

fasts : 

TO  tS 

























Abib  or  Nisan  (March- April). 
1st— New    Moon.     Beginning    of    the    Sacred    Year.     14th— 
Preparation  for  Passover — paschal  lamb  eaten  in  the  evening, 
15th — Sabbath  and  Holy  Convocation.^  Week  of  unleavened, 
bread  begins.    16th— The  offering  of  Omer  or  First  Sheaf  i^Lev. 
23:  10-12).    21st— Holy  Convocation. 
Iyyar  or  Zif  (April-May). 
1st— New  Moon.     10th— Fast   to   commemorate   the   death   of 
Elijah.     14th— Second  or  Little  Passover.     28th— Fast   for   the 
death  of  Samuel. 
Sivan  (May- June). 
1st— New  Moon.    6th  and  7th— Pentecost  or  Feast  of  Weeks,  mark- 
ing the  close  of  harvest. 
Tammuz  (June-July). 
1st— New  Moon.    17th — Fast  to  commemorate  the  breach  in  the 
wall  of  Jerusalem  (Jer.  52:  5-7). 
Ab  (July- August). 
1st— New  Moon.    9th— Fast  for  the  destruction  of  the  temple 
by  Nebuzaradan. 
Elul  (August-September). 
1st— New  Moon.    7th— Feast  for  the  dedication  of  the  walls  by 
Tishri  or  Ethanim  (September-October). 
1st — New  Moon.    New-  Year's  Day.    Beginning  of  the  Civil.  Year. 
Feast  of  Trumpets.    3d — Fast  for  Gedaliah's"  assassination  (Jer. 
41:  2-6;  II.  Kings  25:  25).    10th — Kipxyurim  or  Day  of  Atonement. 
15th-22d— Feast  of  Tabernacles  or  Booths.    2lst~Feast  of  Branches 
or  Palms. 
Marehesvan  or  Bui  (October-November). 

1st— New  Moon. 
Kislev  (November-December). 

1st — New  Moon.    25th — Chanuccah — Feast  of  Dedication. 
Tebet  (December- January). 
1st— New  Moon.    10th— Fast  commemorating  the  beginning  of 
Nebuchadnezzar's  siege  of  Jerusalem  (II.  Kings  25:  1). 
Shebat  (January-February). 

1st— New  Moon. 
Adar  (February-March). 

1st— New  Moon.  13th— Fast  of  Esther.  14th  and  15th— Peast  ofPurim. 
Veadar  (intercalary  month). 

Latter  or  spring  rains 

(Deut.  11:  14). 
Barley  harvest  begins. 

Barley  harvest  (Ruth 


Wheat  harvest. 

Grapes,  figs,  and  olives 
begin  to  ripen  as  the 
month  progresses. 

Vintage  begins,  also 
harvest  of  maize. 
Pomegranates  ripen. 

Former  or  early  rains 
(Joel  2:  23).  Plowing 
and  sowing  begin. 

Wheat  and  barley 

Almond  tree  blossoms. 

Books  of   Reference:    Sayce's  Hibbert  Lectures 
on  the  Religion  of  the  Ancient  Babylonians;   Sayce's 

Assyria:  Its  Priests  and  People ;  Sclirader's  Cuneiform 
Inscriptions;  Delitzsclirs  Commentary  on  Genesis. 




By  C.  R.  BLACKALL,  D.D.,  Editor  of  Periodicals,  American  Baptist 

Publication  Society. 

It  is  entirely  impossible  to  understand  the 
attitude  our  Lord  maintained  toward  the  exist 
ing  religious  and  political  parties  among  the 
Jews  of  his  time  without  a  clear  comprehension 
of  the  status  of  these  parties,  their  relation  to 
each  other,  and  the  striking  difference  between 
their  teachings  and  his  own.  With  the  possible 
exception  of  the  Essenes,  neither  of  these  par- 
ties was  i  o  any  true  sense  a  "  sect,"  as  they  were 
not  separated  by  materially  divergent  views 
from  the  Jewish  economy,  and  all  participated 
alike  in  the  temple  and  synagogue  services.  In- 
deed, it  was  the  purpose  of  each  to  preserve  all 
the  peculiarities  of  Judaism  and  to  strengthen 
and  protect  the  national  religious  belief,  and  all 
were  essentially  close  adherents  of  whatever 
pertained  to  the  rites  of  the  Mosaic  law  and  the 
legal  requirements  of  the  Mosaic  system. 

The  origin  of  these  parties  mav  be  clearly 
traced  to  the  religious  and  political  conditions 
that  were  especially  marked  during  and  subse- 
quent to  the  captivity.  The  Pharisees  and  the 
Sadducees  were  the  most  prominent;  the  can- 
onical books  of  the  Old  Testament  do  not  men- 
tion either  of  them,  and  they  are  the  only  par- 
ties directly  named  in  the  New  Testament. 
The  people,  as  a  whole,  were  not,  however,  di- 
vided between  them.  In  order  to  understand 
the  subject  properly,  it  will  be  necessary  to  con- 
sider the  racial  conditions  that  formed  their  en- 
vironment, the  several  classes  to  which  they 
were  more  or  less  directly  related,  and  the  char- 
acter and  quality  of  the  religious  cult  of  the  age. 


The  Canaanites  were  the  original  inhabitants 
of  Palestine;  they  claimed  descent  from  Canaan, 
the  son  of  Ham,  whence  their  name.  When 
the  Canaanites  were  subdued  by  the  Hebrews, 
the  latter  called  their  new  home  the  Land  of 
Israel.  The  greater  portion  of  the  Israelites 
who  returned  from  the  exile  were  remnants  of 
the  tribe  of  Judah,  whereupon  Palestine  was 
designated  the  Land  of  Judah  and  its  people 
were  first  called  Jews.  Its  boundaries  were  re- 
ligious rather  than  political,  though  the  latter 
were  the  more  definite  and  of  greater  extent, 
including  Persea,  Idumea,  Abilene,  etc.  The 
political  additions  were  made  for  the  conven- 
ience of  their  Roman  masters  in  administering 
the  government.  In  the  time  of  our  Lord,  Pal- 
estine was  divided  into  three  parts,  or  provinces, 
not  now  easily  defined  with  exactness— Judea 
in  the  south,  Galilee  in  the  north,  Samaria  in 
the  center. 

In  their  religious  and  political  concepts,  the 
Jews  were  a  people  distinctly  separated  from 
surrounding  nations,  holding  themselves  as  the 
peculiarly  chosen  ones  of  Jehovah.  In  every 
principle  and  practice  they  were,  as  a  rule, 
especially  hostile  to  their  Roman  oppressors. 
Hence,  all  who  were  outside  their  own  religious 
fellowship  were  stigmatized  as  foreigners  and 
heathen,  under  the  general  term  of  Gentiles. 
Because  of  the  more  or  less  necessary  conditions 
of  mercantile  and  social  life  that  prevailed, 
however,  this  foreign  element  became  closely 
intermixed  with  the  Jews,  yet,  not,  assimilated. 
The  true  .lews  looked  with  contempt  upon 
Gentiles,  counting  them  as  utterly  unclean;  they 

hated    them    intensely,   (railing   them   dogs,   and 

other   opprobrious    uames.    The  very  dust    of 

Gentile  lands  and  houses  was  regarded  as  a  de 
filement,   whence   came    the   direction    by  the  | 

scribes  to  "shake  off  the  dust  of  your  feet' 
upon  leaving  Gentile  possessions.  This  hatred 
was  cordially  and  bitterly  reciprocated.  In  the 
light  of  these  facts,  our  Lord's  recognition  of 
certain  Gentiles  would  seem  surprising,  and  the 
almost  insuperable  difficulties  in  the  early 
spread  of  Christianity  become  apparent. 

The  language  of  Palestine  was  as  varied  as 
were  its  people.  Hebrew  was  "the  tongue  of 
the  learned,"  understood  by  the  scribes  and 
doctors  of  the  law,  and  used  by  them  in  teach- 
ing, but  held  as  sacred,  and  not  spoken  by  the 
common  people.  In  course  of  time  the  pene- 
trating and  pervasive  influence  of  Hellenism 
led  to  a  wide  use  of  the  Greek  language,  at  least 
by  the  more  cultured  classes.  Under  the  Ro- 
mans, Latin  became  the  official  language,  and 
was  in  general  use  by  the  court,  the  soldiers, 
publicans,  and  tax-gatherers;  but  it  was  thor- 
oughly despised  by  the  Jews,  who  persistently 
and  stubbornly  refused  to  employ  it.  The 
Aramaic  or  Syriac  dialect  was  spoken  by  the 
people  in  general;  its  name  derived  from  Aram, 
fifth  son  of  Shem,  progenitor  of  the  Syrians. 
Pilate's  reason  for  writing  in  three  languages 
the  inscription  upon  the  cross  of  Jesus  is  thus 
made  evident. 

Judeans.— The  people  of  Judea  may  be  re- 
garded as  typical  Israelites,  the  pure-blooded. 
They  were  in  possession  of  the  temple  and  its 
impressive  ritual,  and  had  within  their  territory 
most  of  that  which  made  the  Jewish  people 
great— Jerusalem  the  capital,  the  national  center 
of  intellectual  activity,  the  home  of  the  strong- 
est elements  of  both  political  and  religious  life 
among  the  Jews. 

Galileans.— In  the  province  of  Galilee,  a  large 
proportion  of  the  population  consisted  of 
heathen  elements,  which  gave  it  the  name  of 
"  Galilee  of  the  Gentiles."  among  them  being 
Phenicians,  Arabians,  Syrians,  and  Greeks. 
These  people  were  not  lacking  in  courage,  but 
were  given  to  change,  sedition,  and  tumult. 
They  were  loyal  to  the  temple  and  its  services, 
but  would  be  regarded  religiously  as  more  liberal 
than  the  inhabitants  of  Judea.  As  a  result  of 
this  the  stricter  party,  the  Pharisees,  would  have 
less  influence  in  Galilee.  The  provincial  dialect 
was  corrupt,  as  compared  with  that  of  Judea, 
and  because  of  their  inferior  education  and  their 
intercourse  with  the  heathen,  Galileans  were 
counted  in  a  great  degree  as  unclean,  hence  were 
despised  by  their  brethren  in  the  south.  This 
explains  the  Judean  prejudice  against  Jesus, 
from  the  fact  that  he  and  all  of  his  disciples, 
except  Judas,  the  betrayer,  were  Galileans. 

Samaritans.— Between  the  above  were  the  Sa- 
maritans, descendants  of  the  mixed  race  that 
was  formed  by  the  imported  colonists  and  the 
Israelites  who  remained  in  the  land  when  the 
bulk  of  the  ten  tribes  were  carried  into  captiv- 
ity. Gradually  the  heathen  immigrants  assimi- 
lated with  the  Jews.  Upon  the  return  from 
the  captivity,  the  bitterness  between  the  Jews 
and  Samaritans  grew  into  open  hatred,  so  that 
the  latter  erected  on  Mount  Gerizim,  which  they 
claimed  to  be  the  only  place  not  covered  by  the 
flood,  a  temple  of  their  own  to  Jehovah.  They 
accepted  Moses  as  the  ctiief  lawgiver,;!  nd  the  Pen- 
tateuch  as  their  law,  but  rejected  the  traditions 
and  rules  of  the  Pharisees.  They  observed  the  rite 
of  circumcision,  the  requirements  of  the  Sab- 
hath  and  the  yearly  Jewish  festivals,  but  denied 
the  Jewish  priesthood,  and  refused  to  accept 
Jerusalem  as  the  one  place  where  God's  temple 



should  stand.  They  believed  in  the  coming  of  a 
Messiah,  and  expected  that  he  would  eventually 
convert  all  nations  to  Samaritanism.  Samaria 
was  not  regarded  by  the  Jews  as  belonging  to 
the  Holy  Land,  but  simply  as  "  a  Gentile  tongue," 
—a  strip  of  foreign  country.  The  very  term  Sa- 
maritan  was  one  of  reproach.  It  is  evident  that 
Jesus  and  his  immediate  disciples  did  not  share 
in  the  bitterness  and  hatred  shown  toward  the 

Proselytes. —Gentiles  who  were  won  to  Juda- 
ism were  called  proselytes,  of  whom  there  were 
two  classes— one  known  as  "proselytes  of  the 
gate,"  and  the  other  as  "proselytes  of  righteous- 
ness." The  latter  entered  into  full  Jewish  fel- 
lowship, fulfilling  all  requirements,  while  the 
former  mainly  observed  the  obligations  of  the 
law  but  did  not  submit  to  circumcision.  All 
proselytes  were  admitted  by  immersion  in  water, 
which  symbolized  purification,  after  which  offer- 
ings of  sacrifices  were  required.  Proselytes  cast 
oil  the  usual  ties  of  kindred  and  affection,  and 
were  absolved  from  previous  obligations.  But 
proselytism  had  a  dark  side.  In  large  cities 
they  were  frequently  the  subjects  of  insult  and 
persecution.  Even  among  the  Jews  the  prose- 
lyte gained  but  little  honor,  as  it  was  an  accepted 
maxim  that  no  wise  man  would  trust  a  prose- 
lyte, even  to  the  twenty-fourth  generation. 

Hellenists.— The  Jews  may  be  said  to  have 
been  divided  into  two  sections— the  eastern,  in- 
cluding the  inhabitants  of  Palestine  and  Syria, 
under  the  general  term  Hebrews,  from  the  lan- 
guage they  spoke;  and  the  western,  who  were 
called  Hellenists  or  Grecians.  The  latter  term 
indicates  not  original  ancestry  but  the  charac- 
teristics that  resulted  from  contact  with  the 
Greeks.  The  wide  adoption  of  the  Greek  lan- 
guage, which  became  universal,  had  the  greatest 
influence  in  impressing  Greek  ideas  and  cus- 
toms upon  the  people.  Hence  there  was  a  sort 
of  dualistic  Judaism.  The  two  systems  thus 
brought  together  were  antagonistic,  and  the 
Grecian  eventually  prevailed  over  the  other. 
The  Hellenists  were  members  of  the  priestly 
and  wealthy  class,  who  had  become  fascinated 
by  Greek  life  and  affected  in  their  religion  by 
Greek  philosophy.  Hellenism  found  good 
ground  for  development  among  the  Sadducees. 
The  Greek  translation  of  the  Old  Testament  was 
venerated  as  the  oldest,  and  in  the  time  of 
Christ  held  honorable  place  and  was  freely 
quoted,  being  the  only  complete  Scriptures  at 
command.  This  translation,  known  as  the 
Septuagint,  was  regarded  as  equally  inspired 
with  the  original.  The  scribes,  as  a  class, 
steadily  fought  Hellenism,  and  through  their 
influence  there  were  times  when  the  national 
religious  fervor  and  faithfulness  were  partly 
restored.  But  while  they  succeeded  in  keeping 
heathen  worship  out  of  Judea,  the  Hellenist 
spirit  constantly  increased.  It  has  been  well 
said:  "  Grecian  worldliness  dashed  against  He- 
brew religion ;  Greek  freedom  encountered  He- 
brew legalism;  Greek  philosophy  was  met  by 
Hebrew  simplicity;  Greek  radicalism  was  op- 
posed by  Hebrew  conservatism.  It  was  the 
shaping  of  progress,  and  each  had  something  to 
gain  from  the  other.  The  meeting  of  two  such 
contrary  forces  proved  rich  in  results  for  the 
whole  world." 

Herodians.— These  were  partisans  of  Herod 
Antipas,  described  by  Josephus  as  "  people  who 
supported  Herod's  cause."  Outwardly  they 
maintained  a  friendly  attitude  to  the  Romans. 
They  were  developed  naturally  from  the  Saddu- 
cees. They  saw  through  Herod  a  possibility  of 
preserving  Jewish  national  existence,  notwith- 
standing the  Roman  control.  Like  Herod,  they 
were  not  closely  observant  of  the  Mosaic  require- 
ments, and  were  ready  for  any  compromise  that 
was  necessary  between  their  faith  and  the  civil- 
ization of  which  Herod  was  the  representative. 
They  did  not  form  a  strong  party,  and  their  im- 

press upon  the  community  was  neither  great 
nor  enduring.  The  intrigue  of  the  Pharisees 
with  the  Herodians  in  the  effort  to  fix  a  political 
stigma  upon  Jesus  was  despicable,  and  charac- 
teristic of  the  unscrupulous  partisans  of  so 
wicked  a  king.  It  will  be  observed  that  the 
Pharisees,  rather  than  the  Herodians,  sought 
this  alliance.  With  the  passing  away  of  the 
Asmonean  or  Herod  family,  Herodian  influence 
would  inevitably  cease. 

Publicans.  — Under  Roman  domination  the 
Publicani  at  Rome  bought  the  revenues  of  the 
country  at  a  fixed  price  and  employed  local 
subordinates  to  gather  the  taxes  at  the  cost  of 
the  people.  These  latter  formed  the  publicans 
of  the  New  Testament.  Their  duties  were  to 
levy  taxes  of  all  sorts,  and  all  classes  were  sub- 
ject to  their  extortions.  The  rabbis  despised 
them,  and  forbade  any  one  to  receive  their 
charitable  gifts  or  even  to  make  them  the 
medium  of  changing  money,  ranking  them  as 
outcasts,  highwaymen,  and  murderers.  By  a 
decree  of  Ceesar  the  taxes  of  Judea  were  levied 
by  publicans  in  Judea  and  paid  directly  to  the 
national  government,  the  officials  being  ap- 
pointed by  the  provincial  officers.  This  made 
the  publicans  yet  more  unpopular,  because  they 
were  the  direct  officials  of  a  heathen  power. 
Matthew  would  naturally  be  regarded  not  only 
as  a  publican,  but  one  of  the  worst  kind,  who 
himself  stood  at  the  place  of  custom,  and  one  in 
whom  repentance  would  be  deemed  especially 


Temple  and  Synagogue.— Although  the  tem- 
ple in  Jerusalem  was  the  place  to  which  every 
devout  Jew  looked,  and  toward  which  he 
prayed,  the  necessities  of  the  Jewish  people 
during  the  captivity  led  to  the  institution  of 
the  synagogue,  or  school  of  religion.  In  the 
time  of  Christ  the  synagogue  system  was  at  the 
height  of  its  prosperity.  Sacrifices  were,  of 
course,  legal  only  in  the  temple,  but  prayers 
were  offered  and  the  Scriptures  were  read  and 
expounded  in  the  synagogue.  In  Jerusalem 
there  were  nearly  five  hundred  such  Jewish 
schools  or  synagogues,  while  every  city  and 
town  had  one  or  more,  according  to  population. 
Certain  men  were  appointed  to  maintain  order, 
and  these  were  called  elders.  As  the  ancient 
Hebrew  was  an  unknown  language  to  many,  an 
interpreter  translated  the  Scriptures  into  Ara- 
maic, the  dialect  of  the  common  people.  Prayer 
wTas  offered  standing,  while  the  teaching  was 
conducted  in  a  sitting  posture.  Chief  seats  were 
arranged  for  the  rulers,  the  rabbis,  and  distin- 
guished men  who  might  be  present.  Attendance 
on  the  services  was  imperative,  and  while  there 
the  people  were  to  behave  in  a  suitable  manner. 
Although  there  were  some  occasions  when  eat- 
ing and  drinking,  and  even  sleeping,  were  allow- 
ed in  the  synagogue,  as  a  rule  the  house  was 
regarded  as  sacred  to  God  and  his  worship.  All 
the  movements  and  postures  in  prayer  and  in 
other  public  services  were  defined  with  great 
punctiliousness.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
our  Lord  frequently  attended  the  synagogue  in 
his  youth  and  early  years,  and  he  evidently  ob- 
served the  usual  forms  of  worship.  In  syna- 
gogues he  wrought  some  of  his  greatest  works  of 
healing,  and  uttered  many  of  those  wonderful 
words  that  beyond  measure  touched  human 
hearts.  While  the  synagogue  did  not  wholly 
take  the  place  of  the  temple,  it  was  second  to  it 
only  in  point  of  importance. 

Sanhedrin.— This  was  the  great  council  of  the 
Jews,  who  designated  it  as  the  "Great  Court  of 
Justice"  and  the  "Great  Sanhedrin."  This 
national  council  remained  in  existence  and 
authority  until  the  Jews  ceased  to  be  a  nation, 
ending  in  the  ruin  of  the  people  in  a.d.  70.  It 
consisted  of  seventy  persons,  who  are  designated 
in  the  New  Testament  as  "chief  priests,"  "eld- 



ers,"  and  "scribes."  While  required  to  be  of 
mature  age,  it  was  not  necessary  that  its  mem- 
bers should  be  the  eldest  of  the  people.  The 
priestly  portion  of  the  body  were  Sadducees  and 
the  most  distinguished,  hut  the  Pharisees  were 
more  numerous  and  possessed  greater  influence. 
The  high  priest,  by  virtue  of  his  office;  was  the 
-president.  The  Sanhedrih  originally  possessed 
supreme  religious  and  sec  alar  jurisdiction.  In 
the  days  of  our  Lord  it  determined  all  questions 
that  were  not  reserved  for  the  Roman  authori- 
ties. Its  functions  were  to  "watch  over  the 
genealogies  of  the  people,  so  as  to  guard  the 
purity  of  the  hereditary  priesthood;  to  an- 
nounce feast  days;  to  make  calculations  for  the 
calendar;  to  adjust  the  solar  yesbt  to  the  lunar 
month;  to  fix  dates  for  the  festivals;  to  decide 
matrimonial  cases;  to  punish  infringements  of 
the  law;  and  even  to  exercise  judicial  control 
over  the  chief  priests.  The  confirmation  and 
execution  of  death  sentences  were  taken  from 
the  national  council  and  reserved  for  the  Roman 
procurator."  The  power  of  the  Sannedrin  was 
recognized  beyond  the  limits  of  Palestine — Jew- 
ish communities  in  distant  countries  submitting 
to  its  direction  and  decisions. 


Scribes.— The  scribes  can  scarcely  be  called  a 
party,  but  may  better  be  designated  as  a  class. 
Originally  they  were  men  who  were  appointed 
secretaries  to  the  king.  Even  in  the  time  of  the 
judges  they  are  spoken  of  as  those  who 
"  handled  the  pen  of  the  writer."  Hezekiah 
fostered  the  growth  of  a  body  of  men  whose 
specific  work  was  to  transcribe  the  old  records 
and  to  put  into  writing  that  which  had  been 
handed  down  orally.  Gradually  they  became 
students  of  the  law,  and  easily  from  that  the 
interpreters  of  the  law;  and  by  natural  grada- 
tion, while  aiming  to  promote  reverence  for  the 
law  and  make  it  the  groundwork  of  the  life  of 
the  people,  they  came  to  be  regarded  as  author- 
ity upon  all  questions  concerning  it,  sometimes 
perverting  its  applications  and  requirements, 
and  adding  new  burdens  that  the  law  did  not 
originally  contemplate. 

The  necessity  for  a  class  such  as  the  scribes  is 
readily  apparent  when  it  is  recalled  that  the 
law  was  written  in  a  language  that  had  ceased 
to  be  spoken.  They  claimed  that  apart  from 
the  six  hundred  and  thirteen  commandments 
of  the  Pentateuch  alone,  there  were  a  multitude 
of  traditional  requirements  that  had  been 
added.  Under  these  circumstances  the  people 
generally  could  scarcely  be  expected  either  to 
understand  or  to  carry  out  so  complicated  a 
system.  In  the  Old  Testament  the  scribes  are 
known  as  the  Sapharin.  In  the  New  Testament 
they  are  spoken  of  as  men  of  learning,  ac- 
quainted with  the  law,  lawyers,  or  teachers  of 
i  he  law. 

The  Jews  believed  that  Moses  received  on 
Mount  Sinai,  in  addition  to  the  series  of  laws 
which  he  wrOte  down,  a  second  series  known  as 
ihe  oral  law,  which  he  gave  first  to  Aaron,  then 
lo  l  he  sons  of  Aaron,  and  lastly  to  all  the  Isra- 
elites. This  oral  law  was  handed  down  from 
father  to  son,  and  from  age  to  age,  in  course  of 
lime,  with -traditions  and  corruptions,  making 
a  mass  of  ceremonial  requirements.  After  the 
captivity,  piety  was  made  to  consist  in  the 
strictest  conformity  to  the  multitudinous  pre- 
cepts of  this  double  and  complicated  code. 

The  office  of  the  scribes  was  not  only  to  pre- 
pare copies  of  the  sacred  records,  but  also  dis- 
courses for  those  who  were  gathered  in  the  syna- 
gogues. In  the  time  of  Christ  the  scribes  were 
also  jurists,  judges,  and  public  instructors.  They 
met  together  ror  the  discussion  of  legal  ques- 
tions, but  their  decisions  were  required  to  be 
confirmed  by  the  Sanhedrim  Their  places  of 
meeting    for    teaching    the    law   were    called 

"  houses  of  assembly,"  or  "  houses  of  the  rabbis." 
One  of  these  was  in  the  temple,  where  Jesus, 
when  a  hoy  of  but  twelve  years  of  age,  awakened 
so  much  Interest  by  his  knowledge  and  his 
questionings  and  answers.  A  scribe  was  ad- 
dressed as  Rabbi,  or  Master.  The  scribes  usually 
performed  (heir  duties  without  pecuniary  gain, 
giving  themselves  lo  some  useful  calling  in 
order  to  personal  support.  Great  deference  was 
paid  them,  and  they  both  sought  and  received 
salutations  in  the  market-places  and  distin- 
guished seats  of  honor  at  feasts  and  synagogues. 
hi  the  time  of  our  Lord,  the  methods  by  which 
they  aimed  bo  impress  (lie  people,  and  the  per- 
versions and  absurdities  which  they  indulged 
in  with  regard  to  the  law,  gave  rise  to  strong 
denunciations  on  the  part  of  Mesas. 

The  outward  form  was  to  them  more  than  the 
inwardspirit.  Their  teaching  was  more  a  recall- 
ing of  the  words  of  their  predecessors,  "the 
traditions  of  the  elders,"  than  an  effort  to  reach 
the  true  inwardness  of  the  law,  by  this  means 
placing  the  expositor  of  the  law  on  a  higher 
plane  than  the  law  itself;  which  led  to  the  state- 
ment of  Matthew,  that  Jesus  "spoke  as  one 
having  authority  and  not  as  the  scribes";  he 
had  compassion  on  the  multitude  and  taught 
independently  of  the  traditions  of  the  fathers. 
Although  their  character  as  a  class  was  possibly 
one  of  unconscious  hypocrisy,  yet  it  is  fair  to 
say  that  some  among  them  were  wise  in  matters 
of  Christ's  kingdom.  They  represented  that 
Avhich  was  best,  as  well  as  that  which  was 
worst,  in  Judaism. 

Pharisees.-— Mention  has  been  made  of  the 
written  law  and  the  oral  code,  and  the  part 
which  the  scribes  had  taken  in  making  the  lat- 
ter known  and  its  precepts  observed.  But  many 
of  the  Jews  set  aside  the  oral  code,  because  they 
regarded  the  regulations  of  the  written  law  as 
being  sufficient  for  their  guidance.  The  larger 
number,  however,  held  also  to  the  traditional 
law,  or  oral  code. 

The  word  Pharisee  is  derived  from  the  Hebrew 
word  meaning  to  separate,  and  this  title  was 
given  to  the  Pharisees  because  of  their  superior 
strictness  in  adhering  to  the  law.  They  held 
themselves  apart  from  all  Gentile  contact,  ob- 
served the  most  minute  injunctions  of  the  oral 
law,  professed  faith  in  washings  and  vows,  and 
were  intolerant  of  those  who  differed  from 
them.  They  formed  a  large  class,  including 
many  of  the  scribes.  They  were  not  identical 
with  the  scribes,  but  were  rather  a,  class  among 
the  scribes.  So  exact  were  they  in  their  cere- 
monial requirements  that  the  ordinary  Jew 
was  to  the  Pharisee  an  unclean  being,  no  better 
than  a  heathen.  They  were  sanctimonious  in 
manner,  and  hypocritical  in  character,  trans- 
forming religion  into  the  mere  outward  observ- 
ance of  acts  and  ceremonies. 

They  were  ready  for  a  Messiah  of  their  own 
order,  but  not  for  the  one  who  came.  It  is  not, 
therefore,  singular  that  they  hated  Jesus  with  a 
perfect  hatred,  and  were  not  satisfied  until  they 
had  killed  him.  In  doctrine  they  held  to  free- 
dom of  the  will  and  also  predestination,  the  im- 
mortality of  the  soul,  the  resurrection  of  the 
body,  and  the  existence  of  angels  and  spirits. 
The  teachings  of  Jesus  were  in  large  degree 
contrary  to  theirs,  and  his  unmasking  of  them 
severe  in  character,  and  his  charges  of  hypocrisy 
were  unqualified. 

They  were  spiritually  proud,  and  in  great  part 
without  moral  excellence.  Their  estimate  of  the 
common  people  is  very  well  indicated  in  our 
Liord's  parable  of  the  Pharisee  and  (he  Publican. 
Vet  there  were  notable  exceptions.  Some  of  the 
best  names  in  Jewish  literature  are  those  of 
Pharisees,  and  they  really  had  within  their 
number  much  that  was  best  and  bravest  in 
Israel.  They  contended  for  liberty  of  con- 
science in  worshiping  God,  and  so  thoroughly 
devoted  were  they  to  the  observance  of  the  law 


tbat  they  would  submit  to  butchery  by  their 
enemies  rather  than  violate  any  of  its  precepts. 
The  distinction  between  the  Pharisees  and 
the  Sadducees  was  not  so  much  religious  as 
political.  The  Pharisees  were  really  the  party 
of  the  people,  while  the  Sadducees  were  the 
party  of  the  aristocracy.  In  number  the  Phari- 
sees did  not  exceed  about  six  thousand. 

Sadducees.— Effort  has  been  made  to  trace 
the  history  of  the  Sadducees  back  to  an  earlier 
time  than  the  facts  would  seem  to  warrant. 
The  essential  principle  of  the  Sadducees  was  to 
observe  the  simple  letter  of  the  law,  whatever 
the  consequences  might  be.  Primarily,  they 
did  not  absolutely  deny  the  doctrine  of  the 
resurrection  as  promulgated  by  the  Pharisees, 
but  only  that  the  resurrection  could  be  proved 
from  the  law.  Yet  between  this  and  the  direct 
denial  of  the  doctrine  there  was  but  a  step. 
They  believed  that  earthly  recompense  and 
happiness,  with  long  life  and  numerous  de- 
scendants, constituted  the  only  immortality. 

It  seems  entirely  clear  that  the  origin  of  the 
Sadducees  was  simply  in  a  negation  of  the  views 
held  by  the  Pharisees.  While  the  latter  added  to 
the  law,  the  Sadducees  would  stand  upon  its  bare 
letter,  and  would  not  be  over-righteous.  While 
the  Pharisees  represented  the  better  class  among 
the  Jews  with  regard  to  learning,  the  Sadducees 
were  representatives  of  the  priestly  families  of 
the  aristocracy;  hence  the  latter  had  more  con- 
trol than  the  Pharisees  in  the  services  of  the 
temple,  although  they  were  less  in  numbers. 

The  principles  of  the  Sadducees  were  as  secu- 
lar as  those  of  the  Pharisees  were  religious. 
They  held  many  of  the  important  offices,  as 
high  priests,  priests,  and  judges.  They  allowed 
themselves  a  great  deal  of  latitude  with  regard 
to  the  pleasures  of  the  table  and  the  luxuries  of 
the  court.  By  the  people  generally  they  were 
regarded  as  possessing  hereditary  nobility  and 
as  entitled  to  class  privileges.  As  a  rule,  they 
were  proud  and  arrogant.  Necessarily  they  were 
sharply  opposed  to  Jesus,  whom  they  hated  as 
a  fanatic.  So  far  as  known,  not  one  of  them 
accepted  the  Christian  religion,  yet  with  a  single 
exception  they  were  not  the  subjects  of  severe 
denunciation  by  Jesus,  as  were  the  Pharisees 
and  scribes.  They  rapidly  disappeared  from 
history  after  the  first  century. 

Zealots.— The  Zealots  formed  the  nationalistic 
party  of  the  Jews,  deriving  their  name  from  their 
intense  zeal  for  the  law.  The  people  were  ranged 
either  with  or  against  them.  They  refused 
to  call  any  human  being  absolute  lord,  reserv- 
ing that  title  for  God  alone.  The  Zealots  arose 
in  Galilee  in  the  early  days  of  Herod,  and 
during  his  reign  he  endeavored  by  every  possi- 
ble means  to  suppress  them.  They  were  not 
destroyed,  however,  but  only  held  in  check. 
Their  original  leader  was  Judas  the  Galilean  or 
Gaulanite,  who  was  associated  with  a  Pharisee 
named  Saduc.  They  were  most  naturally  allied 
to  the  Pharisees,  from  whose  ranks  they  were 
chiefly  recruited.  They  refused  to  pay  tribute 
to  foreign  governments,  holding  that  Jehovah 
alone,  as  Supreme  Ruler,  was  entitled  to  tribute. 

They  organized  armed  resistance  against  the 
taxation  of  Israel,  and  made  open  rebellion 
against  Rome.  The  center  of  their  influence 
was  not  so  much  in  Judea  or  Jerusalem  as  in 
Galilee;  but  Rome  had  strong  friends  among 
those  who  were  considered  the  better  portion  of 
the  community,  including  persons  of  high  rank 
among  the  priesthood  and  aristocracy  and  lead- 
ing business  men  who  were  satisfied  with  for- 
eign rule  because  of  the  personal  advantages 
gained  therefrom.  They  expected  an  earthly 
Messiah  who  would  restore  the  kingdom  of 
Israel.  This  question  came  to  our  Lord  at 
an  early  period  in  his  life,  but  before  he  began 
his  public  work  his  separation  from  such  possi- 
ble associations  was  made  clear.  If  he  had 
y ielded  to  the  pressure  of  the  Zealots,  and  identi- 

fied himself  in  any  degree  with  this  nationalist 
party,  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  would  have  met 
the  fate  of  Judas  the  Galilean.  Simon,  a  disciple 
of  Jesus,  was  at  one  time  a  Zealot.  The  movement 
of  rebellion  against  Rome  was  an  ill-starred  one, 
however;  the  destruction  of  the  leaders  was  fol- 
lowed by  a  war  that  broke  out  in  the  years  6  and 
7  A.D.,  when  the  Zealots  were  exterminated. 

Essenes.— The  origin  and  many  things  con- 
nected with  the  Essenes  are  involved  in  mys- 
tery. The  earliest  mention  of  them  is  about 
150  B.C.  They  came  into  more  prominent  no- 
tice in  the  time  of  our  Lord's  ministry  upon 
earth.  The  word  Essene  has  been  variously 
interpreted  as  healer,  teacher,  and  baptist.  Con- 
trasted with  the  Pharisees,  the  Essenes  were  not 
a  party,  but  a  communistic  religious  order. 
Their  dread  of  any  unclean ness  was  so  exagger- 
ated that  social  intercourse  between  them  and 
others  became  almost  impossible.  Retiring 
from  the  towns  and  villages,  where  it  was  found 
impossible  to  avoid  contamination  from  the 
world  about  them,  they  sought  refuge  in  the 
solitudes  of  Engedi,  on  the  shores  of  the  Dead 
Sea,  where  they  lived  in  isolated  communities. 
They  were  opposed  to  marriage,  and  their  num- 
ber was  increased  for  the  most  part  by  the 
adoption  of  children. 

There  was  absolute  equality  among  them  as 
to  property.  Agriculture  was  their  chief  occu- 
pation. Their  habits  were  simple  and  austere. 
Every  meal  was  regarded  as  sacrificial,  indeed 
the  only  sacrifice  that  they  acknowledged.  No 
trace  of  Messianic  expectation  entered  into  their 
creed.  Practically,  in  great  measure  they  were 
outside  of  Judaism  as  represented  either  by  the 
Pharisees  or  Sadducees.  Their  order  included 
four  degrees,  and  when  one  of  a  higher  stage 
came  into  contact  with  one  of  a  lower,  he  was 
considered  defiled.  A  three  years'  probation 
was  required  of  every  candidate.  At  the  end  of 
the  first  year,  the  novice  was  admitted  to  special 
privileges;  if  during  two  years  he  maintained  a 
satisfactory  course,  he  was  admitted  to  full 
membership  by  an  oath  that  bound  him  to 
conform  to  every  requirement  of  the  organiza- 
tion and  never  to  reveal  its  mysteries. 

In  numbers  they  did  not  at  any  time  exceed 
four  thousand.  In  zeal  for  the  absolute  su- 
premacy of  God,  the  Essenes  went  beyond  the 
Pharisees.  They  believed  that  the  body  per- 
ished after  death,  the  soul  only  being  immortal, 
and  that  between  the  soul  and  the  body  there 
was  no  indissoluble  connection,  the  body  being 
merely  the  temporary  abiding  place  of  the  soul. 
At  death,  the  souls  of  the  wicked  were  punished 
with  eternal  torment,  and  the  souls  of  the  good 
were  transported  to  the  islands  of  the  blessed. 
They  made  offerings  to  the  temple  services, 
although  they  refused  to  enter  the  temple 
itself.  They  rejected  all  images,  even  those 
stamped  on  coins.  They  neither  ate  flesh  nor 
drank  wine.  Their  outer  clothing  consisted 
mainly  of  a  white  linen  garment. 

The  Essenes  are  not  mentioned  in  the  New 
Testament.  They  formed  the  extreme  opposite 
to  the  Zealots,  in  that  they  lived  and  died  for 
themselves  alone,  having  no  interest  in  the 
morals  or  the  government  of  their  country,  and 
holding  strictly  aloof  from  the  struggles  that 
were  in  progress  with  a  view  to  establishing  the 
nationality  of  their  own  people.  Their  history 
ceased  with  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  al- 
though there  are  some  traces  of  them  up  to  the 
fifth  century. 

Books  of  Reference:  For  a  more  thorough 
study  of  this  subject  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  fol- 
lowing works  that  are  generally  accessible:  Eder- 
sheim's  The  Life  and  Times  of  Jesus  the  Messiah: 
Edersheim's  Sketches  of  Jewish  Social  Life  in  the  Lays 
of  Christ;  Stapfer's  Palestine  in  the  Time  of  Christ; 
Seidel's  Jn  the  Times  of  Jesus;  Fairweather's  From 
the  Exile  to  the  Advent;  Smith's  Bible  Dictionary,  una- 
bridged edition. 


the  t\i:ki;n  \<le  and  the  temple. 

By  REV.  CHARLES  H.  H.  WRIGHT,  D.D.,  Ph.D. 

I.  the  mosaic  tabernacle. 

1.  The  Tabernacle  in  General— Outward  Court 
and  Its  Furniture.— The  tabernacle  erected  by 
Moses  in  the  wilderness  is  described  in  Exodus 
26  and  27.  It  was  divided  into  three  main  por- 
tions, the  outer  court,  the  sanctuary,  and  the 
holy  of  holies.  The  outer  court  was  surrounded 
by  fine  twined  linen  screens,  5  cubits  in  height, 
hung  by  silver  hooks  upon  pillars  of  brass  rest- 
ing in  sockets  of  brass.  Of  these  pillars  there 
were  twenty  on  the  southern  side,  twenty  on 
the  northern,  and  ten  on  the  western.  The  east- 
ern side  had  also  ten  pillars.  On  four  of  the  six 
pillars  in  the  center  was  hung  the  screen  of  20 
cubits  of  "blue,  and  purple,  and  scarlet,  and  fine 
twined  linen,"  which  served  the  purpose  of  an 
entrance  gate.  The  six  other  pillars  were  placed 
three  on  either  side,  and  from  them  were  hung 
fixed  screens,  as  on  the  north,  south,  and  west. 
The  space  thus  enclosed  was  100  cubits  by  50,  or 
in  round  numbers  150  feet  by  75. 

In  the  outer  court,  which  was  accessible  to  all 
the  Israelites,  stood  the  altar  of  burnt-offering, 
square  in  shape,  5  cubits  in  length  and  breadth, 
and  3  in  height  (Ex.  27:  1-8).  It  was  made  of 
acacia  wood,  covered  with  brass.  The  laver  of 
brass,  with  its  pedestal  of  brass,  placed  between 
the  tabernacle  and  the  altar,  is  most  minutely 
described  in  Exodus  30:  17-21.  This  outer  court 
was  a  perfect  square  (50  cubits  by  50),  occupying 
exactly  half  of  the  space  of  the  whole  enclosure. 

2.  The  Tabernacle  Proper,  Its  Construction 
and  Coverings.— Inside  the  enclosure,  50  cubits 
from  the  entrance  into  the  outer  court,  towards 
the  western  end,  was  the  tabernacle  proper 
(mishcan),  covered  by  a  large  tent  (ohel)  spread 
"over  it,"  thus  protecting  it  from  sun  and  rain 
(Ex.  26:  7;  36:  11).  The  tabernacle  proper  was 30 
cubits  long,  10  broad,  and  K)  high.  It  was  ex- 
ternally a  parallelogram,  with  an  entrance  on 
the  eastern  side;  its  innermost  shrine,  the  holy 
of  holies,  was  towards  the  west.  The  two  longer 
sides,  the  northern  and  southern,  were  each 
composed  of  twenty  boards  of  shittim  or  acacia 
wood,  overlaid  with  gold,  each  board  being  10 
cubits  in  heightand  \\u  in  breadth.  The  western 
side  was  formed  of  eight  such  boards  (Ex.  20  25), 

two  of  which  formed  the  posts  at  the  angles 
(Ex.  26:  22-24).  On  the  eastern  side  was  the 
entrance,  closed  by  the  curtains  of  "blue,  and 
purple,  and  scarlet,  and  fine  twined  linen,  the 
work  of  the  embroiderer."  This  curtain  was 
suspended  by  golden  hooks  from  five  pillars  of 
acacia  wood,  overlaid  with  gold,  which  rested  in 
sockets  of  brass  (Ex.  26:  36,  37,  R.V.).  The  gen- 
eral structure  will  be  best  understood  from  the 
illustration  above,  drawn  from  the  article  in 
Smith's  Bible  Dictionari/  (vol.  iii.)  on  "The  Tem- 
ple," by  Jas.  Fergusson,  F.  R.  S.,  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects. 

The  ceiling  of  the  tabernacle  was  formed  of 
"ten  curtains;  of  fine  twined  linen,  and  blue,  and 
purple,  and  scarlet,  with  cherubim  the  work  of 
the  cunning  workman."  Each  curtain  was  28 
cubits  long  by  four  broad.  These  curtains  were 
coupled  together,  five  and  five  united  together 
by  fifty  loops  of  blue  and  fifty  clasps  of  gold. 
The  covering  composed  of  these  curtains,  when 
joined  together  (40  cubits  long  by  28  wide),  suf- 
ficed to  cover  the  tabernacle  above,  with  its 
northern  and  southern  sides,  leaving  only  a 
small  space  uncovered  near  the  ground  on  each 

Such  was  the  mishean,  or  tabernacle  proper. 
Over  the  whole  of  this  splendid  structure  an 
outer  tent  was  pitched.  In  order  to  give  the 
fullest  protection  to  the  interior  tabernacle,  the 
outer  tent  had  three  special  coverings.  (1)  The 
first  and  innermost  was  composed  of  eleven 
curtains  of  goats'  hair,  each  curtain  30  cubits 
long  by  4  wide,  sewn  together  so  as  to  form  two 
larger  curtains  of  unequal  size,  one  composed  of 
six,  the  other  of  five,  of  the  smaller  curtains. 
Over  this  goats'  hair  covering  was  further 
thrown  (2)  a  curtain  of  rams'  skins,  with  their 
wool  dyed  red  (Ex.  26:  14).  This  bright  red  cov- 
ering was  that  seen  by  all  Israel.  (3)  The  third 
covering  appears  to  have  been  merely  a  coping 
along  the  ridge,  extending  a  little  way  down  the 
sides,  it  was  composed  of  the  skins  of  some  spe- 
cies of  porpoise  or  dolphin  (Ex.  20:  14).  ("Badgers' 
skins,"  given  by  the  A.Y.,  is  erroneous.) 

3.  The  Holy  Place  and  Its  Furniture.— The 
sanctuary,  or  the  holy  place,  was  20  cubits  long 
by  10  wide,  and  10  cubits  in  height,  the  curtain 



on  the  western  end  dividing  it  from  the  holy  of 
holies.  This  outer  chamber  of  the  tabernacle 
proper  was  accessible  only  to  the  priests.  In  it 
stood  the  altar  of  incense,  the  seven-branched 
candlestick,  and  the  table  of  showbread. 

(1)  The  Altar  of  Incense  was  also  square,  1  cubit 
long  bv  1  cubit  broad,  and  2  cubits  in  height 
(Ex.  80:  1-10).  It  was  formed  of  acacia  wood, 
overlaid  with  pure  gold,  with  horns  of  gold,  and 
a  crown  or  rim  of  gold  round  its  sides,  with 
golden  rings  on  two  sides,  and  staves  overlaid 
with  gold,  by  which  it  could  be  carried.  In- 
cense only  was  burned  thereon. 

(2)  The  Candlestick  was  of  pure  gold,  of  beaten 
work.  It  had  seven  arms,  the  center  one  being 
the  shaft,  formed  on  each  side  of  three  cups  of 
almond  blossoms,  their  knops  and  flowers  (Ex. 
25 :  31-40).  The  lamps,  which  were  placed  on  the 
tops  of  the  seven  branches,  were  separate  from 
the  candlestick  itself,  and  were  supplied  with 

were  formed  of  the  acacia  boards  covered  with 
gold  noticed  before,  its  fourth  side  being  formed 
by  the  curtain,  or  veil,  suspended  from  four 
pillars,  which  veil  screened  off  the  most  holy 
from  the  holy  place.  Into  the  holy  of  holies  no 
one  was  permitted  to  enter  except  the  high 
priest  on  the  annual  day  of  atonement,  de- 
scribed in  Lev.  16. 

The  sole  furniture  of  the  holy  of  holies  con- 
sisted of  the  ark  of  the  covenant.  The  latter 
was  an  oblong  chest  made  of  acacia  wood,  over- 
laid within  and  without  with  gold.  Its  dimen- 
sions were  2%  cubits  long  by  V/2  in  breadth  and 
depth.  Its  lid,  termed  "the  mercy-seat,"  was 
also  overlaid  with  gold,  with  a  golden  rim,  or 
crown,  round  it;  out  of  the  same  piece  of  beaten 
gold  were  formed  two  cherubim,  one  cherub  at 
the  one  end  and  one  cherub  at  the  other  end  of 
the  lid.  These  cherubim  spread  out  their  wings 
on  high,  covering  the  mercy-seat  with  them, 




o       o       o       o       o       o 
100  Cubits,  or  150  Feet. 

Veranda,  or  Porch,  5  Cubits. 

6      ■ 


c8    .  . 





i i 




ww ' 


i i 

W     ■ 

Veranda,  or  Porch,  5  Cubits. 




u  £  fe 



















100  Cubits,  or  150  Feet. 

o       o       o       o       o       o 

I.  Outer  Court,  50x50. 


a.  Altar  of  Incense,    b.  Table  of  Showbread.    c.  Candlestick.    (A  cubit  is  1%  feet.) 

oil  from  oil  vessels  which  are  not  specially  de- 
scribed. The  height  of  the  candlestick  is  not 
mentioned.  Its  lamps  were  lighted  and  trim- 
med daily  by  the  priests,  and  kept  constantly 
burning  (Ex.  27:  20,  21). 

(3)  The  Table  of  Showbread  was  also  of  acacia 
wood,  overlaid  with  pure  gold — 2  cubits  in  length, 
1  in  breadth,  and  1%  in  height.  It  also  had  a 
crown  or  rim  of  gold  round  it,  and  staves  over- 
laid with  gold  to  carry  it  with,  which  were  placed 
in  four  golden  rings  (Ex.  25:  23-30).  The  table 
was  also  provided  with  dishes  and  spoons  for 
the  frankincense  (Lev.  24:  7),  also  with  flagons 
and  bowls,  probably  for  wine.  On  this  table 
were  every  week  placed  twelve  loaves  of  bread 
to  represent  the  twelve  tribes,  arranged  in  two 
rows  of  six  loaves  each.  The  loaves  which  were 
removed  were  eaten  by  the  priests  in  the  holy 

4.  The  Holy  of  Holies  and  the  Ark  of  the  Cov- 
enant.—The  holy  of  holies,  or  most  holy  place, 
was  in  the  Mosaic  tabernacle  completely  dark. 
It  was  10  cubits  long  by  10  in  width,  and  10  in 
height,  being  a  perfect  cube.    Three  of  its  sides 

their  faces  being  towards  one  another,  but  their 
countenances  directed  as  if  looking  down  upon 
the  mercy-seat  (Ex.  37:  1-9).  Above  these  cher- 
ubim the  glory  of  God  appeared;  hence  the  Lord 
is  often  represented  as  throned  between  the 

On  the  sides  of  the  ark  were  placed  four  golden 
rings,  through  which  staves  of  acacia  wood,  over- 
laid with  gold,  were  placed,  so  that  the  ark 
could  be  carried  thereby.  In  the  journeys  of 
the  children  of  Israel  the  ark  was  borne  by  the 
sons  of  Kohath. 

Inside  the  ark  were  the  two  tables  of  stone, 
termed  "the  testimony,"  on  which  were  the  ten 
commandments,  written  with  the  linger  of  God. 
It  is  expressly  stated  that  when  the  ark  was 
brought  into  the  temple  of  Solomon  it  con- 
tained nothing  else  (I.  Ki.  8:  9).  The  pot  of 
manna  (Ex.  16:  33)  and  Aaron's  rod  that  budded 
(Num.  17:  10)  were  laid  up  "before  the  testi- 
mony," but  were  not  placed  inside  the  ark. 

5.  The  Priests. —The  services  of  the  tabernacle 
were  performed  by  the  high  priest,  the  priests, 
and  the  Levites. 



Among  the  services  performed  by  the  high 
priest  alone,  the  most  important  was  the  en- 
trance once  a  year,  on  the  day  of  atonement, 
into  the  holy  of  holies  to  sprinkle  the  blood  for 
himself  and  for  the  people  upon  the  mercy -seat. 
The  duties  to  be  discharged  by  each  of  the  three 
orders  (the  high  priest,  priests,  and  Levites)  are, 
in  a  number  of  cases,  specially  defined  in  the 
Pentateuch ;  but  in  a  very  large  n  umber  of  cases 
they  must  have  been  regulated,  by  later  au- 

The  attire  of  the  high  priest  was  elaborate, 
and  is  minutely  described  in  Ex.  28  and  29.  The 
dress  of  the  other  priests  was  plainer,  and  is  not 
so  fully  described. 

6 .  The  Symbolical  Meaning  of  the  Tabernacle 
and  Its  Services.— Inasmuch  as  the  tabernacle, 
its  furniture,  and  the  various  colors  appertain- 
ing thereto  were  all  formed  "after  the  pattern 
showed  ...  in  the  mount,"  they  have  always  been 
understood  as  symbolical.  The  Epistle  to  the 
Hebrews  reveals  the  meaning  of  a  portion  of 
these  symbols,  seen  in  the  light  of  the  New 
Testament  dispensation.  Such  an  interpreta- 
tion was,  however,  wholly  beyond  the  ken  of 
the  most  spiritual  worshipers  in  Old  Testa- 
ment days.  Hence  many  theories  have  been 
put  forward  in  ancient  and  modern  times  as  to 
what  was  understood  in  olden  times  to  be  sym- 
bolized thereby.  In  general  it  may  perhaps  be 
safe  to  affirm  that  the  holy  of  holies  represented 
"the  thick  darkness  where  God  is,"  "dwelling 
in  the  light  which  no  one  can  approach  to," 
throned  above  all  created  beings,  which  are 
represented  in  their  highest  form  by  the  cheru- 
bim. Hence  the  holiest  of  all  was  left  in  total 
darkness,  untrodden,  save  once  a  year,  by  mor- 
tal feet.  It  was  most  suitable  that  it  should 
contain,  in  the  ark,  that  law  by  which  God  had 
manifested  himself  to  men,  and  which  was  a 
silent  testimony  that  he,  though  unseen,  was 
Ruler  over  men.  It  was  also  most  fitting  that 
on  the  lid  of  the  ark,  termed  the  "mercy-seat," 
and  "the  lid  of  expiation,"  the  blood  should  be 
sprinkled,  shed  to  make  typical  atonement  for 
the  sins  of  Israel.  The  nature  of  the  true  atone- 
ment and  propitiation  could  not  be  revealed  to 
man  until  the  day  of  Calvary. 

The  priests,  as  the  representatives  of  Israel, 
performed  the  daily  and  other  sacrifices  by 
which  reconciliation  was  made  for  sin. 

In  all  the  sacrifices  performed  in  the  taber- 
nacle, the  intervention  and  mediation  of  the 
officiating  priests  were  required,  under  the  law 
of  Moses.  The  tribe  of  Levi  was  chosen  as  the 
priestly  tribe.  The  Bible  student  may  profitably 
consult  on  such  subjects  Dr.  Edersheim's  popu- 
lar and  useful  work  on  The  Temple. 

7.  The  History  of  the  Mosaic  Tabernacle  and 
Ark.— The  tabernacle  accompanied  the  Israelites 
from  place  to  place  in  their  wanderings  until 
they  entered  the  land  of  Canaan,  when  it  was 
finally  set  up  at  Shiloh  (Josh.  18:  1).  There  it 
appears  to  have  remained  until  the  days  of 
Samuel.  Shiloh  was  destroyed,  in  the  troubles 
of  that  day,  probably  after  the  battle  in  which 
the  Philistines  obtained  possession  of  the  ark 
(I.  Sain.  4).  The  ark  was  never  restored  again 
to  its  place  in  the  tabernacle.  According  to 
the  chronicler,  David,  while  making  arrange- 
ments for  the  temple  to  be  erected  by  Solo- 
mon, provided  for  the  preservation  of  the  tah- 
ernacie as  a  sacred  relic  of  the  past  (I.  Chr.  23: 

The  ark,  when  brought  back  to  Beth-shemesh 
from  the  country  of  the  Philistines,  was  located 
for  many  years  at  Kirjath-jearim,  in  the  house 
of  Vbinadab  and  in  the  house  of  Obed-edom  the 
< •\i lite  (11.  Sam.  6:  10).  It  was,  however,  finally 
brought  with  rejoicings  into  the  city  of  David. 
and  placed  in  the  midst  of  the  tent  that  David 
pitched  for  it  ill.  Sam.  (i:  IV;  I.  Chr.  15:  23-28), 
where  it  remained  until  the  erection  of  the 
temple  by  Solomon. 


1.  The  Temple  of  Solomon,  described  in  I.  Ki. 
(I  and  II.  Chr.  3,  4,  was  for  the  most  part  only 
an  enlarged  edition  of  the  Mosaic  tabernacle 
with  the  modifications  necessitated  by  the  re- 
quiremen  ts  of  such  a  splendid  edifice.  The  plan 
of  the  Solomonic  t  em  pie  was,  according  to  the 
chronicler,  handed  over  by  David  to  Solomon. 
That  plan  David  was  "made  to  understand  in 
writing  from  the  hand  of  the  Lord"  (I.  Chr.  28: 
!!»;  see  also  vs.  11, 12  11'.).  That  statement  is  not, 
however,  at  variance  with  the  facts  afterwards 
recorded,  that  ornamental  details  andsubsidiary 
constructions  were  added  by  Solomon  and  the 
Tyrian  artificers  who  assisted  him  in  the  build- 

As  Mr.  Fcrgusson  has  observed,  in  the  article 
already  noticed,  the  arrangements  of  tabernacle 
and  temple  were  identical  in  the  main,  save 
that  the  dimensions  of  the  temple  were  ex- 
actly double.  The  holy  of  holies  in  the  tem- 
ple was  a  cube  of  20  cubits,  instead  of  10,  as  in 
the  tabernacle.  The  holy  place  in  the  temple 
was  similarly  40  cubits  in  length,  instead  of  20. 
The  porch  before  the  temple  was  10  cubits  in 
breadth  (I.  Ki.  6:  3),  as  compared  with  the  open 
veranda,  or  porch,  which  Pergusson  has  proved 
to  have  been  formed  round  the  tabernacle  by 
the  projections  of  the  covering  tent  on  every 

That  eminent  architect  remarks:  " Taking  all 
these  parts  together,  the  ground  plan  of  the 
temple  measured  80  cubits  by  40;  that  of  the 
tabernacle  was  40  by  20  [i.e.,  5  cubits  open  ve- 
randa on  each  side  with  the  10  cubits  width 
of  the  tabernacle  itself] ;  and  what  is  more  strik- 
ing than  even  this,  is  that  though  the  walls 
were  10  cubits  high  in  the  one  and  20  cubits 
in  the  other,  the  whole  height  of  the  tabernacle 
was  15,  that  of  the  tempie  30  cubits;  the  one  roof 
rising  5,  the  other  10  cubits  above  the  height  of 
the  internal  walls.  So  exact,  indeed,  is  this  coin- 
cidence, that  it  not  only  confirms  to  the  fullest 
extent  the  restoration  of  the  tabernacle  which 
has  just  been  explained  [see  the  illustration], 
but  it  is  a  singular  confirmation  of  the  minute 
accuracy  which  characterized  the  writers  of  the 
Pentateuch  and  the  books  of  Kings  and  Chron- 
icles in  this  matter;  for  not  only  are  we  able 
to  check  the  one  by  the  other  at  this  distance 
of  time  with  perfect  certainty,  but,  now  that 
we  know  the.  system  on  which  they  were  con- 
structed, we  might  almost  restore  both  edifices 
from  Josephus'  account  of  the  temple  as  re- 
erected  by  Herod." 

There  were  numerous  differences  in  the  details 
of  the  plans,  all  adapted  to  the  changed  condi- 
tions and  enlarged  worship.  It  is  unnecessary 
to  do  more  here  than  allude  to  the  pillars  Jachin 
and  Boaz,  mentioned  in  II.  Chr.  3:  17. 

2.  The  Temple  of  Zerubbabel.  -This  temple, 
erected  on  the  return  of  the  Jews  from  captiv- 
ity (in  B.C.  52Q),  is  roughly  described  in  the  decree 
of  Cyrus  (Ezra  0:  3).  it  was  to  be  sixty  cubits  in 
height,  only  half  as  high  as  the  Solomonic,  but 
much  broader,  being  sixty  in  place  of  the  forty, 
which  was  the  width  of  the  Solomonic.  It 
seems  to  have  been  increased  in  later  times. 
When  originally  erected  it  was  far  inferior  to 
that  of  Solomon,  and  the  signs  of  the  inferiority 
were  no  doubt  visible  from  the  very  beginning; 
for  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  exiles  were  able 
to  attempt  the  erection  of  so  large  a  building  as 
(hat  originally  contemplated  in  Cyrus'  decree. 
ilence  the  account  in  Ezra  3:  12,  13  is  quite 

It  is,  however,  important  to  note  that  in  this 
second  temple  the  high-priestly  breastplate,  with 
its  Urim  and  Thummim,  was  no  longer  in  ex- 
istence (Neh.  7:  65).  The  ark  of  the  covenant, 
too,  was  no  longer  with  Israel.  It  is  quite  prob- 
able that  the  Talmud  preserves  a  true  reminis- 
cence (Joma  5:  2),  where  it  says  that  its  place  was 


taken  by  a  stone,  probably  one  of  the  found a- 
tion  stones  of  the  first  temple,  but  which  Mai- 
monides  says  was  that  on  which  the  ark  rested 
in  the  temple,  and  that  on  that  stone,  which 
rose  about  three  fingers'  breadth  above  the  level 
of  the  pavement,  the  blood  of  atonement  was 
sprinkled,  and  the  censer  of  burning  mcense 
was  placed  on  the  day  of  atonement.  (See  my 
Bampton  Lectures  on  Zechariah,  p.  71.) 

In  the  temple  of  Zerubbabel  there  appears  to 
have  been  only  one  seven-branched  candlestick 
in  the  holy  place  (I.  Mace.  1:  21;  4:  49,  50;  Jose- 
phus'  Antiq.,  xiv.,  4,  4).  Though  similar  inform 
to  that  in  the  tabernacle  of  Moses,  it  could  not 
have  been  identical  in  ornamentation,  for  the 
griffins  on  its  pedestal,  which  appear  on  the 
triumphal  arch  of  Titus,  are  suggestive  of  a 
foreign  origin.  In  all  other  particulars  the 
furniture  of  the  holy  place  appears  to  have 
been  like  that  in  the  tabernacle. 

3.  The  Temple  of  Herod— This  temple  was 
in  the  main  a  restoration,  with  greater  mag- 
nificence, of  the  temple  of  Zerubbabel,  the 
main  portion  of  that  erection  being  incorpo- 
rated with  Herod's  temple.  The  magnificence 
of  the  latter  is  spoken  of  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment, and  the  forty  and  six  years  it  was  in 
building.  But  no  details  are  there  given  of 
its  dimensions  or  its  chambers.  Josephus' 
writings,  witb  a  few  notices  in  the  Talmud,  are 
the  sources  from  which  all  our  information  is 
derived.  Modern  excavation,  however,  has 
made  it  possible,  with  those  helps,  to  give  a  tol- 
erably accurate  account  of  the  ground  plan  (see 
that  by  Major  Conder,  R.E.,  annexed  to  this 
work).  For  our  present  purpose  it  is  sufficient 
to  note  that  Herod's  temple  had  its  holy  place 
duly  furnished  like  the  temple  of  Zerubbabel, 
its  holy  of  holies  separated  from  the  former  by 

the  veil,  and  empty,  as  before  described.  Its 
courts  were  partially  overshadowed  by  the 
Roman  fortress  of  Antonia.  One  of  the  most 
interesting  discoveries  of  modern  excavations  is 
that  of  Ganneau.1 


The  visions  of  Ezekiel  in  reference  to  the  res- 
toration of  Israel,  the  re-settlement  of  the  Holy 
Land,  and  the  building  of  the  temple  (chs.  40-48), 
are  to  a  considerable  extent  of  an  apocalyptic 
character.  It  may  be  wrong  to  describe  the 
whole  as  "nothing  but  a  gigantic  allegory,"  for 
in  that  case  it  would  be  requisite  to  point  out 
the  symbolical  significance  of  at  least  the  ma- 
jority of  the  details,  which  cannot  be  done.  But 
it  is  equally  clear  that  the  vision  of  the  temple 
was  not  intended  to  be  taken  literally.  It  was 
an  ideal  representation,  in  which  the  prophet, 
who  "looked  for  redemption  in  Israel,"  and  the 
nation  to  whom  he  belonged  were  taught 
through  well-known  symbols  to  look  forward 
to  something  grander  and  nobler  than  even 
that  displayed  to  the  eye,  in  those  "visions  of 

Books  of  Reference:  Ederslieim's  The  Temple: 
Its  Ministry  and  Services;  Atwater's  Sacred  Tabernacle; 
Randall's  The  Wonderfid  Tent;  Strong's  The  Taber- 
nacle of  Israel  in  the  Wilderness;  Bodgers'  Gospel  Ac- 
cording to  Moses,  as  Seen  in  the  Tabernacle  and  The 
Jewish  Temple:  Its  Typical  and  Spiritual  Teachings. 

i  Ganneau  found  a  stone  at  the  temple  site,  with 
this  Greek  inscription:  "  No  stranger  must  enter  with- 
in the  balustrade  round  the  temple  and  enclosure. 
Whoever  is  caught  will  he  responsible  for  his  own 
death. " — Fausset. 



By  KEY.  GEORGE  ADAM  SMITH,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Hebrew  and  Old  Testament 
Exegesis,  Free  Church  College,  Glasgow. 

Messiah.— The  name  Messiah  (from  which 
Messianic  comes)  is  Hebrew.  A  Verbal  adjec- 
tive, mashiah  (anointed),  takes  the  form  meshiah 
in  the  genitive  combination,  "the  anointed  of 
Jehovah.'"  The  Chaldee  is  Meshiha;  the  Greek  is 
Messias  (John  1:  41).  In  the  LXX.  the  word  is 
always  rendered  Christos  or  Christ,  which  in 
the  New  Testament  and  in  Christian  theology 
takes  the  place  of  Meshiah  as  the  title  of  Jesus. 

In  the  Old  Testament,  messiah  or  anointed  is 
used  of  many  agents  of  God— of  the  high  priest 
(Lev.  4:  3);  of  prophets  (Ps.  105: 15);  of  Cyrus,  the 
foreign  deliverer  whom  God  raised  up  for  his 
people  (Isa.  45:  1).  But  it  is  mostly  kept  for 
God's  king— actual  (I.  Sam.  24:  (3)  or  expected 
(Dan.  9:  25).  So  in  Jewish  theology  it  became 
the  technical  term  for  that  King  and  Captain  of 
salvation  whose  coming  the  prophets  had  fore- 
told and  all  devout  Israel  expected.  The  Mes- 
sianic prophecies  are,  therefore,  in  the  first 
instance  the  prophecies  whose  subject  is  this 
King.  But  as  he  was  the  inaugurator  and  center 
of  a  blessed  future  for  Israel  and  the  world,  the 
term  Messianic  is  often  used  in  a  larger  sense  to 
denote  both  all  prophecies  which  foretell  this 
future,  whether  they  expressly  speak  of  the 
King  or  not,  and  all  the  institutions  of  Israel 
which  in  any  way  foreshadow  its  conditions,  as, 
e.g.,  the  covenant,  the  kingdom,  the  theocracy, 
prophecy,  priesthood,  sacrifice.  Thus,  in  a  sense, 
all  the  contents  of  the  Old  Testament  are  Mes- 
sianic; as  a  whole,  it  foretells  or  leads  to  Christ. 
This  was  the  view  of  Jesus  himself,  and  it  was 
the  doctrine  of  the  apostles.    It  is  unnecessary 

to  recall  now  how  often  he  said  that  the  Scrip- 
tures of  the  Old  Testament  testify  of  him.  Paul 
puts  it  summarily  when  he  writes  that  all  God's 
promises  are  yea  and  amen  in  Christ  Jesus  (II, 
Cor.  1:20). 

Two  Lines  of  Prophecy.— After  thus  indicat- 
ing the  full  sweep  of  Messianic  prophecy,  it  will 
be  sufficient  for  us  to  follow  its  two  main  lines, 
which,  although  they  are  not  merged  in  the  Old 
Testament,  do  meet  in  Jesus  Christ  as  Son  of 
Mary  and  yet  Son  of  God.  Along  one  of  these 
lines  of  prophecy  the  Messiah,  the  human  de- 
liverer, is  the  hero ;  the  salvation  of  Israel  and 
the  conquest  of  the  world  for  God  depend  on  his 
coming  and  victory-  But  along  the  other  line 
of  prophecy  it  is  God  himself  for  whom  the  peo- 
ple are  bidden  to  look ;  salvation  is  emphasized 
as  dependent  on  his  unaided  efforts  and  power, 
and  in  the  glory  of  his  visible  appearance  and 
habitation  among  men  the  figure  of  the  human 
deliverer  seems  for  the  time  to  be  lost.  These 
two  lines  of  hope  run  side  by  side ;  they  are  not 
the  work  of  different  prophets;  they  sometimes 
appear  in  the  same  books  and  in  contiguous 
chapters ;  nay,  they  shine  into  each  other  from 
neighboring  verses.  It  is  the  same  prophet  who 
has  treated  them  both  most  brilliantly  (cf.  Isa. 
9:  1-7  with  Isa.  33:  21,  22).  But  it  will  be  easiest 
for  us  to  treat  them  separately. 


Early  Prophecies.— The  Old  Testament  finds 
the  roots  of  the  Messianic  prophecy  in  the  very 



beginnings  oi  human  history.  It  not  only  em- 
phasizes the  original  divinityof  man,  created  in 
the  Image  and  after  the  Likeness  of  God  (Gen* 
1:  26,  27),  with  dominion  over  the  rest  of  crea- 
tion (Gen.  2;  Ps.  8):  but  even  when  man  so 
divinely  made  lias  by  sin  unmade  himself,  it 
still  attaches  the  promise  of  deliverance  to 
human  nature— the  seed  of  the  tvoman.  The  im- 
portance of  Gen.  3:  15,  which  has  well  been 
styled  the  protevungellum,  or  earliest  gospel,  is 
twofold;  it  assigns  the  brunt  of  the  struggle 
for  salvation  and  the  sure  victory  to  human 
nature,  and  it  makes  the  work  to  be  done  a 
thoroughly  spiritual  one— the  overcoming  of 
the  tempter  and  the  power  of  sin.  This  vague 
but  firm  promise  was  concentrated,  after  many 
ages,  upon  a  smgle  family  of  men— the  family 
of  Abraham,  to  whom  God  promised  a  posterity 
that  should  be  first  a  great  nation,  and  then  a 
blessing  to  all  other  nations  of  the  earth  (Gen. 
12:  L-3).  Among  the  descendants  of  Abraham 
the  promise  was  further  confined  to  the  children 
of  Israel,  the  son  of  Isaac,  the  son  of  Abraham; 
and  it  is  in  their  literature,  national  institutions, 
and  history  that  the  Messianic  hope  is  elabo- 
rated and  grows  clear.  For  a  long  time  it  is  the 
nation  as  a  whole  that  is  the  object  of  God's 
choice  and  the  instrument  of  his  purposes  of 
grace  towards  the  world.  A  later  prophet, 
Hosea,  looking  back  upon  the  deliverance  from 
Egypt  as  the  time  when  Israel  was  adopted  by 
God,  calls  the  whole  people  God's  son:  "When 
Israel  was  a  child,  then  I  loved  him,  and  called 
my  son  out  of  Egypt"  (Hos.  11:  1);  which  de- 
scription of  the  whole  people  the  evangelist 
Matthew  (Matt.  2:  15)  applies  to  our  Lord.  And 
with  the  exception  of  a  prediction  of  Moses, 
given  in  Deut.  18:  15,  that  God  would  raise  up  a 
prophet  like  unto  Moses  himself  from  "the 
midst  of  thee,  of  thy  brethren,"  we  have  no 
record  that  an  individual  Messiah  stood  clearly 
out  before  Israel's  expectant  gaze  till  the  days 
of  the  kingdom.  Then  the  Messianic  hope  be- 
came concentrated  upon  the  dynasty  of  David 
—David's  seed  and  David's  throne,  it  was  prom- 
ised, should  last  forever.  It  is  impossible  that 
the  people  could  have  entertained  this  vision  of 
David's  perpetual  .power  without  at  the  same 
time  forming  some  vision  of  the  person  in 
whom  it  was  to  be  embodied;  they  could  not 
have  imagined  the  ideal  kingdom  without  also 
imagining  the  ideal  king,— so  that  apart  from 
David's  last  words  (II.  Sam.  23)  and  Ps.  2,  45,  72, 
110,  the  dates  of  which  are  disputed,  we  may 
hold  it  for  certain  that,  even  before  the  days  of 
Isaiah,  Israel  had  been  taught  of  God's  Spirit, 
through  the  institutions  of  its  own  national 
life,  to  entertain  the  hope  of  an  individual 

Isaiah's  Prophecies.— But  it  was  Isaiah  him- 
self to  whom  it  was  given  to  express  this  hope 
with  the  greatest  splendor  and  detail.  He  did 
so  in  two  prophecies— the  prophecy  of  Imman- 
uel's  birth  (lsa.  7:  10  if*.)  and  the  prophecy  of 
the  Prince  of  the  Four  Names  (9:  1-7).  Isaiah 
does  not,  however,  promise  as  yet  that  Imman- 
uel  shall  reign.  After  he  has  come  into  the 
world,  and  before  he  has  arrived  at  years  of 
discretion,  his  land  is  to  be  forsaken  and  devas- 
tated by  Assyrians  (7:  16-25);  he  himself  shall 
be  born  only  to  share  his  people's  poverty— 
"milk  and  honey  shall  he  eat,"  the  sole  fruit  of 
a  land  whose  cultivation  is  wasted  and  of  a 
nation  too  reduced  for  anything  but  herding 
cattle.  This— Isaiah's  first — prospect  of  Iminan- 
uel  is  extremely  interesting  at  so  early  a  stage 
in  the  history.  Isaiah  presents  his  hero  as  a 
sufferer  for  the  sins  of  others;  born  only  to 
sutler  with  his  people,  who  should  have  inher- 
ited their  throne— that  is  Isaiah's  first  doctrine 
of  the  Messiah;  but  yet  in  the  name  there  is 
hope.  In  the  recital  of  all  the  impending  evils, 
Isaiah  utters  it  aloud,  as  if  to  rally  the  people 
to  courage  (8:  8);  and  at  last,  when  the  night 

of  defeat  and  servitude  becomes  darkest,  a  glo- 
rious light  breaks  (9:  J.  2),  and  in  it  the  prophet 
sees  Immanuel  transformed  from  Sufferer  to 
Conqueror  (:):  6,  7).  Scholars  admit  the  iden- 
tity of  Immanuel  with  the  Prince  to  whom  are 
to  be  given  the  Four  Names  of  ch.9:  f>— Wonder- 
ful Counselor,  God-Hero,  Father  Everlasting, 
Prime  of  Peace.  lu  ch.  11  the  Conqueror  in 
eh.  9  is  represented  as  a  great  ruler.  HisDavidic 
origin  is  described  (v.  1),  his  endowment  by 
the  sevenfold  Spirit  of  God  (vs.  2,  3),  his  just 
government  (vs.  4,  5),  and  as  consequences  the 
transformation  of  nature  itself  (vs.  6-9)  and 
the  gathering  of  God's  dispersed  people  (vs. 
10-16).  In  ch.  32:  1-3  a  righteous  rule  and  a  great 
human  influence,  "a  man,"  are  lifted  up  as  the 
introduction  of  a  new  age  of  clear  and  stern 

The  question  arises,  When  did  Isaiah  place 
the  fulfillment  of  these  visions?  Unquestion- 
ably in  the  near  future,  as  is  clear,  especially  in 
the  case  of  Immanuel  (ch.  7),  whose  coming  was 
predicted  by  Isaiah  during  the  month  of  the 
Assyrian  invasion.  That  they  did  not  happen 
at  that  time,  and  that  nevertheless  they  were 
preserved  for  posterity  by  himself  and  the  Old 
Testament  church,  proves  that  it  was  felt  that 
they  had  a  meaning  which  the  history  that  they 
and  their  author  survived  had  neither  ex- 
hausted nor  discredited.  That  meaning  is  the 
certainty  of  the  coming  of  a  Deliverer  from  God 
to  his  people  by  the  ordinary  channel  of  a 
human  birth,  who,  aiter  passing  through  a 
period  of  suffering  consequent  on  his  people's 
sins,  should  prove  their  Saviour,  Ruler,  and 
Quickener  of  all  their  life;  and  his  influence  as 
a  Saviour  is,  of  course,  described  in  terms  in 
which  the  church  of  that  age  could  understand 
it— deliverance  from  the  power  of  Assyria,  and 
the  gifts  of  peace  and  justice.  No  one,  it  may 
be  remarked  in  passing,  can  deny  that  in  this 
moderate  estimate  of  the  prophet's  hope  there 
is  a  wonderful  foreshadowing  of  the  claims  of 
the  work  of  Jesus  750  years  later.  This  the 
evangelists  delight  to  point  out.  Isaiah's  proph- 
ecy of  the  birth  of  Immanuel  Matthew  finds 
fulfilled  in  the  birth  of  Jesus  of  a  virgin  mother 
(Matt.  1:  23).  The  angel's  announcement  to  the 
shepherds  (Luke  2:  11)  is  plainly  an  echo  of 
Isaiah's  announcement  of  the  birth  of  the 
Prince  of  the  Four  Names,  and  emphasizes  at 
the  same  time  the  Davidic  origin  of  the  Messiah : 
"  Unto  you  is  born  this  day,  in  the  city  of  David, 
a  Saviour,  which  is  Christ  the  Lord."  It  is 
singular,  however,  that  none  of  the  four  titles 
of  the  Prince  (lsa.  9:  6)  is  applied  to  Christ  in 
the  New  Testament,  though  in  conformity  with 
two  of  them  he  is  addressed  as  God  (Heb.  1:  8), 
and  called  our  peace  (Eph.  2:  14).  Matt.  3:  16, 17 
and  John  1:  32;  3:  34,  descriptions  of  the  descent 
of  the  Spirit  upon  Jesus,  may  be  compared  with 
lsa.  11:  2,  and  it  is  probably  to  lsa.  11:  1  that 
Paul  alludes  in  Acts  13:  23.  In  other  places,  too, 
Paul  dwrelt  upon  Christ's  "birth  of  the  seed  of 
David."  In  Rev.  22:  16  Jesus  calls  himself  the 
Root  and  Offspring  of  David,  in  undoubted 
allusion  to  lsa.  11:1:  "A  shoot  out  of  the  stem  " 
or  "  root  of  Jesse." 

Later  the  people  were  being  prepared  for  a  new 
ideal  of  the  nation's  and  the  world's  Saviour. 
This  was  given  to  them  in  chs.  40-66  of  the  book 
of  Isaiah.  Therefore  at  first  we  lose  sight  of  the 
personal  Messiah,  the  King;  and  his  functions, 
as  being  God's  representative  in  the  world, 
seem  to  revert  to  the  whole  body  of  the 
people— the  whole  seed  of  Abraham.  As  the 
King  to  come  is  called  "God's  servant"  by 
Jeremiah,  so  the  nation  Israel  are  called  "the 
servant  of  Jehovah,"  "his  chosen,"  "his 
anointed,"  endowed  with  his'  Spirit  to  be  the 
teacher  of  his  law  and  dispenser  of  his  justice 
to  the  Gentiles.  Gradually,  however,  the  ancient 
concentration  is  repeated.  The  radiance  of  the 
Messianic  offices  and  titles  is  drawn  in  from  the 


whole  nation,  which  is  unworthy  of  them,  and 
is  focused  upon  a  select  and  righteous  portion 
who  alone  are  the  true  Israel.  Thus  in  chs.  IS,  49 
the  servant  of  Jehovah,  while  called  Israel,  is 
distinct  from  the  mass  of  the  nation.  But  yet 
another  concentration  takes  place;  for  in  the 
great  prophecy,  chs.  52:  13-53  (possibly  even  in 
chs.  51,  52)  the  servant  of  Jehovah  is  an  individ- 
ual. It  is  true  that  some  scholars  maintain  that 
the  servant  in  chs.  52 :  13-53  is  still  Israel  or  a  part 
of  Israel,  and  in  such  a  view  there  is  nothing 
incompatible  with  belief  in  the  fulfillment  of 
this  great  prophecy  by  Jesus  Christ;  for  he  ful- 
filled other  prophecies  that  originally  referred 
to  the  whole  nation.  But  everything  seems  to 
point  to  chs.  52:  13-53  as  intended  for  the  por- 
trait of  an  individual.  How  different,  however, 
is  this  servant  of  the  Lord  from  Jeremiah's  pic- 
ture of  David,  God's  servant,  and  from  Isaiah's 
early  picture  of  the  Messiah !  Those  were  to  de- 
liver from  temporal  enemies,  to  reign  in  triumph 
and  justice,  to  quicken  God's  people,  and  to 
smite  the  wicked.  But  the  work  of  the  servant 
of  Jehovah  is  much  more  spiritual.  He  is  a 
teacher,  a  prophet;  his  character  is  lowly,  his 
methods  gentle  — "a  bruised  reed  shall  he  not 
break,  and  the  smoking  flax  shall  he  not 
quench."  He  is  to  be  the  conqueror  of  the 
Gentiles  only  through  bringing  them  the  true 
light.  But  in  his  mission  he  is  to  be  "rejected." 
He  is  to  suffer  for  the  truth,  from  the  sin  of  the 
world—"  giving  his  back  to  the  smiters,  his  cheek 
to  the  tormentors,  and  his  face  to  insults  and 
spitting."  Chs.  52:  13-53  explain  the  meaning 
of  the  suffering  of  God's  servant,  which  kings 
are  astonished  at,  and  Israel  itself  at  first  does 
not  appreciate.  The  awakened  conscience  of 
the  people  is  made  to  confess  that  it  is  as 
their  substitute  the  servant  suffers.  "He  was 
wounded  for  our  transgressions,  he  was  bruised 
for  our  iniquities,  and  with  his  stripes  we  are 
healed.  All  we  like  sheep  had  gone  astray,  and 
the  Lord  laid  on  him  the  iniquity  of  us  all." 
This  came  of  the  very  purpose  of  God;  "it 
pleased  the  Lord  to  bruise  him,  so  that  his  soul 
might  offer  a  guilt  offering,  and  that  he  might 
see  a  seed,"  that  is,  have  a  real  spiritual  poster- 
ity, or  following.  Now  all  this  is  indeed  a  differ- 
ent picture  from  the  Messiah  of  the  earlier 
prophets,  so  different  that  the  Jewish  teachers 
maintained  that  two  Messiahs  would  come  from 
God,  the  glorious  Messiah  and  the  suffering- 
Messiah.  Of  this  separation,  however,  the  Old 
Testament  knows  nothing.  In  the  name  "God's 
servant,"  used  both  by  Jeremiah  and  in  Isa.  52 :  13- 
53,  there  is  sufficient  ground  for  identifying  the 
object  of  the  two  kinds  of  prophecy  as  the  same 
Messiah,  and,  moreover,  the  suffering  servant  of 
chs.  52:  13-53  is  designated  for  a  power  and  a 
glory  equal  to  any  ascribed  to  the  king  of  chs.  7 
and  9: 1-8:  "The  pleasure  of  the  Lord  shall  pros- 
per in  his  hand";  "God  shall  divide  him  a 
portion  with  the  great,  and  he  shall  divide  the 
spoil  with  the  strong." 

Jesus  Christ — The  Fulfillment. — Now,  how  was 
all  this  prophecy  of  the  servant  of  the  Lord 
fulfilled  by  Jesus  Christ?  He  read  his  own  com- 
mission from  this  prophecy:  "The  Spirit  of 
the  Lord  is  upon  me  "  (Isa.  61)»  Of  his  healing, 
his  disciples  used  the  words  "Himself  bare  our 
sickness  ";  and  of  his  method  of  work  in  face  of 
opposition,  "Behold  my  servant  ...  he  shall 
not  strive."  The  name  servant  was  on  his 
own  lips  in  presenting  himself:  "Behold  I  am 
among  you  as  one  that  serveth."  And  in  their 
earliest  discourses  the  apostles  style  him  "God's 
Servant  Jesus,"  "Thy  holy  Servant  Jesus  "  (Acts 
3 :  13, 26 ;  4 :  27  -  30,  R.  V.).  Stephen  also  calls  him  the 
"  Righteous  One,"  in  allusion  to  Isa.  53: 11.  Philip 
plainly  interprets  Isa.  52:  13-53  of  him  (Acts  8: 
32  ff.).  It  is,  however,  more  specially  in  his 
sufferings  and  death,  and  in  their  redemptive 
power,  that  Jesus  fulfills  the  prophecy  of  the 
Servant.    It  is  singular  how  the  details  of  the 

ill  treatment  our  Lord  received  from  his  ene- 
mies correspond  with  the  details  of  Isa.  50  and 
5,3— the  rejection  by  men,  by  his  own;  the  shame, 
the  insults,  the  spitting,  the  smiting,  the  wound- 
ing; the  being  led  to  the  slaughter  like  a  sheep 
that  is  dumb;  the  voluntary  giving  away  of 
himself;  the  sentence  of  death,  partly  by  the 
forms  of  law,  partly  by  brutal  tyranny;  the 
death  itself,  ignominious  and  among  felons. 
But  still  more  manifestly  does  the  New  Testa- 
ment claim  for  Christ's  sufferings  the  value 
ascribed  to  the  servant's.  Christ  set  himself  in 
the  same  singularity  of  position,  over  against 
the  whole  people,  which  is  claimed  for  the  serv- 
ant. He  said:  "I  give  my  life  a  ransom  for 
many.  This  is  my  body  broken  for  you.  This 
is  my  blood  shed  for  many  for  the  remission 
of  sins."  When  John  said,  "Behold  the  Lamb 
of  God  which  beareth  the  sins  of  the  world," 
there  is  no  doubt  that  he  referred  to  Isa.  53. 
Peter  develops  this  in  his  First  Epistle,  borrow- 
ing both  the  figures  and  the  very  words  of  Isa. 
53  to  apply  to  Christ.  He  is  "  a  lamb,"  a  patient, 
silent  sufferer;  the  "Righteous  for  the  unright- 
eous," etc.;  "he  did  no  sin,  neither  was  found 
guile  in  his  mouth";  "ye  were  as  sheep  gone 
astray,"  but  "he  himself  hath  borne  our  sins, 
with  whose  stripes  ye  were  healed."  Paul  again 
evidently  quotes  from  Isa.  53  when  he  says,  "He 
hath  made  him  to  be  sin  for  us  who  knew  no 
sin  ";  and  when  Paul  disputed  that  the  Messiah 
"must  suffer,"  or  wrote,  "Messiah  died  for  our 
sins  according  to  the  Scriptures,"  there  can  be 
little  doubt  that  he  had  Isa.  53  in  mind. 

Other  Prophets.— Two  prophecies  contempo- 
rary with  Isaiah  add  some  features  to  his  Mes- 
sianic prospects.  Zech.  9:  9, 10  is  an  elaboration 
of  Isaiah's  Prince  of  Peace;  for  the  "riding  on 
an  ass"  illustrates,  not  so  much  the  Prince's 
humility,  as  that  he  comes  for  peaceful  pur- 
poses. It  is  well  known  how  the  evangelists 
apply  this  prophecy  to  the  triumphal  entry  of 
our  Lord  into  Jerusalem  (Matt.  21:  4).  Mic.  5: 1-5 
also  describes  the  Prince  as  a  Prince  of  Peace,  a 
Shepherd,  but  adds  that  he  will  come  out  of 
Bethlehem-Ephratah,  t h  e  city  of  David.  This  is 
quoted  by  Matthew  (Matt.  2:  6)  and  is  probably 
quoted  in  Eph.  2:  14.  After  Micah,  a  long  series 
of  prophets,  while  brilliantly  illustrating  the 
blessed  future,  are  silent  as  to  the  share  in  it 
of  the  Messiah,  and  it  is  not  till  Jeremiah  that 
we  find  another  prophecy  of  the  Hero's  coming. 
Jeremiah  is  indeed  the  prophet  of  the  new  cov- 
enant ( Jer.  31 :  33),  but  he  also  reaffirms  the  old  one 
with  Abraham  and  David  (33:  26),  and  not  only 
proclaims  the  permanence  of  David's  house  (33: 
17-21),  but  speaks  of  an  individual  Messiah  (30:  9; 
23:5;  33:15).  The  name  "the  Lord  our  right- 
eousness," which  occurs  in  these  passages,  will 
be  found,  upon  a  comparison  of  chs.  23:  6  and 
33:  16,  to  be  the  name,  not  of  the  Messiah,  but  of 
the  people.  Of  these  promises  of  Jeremiah 
Ezekiel  affords  some  fainter  echoes— the  evil 
shepherds  of  the  people  are  to  be  replaced  by 
the  good  Shepherd  (Ezek.  34),  "the  one  Shep- 
herd" (37:  24),  the  name  which  Christ  takes  to 
himself;  and  "God's  servant  David"  is  to  be 
"a  prince  in  the  midst  of  the  people"  (34:  24), 
"their  prince  for  ever"  (37:' 25). 

Psalms.— We  may  here  notice  the  Psalms, 
which  treat  of  the  Messiah  much  in  the  same 
kingly  aspects  and  offices  as  do  the  prophets. 
Ps.  2  is  concerned  with  the  rage  of  the  kings  of 
the  earth  against  the  Lord  and  his  Messiah  or 
Anointed  (v.  2).  It  calls  him  by  divine  decree 
"God's Son,"  a  title  which  we  have  already  seen 
given  to  the  whole  nation;  and  promises  him 
an  universal  kingdom.  This  psalm  primarily 
referred,  doubtless,  to  some  king  of  Israel,  but 
Paul  applies  the  words, "Thou  art  my  Son  "to 
Jesus  (Acts  13:  33);  and  so  does  the  Epistle  to 
the  Hebrews  (5:  5).  Ps.  20  is  a  prayer  for  the 
anointed  of  Jehovah;  Ps.  21  an  exultation  in 
God's  goodness  to  him.     Ps.  45  is  an  ode  ad- 



dressed  to  the  king— which  of  the  actual  kings 
is  uncertain— as  fene  representative  of  the  di- 
vine, invisible  King.  It  is  unlikely  that  the 
Hebrew  original  of  verse  <>  or  verse 7  addresses 
the  king  as  God;  but  this  is  the  meaning  in 
which  the  Greek  version  of  the  Old  Testament 
l  akes  I  he  words,  and  in  which  the  Bpisl  te  to  t  he 
Hebrews  quotes  them  of  Jesus  Christ.  Ps.  72 
celebrates  t  be  righteousness,  and  dominion,  uni- 
versal and  eternal,  of  the  King.  Ps.SH:  lit,  20,  uses 
of  him  Ezekiel's  phrase,  "David  my  servant." 
Ps.  llfrdescribes  the  closeness  of  the  king  to  God, 
who  conquers  for  him  ( v.  1)— a  verse  used  by  3  esus 
in  the  problem  he  put  to  the  Pharisees,  and 
also  applied  to  Jesus  by  Peter  '(Acts  2:  34).  But 
Ps.  110  is  unusual  in  this,  that  it  ascribes  to  the 
king  the  office  also  of  priest— "The  Lord  hath 
sworri,  and  will  not  repent,  Thou  art  a  priest  for 
ever  after  the  order  of  Melehizedek,"  which 
verse  is  used  in  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews  (5:  0) 
as  referring  to  the  high -priesthood  of  Jesus 
( Jhrist.  These  psalms  bear  a,  very  heavy  weight 
of  glory.  What  they  ascribe  to  the  Messiah  is 
not  only  a  share  in  the  world-wide  and  eternal 
government  of  God,  but  the  honor  of  being  the 
visible  representative  of  God  upon  earth.  They 
enlarge  and  illustrate  the  Messianic  predictions 
of  the  prophets,  from  Isaiah  to  Ezekiel. 

Daniel.— The  last  of  the  prophecies  of  a  per- 
sonal Messiah  which  the  Old  Testament  contains 
occurs  in  the  book  of  Daniel.  It  does  not  con- 
tain any  of  the  details  of  those  pictures  of  the 
Messiah  which  we  have  just  been  considering; 
on  the  contrary,  it  is  as  general  as  some  of  the 
very  earliest  in  the  series;  but  it  emphasizes 
two  things,  the  humanity  of  the  Ruler  whom 
God  shall  send  and  the  eternity  of  his  king- 
dom; and  his  humanity  is  denned  in  the  sim- 
ple but  illustrious  phrase  which  Ezekiel  among 
the  prophets  was  the  first  to  use,  and  which 
Jesus  Christ  took  to  himself,— Dan.  7:  13,  14. 

Summary.— We  have  now  exhausted  that  line 
of  prophecy  concerning  the  Messiah  down  which 
the  names  descended  to  Jesus,  and  were  claimed 
by  him,  of  Son  of  man,  Son  of  God,  Immanuel, 
God's  Christ  or  Anointed,  King,  Prince,  Seed 
or  Son  or  Offshoot  or  Branch  of  David,  Shep- 
herd, Prophet,  Priest  for  ever,  Peace,  Servant  of 
God,  Lamb  of  God,  the  Righteous  One,  and  in 
which  his  work  was  foreshadowed  of  delivering 
and  ruling  God's  people,  of  conquering  the  world 
for  God,  and  of  reigning  in  God's  stead,  his  rep- 
resentative with  the  people;  of  establishing 
justice  and  peace;  of  teaching  Israel  and  the 
Gentiles;  of  suffering  for  his  witness  to  God's 
truth;  and  of  bearing  and  expiating  by  suffer- 
ing and  death  his  people's  sins.  There  still 
remain,  however,  along  this  line  of  Messianic 
prophecy  a  few  experiences  which,  though  not 
necessarily  of  the  anointed  King,  as  they  stand 
in  the  Old  Testament,  are  interpreted  of  Christ 
by  the  New.  There  is,  for  instance,  Ps.  16:  10, 
"Thou  wilt  not  leave  my  soul  in  hell;  thou 
Wilt  not  suffer  thine  Ploly  One  to  see  corrup- 
tion »  (cf.  Acts  2:  25  if'.);  and  there  is  Ps.  40:  7, 
"  Lo,  I  come:  in  the  volume  of  the  book  it  is 
written  of  me,  I  delight  to  do  thy  will,  O  my 
God,"  in  which  the  verses  in  front  of  it  are 
applied  to  Jesus  and  to  his  self-sacrifice  in  place 
of  the  sacrifices  of  the  old  dispensation,— in 
Heb.  10. 


God  a  Loving  Saviour.— The  second  main  line 
which  is  followed  by  Old  Testament  prophecies 
of  the  blessed  future,  is  that  which  travels  to- 
wards the  visible  appearance  on  earth  of  God, 
himself  and  alone— either  undertaking  his  peo- 
ple's salvation  from  their  enemies  or  reigning 
over  them.  Such,  for  instance,  are  the  innu- 
merable passages  which  lay  all  t  he  people's  sal  va- 
tioii  Upon  God,  and  the  ascriptions  to  him  like 
"The  Lord  our  Righteousness  "  (Jer.  33: 16);  such 
are  lurid  visions  of  the  day  when  God  shall 

conic  to  judgment,  in  clouds  and  tire,  smoke 
and  awful  convulsions  (Joel  2,  3;  Isa.  30:  27,  etc.); 
or  the  calm  pictures  of  his  rule  (Tsa.  33:  21,22);  or 
the  visible  appearance  of  the  Kternal  at  some 
great  crisis  in  his  people's  history,  t  heir  Saviour, 
as  in  Isa.  63,  Where  he  is  pictured  as  a  figure  in 
the  guise  of  a  t  reader  of  the  winepress,  who  has 
come  up  from  treading  the  enemies  of  Israel, 
and  their  lifeblood  stains  his  garments.  With 
these  manifestations  of  God,  or theophanies,  as 
they  are  called,  we  may  take  the  large  number 
of  passages  in  tne  Old  Testament  which  attribute 
to  God  passion  and  effort  of  every  kind  for  his 
people's  sake,  and,  in  order  to  make  this  vivid, 
describe  him  in  the  similitude  of  a  human  being 
—as  a  man  of  war,  a  champion,  and  even  in  one 
passage  so  full  of  palpitation  and  effort  as  to  be 
compared  to  a  woman  in  iravail  (Isa. -12:  13-17). 
All  these  are  not  to  be  taken  as  t  he  mere  efforts 
of  the  writer's  art  to  make  tiie  unseen  and 
supernatural  vivid  to  the  imagination  of  a  rude 
people.  We  are  to  see  in  them  the  truths  that 
God  makes  his  people's  salvation  his  own  con- 
cern and  effort;  and  that  he  accomplishes  it  not 
in  power  only,  but  in  pain  and  self-sacrifice. 
His  people's  sins  and  sorrows  are  not  only  set  in 
the  light  of  his  countenance,  but  lie  bears  them 
upon  his  heart.  Isa.  40-66  uses  the  same  verb  to 
bear,  meaning  to  bear  with  pain  and  difficulty,  of 
God  and  of  the  servant  of  the  Lord.  His  love  is 
not  only  complacent,  but  sympathetic,  passion- 
ate, self-sacrificing;  in  ail  their  affliction  he  is 
afflicted.  He  pleads  for  their  loyalty;  travails 
for  their  new  birth  and  growth  in  holiness,  is 
long-suffering  and  patient  with  their  willfulness 
and  slowness, 

These  Prophecies  General.— Now,  it  is  very 
evident  that  this  Old  Testament  prophecy  of 
God,  and  of  the  way  he  should  bring  about  the 
blessed  future,  was  as  much  fulfilled  by  Jesus 
Christ  as  was  the  prophecy  of  the  human  Mes- 
siah. He  is,  indeed,  the  Lord  our  righteousness. 
Alone  and  by  himself  has  lie  achieved  the  sal- 
vation of  men,  and  in  his  doing  of  it  he  has  man- 
ifested just  the  purity  and  passion  of  character 
which  the  Old  Testament  prophets  have  attribut- 
ed to  God.  We  cannot,  as  i  n  the  case  of  the  proph- 
ecies of  the  Messiah,  put  our  fingers  on  single 
texts  in  the  New  Testament  which  repeat  single 
texts  in  the  Old  Testament;  but  even  more 
clearly  do  we  see  in  the  whole  consciousness, 
energy,  and  experience  of  Christ,  the  brightness 
of  the  glory,  the  express  image  of  the  person  of 
that  God  who  is  revealed  in  the  Old  Testament 
as  bearing  all  the  sympathy  and  the  strain  of 
his  people's  sin  and  sorrow,  and  achieving  their 
deliverance  only  at  sore  cost  to  himself.  Jesus, 
too,  is  absolute  holiness,  yet  not  far  off'.  He, 
too,  is  righteousness,  militant  at  our  side  and 
with  our  enemies,  bearing  our  sins  in  his  own 
passion ;  forgiving  as  God  alone  can  forgive,  and 
claiming  to  save  as  God  alone  can  save.  The 
disciples  early  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
Jesus  was  the  Messiah,  the  Son  of  the  living 
God;  but  when  he  had  shown  f  hem  all  his  love 
and  proved  the  necessity  of  his  passion,  when 
he  had  overcome  both  sin  and  death  by  strug- 
gling with  both,  it  was  then  that  his  disciple 
called  him  "  my  Lord  and  my  God." 

Conclusion.— Thus  we  arrive  at  the  conclusion 
we  looked  forward  to— that  both  the  great  lines 
of  Old  Testament  prophecy,  that  which  predicts 
a  human  Messiah,  and  that  which  promises  the 
appearance  of  God  at  the  side  of  men  in  sym- 
pathy and  in  strife,  find  their  synthesis  in 
Jesus  Christ;  and  along  one  or  other  of  them 
we  find  ail  the  Messianic  and  divine  titles  and 
offices  which  have  been  attributed  to  him— all 
except  one,  and  that  perhaps  the  most  divine. 

In  the  Old  Testament  all  creative  power,  both 
of  a  physical  and  a  spiritual  kind,  is  attributed 
to  the  Word  of  God  (see  especially  Gen.  1  and 



Isa.  40).  But  other  Old  Testament  writings  take 
us  behind  the  Word  to  the  Wisdom  of  God, 
whom  they  portray,  not  as  a  mere  attribute  of 
the  Eternal,  but  as  a  distinct  personality  by  his 
side,  with  him  from  the  beginning,  sharer  of 
his  throne  and  of  his  work  in  creation  (Job 
28:  12  tr.,  but  especially  Pro  v.  8  and  9).  The  book 
of  Proverbs  also  represents  this  Wisdom  as  the 
revealer  of  God  to  men ;  as  seeking  men  for  God 
in  the  most  urgent  and  sympathetic  way  (Prov. 
1-9,  passim).  These  two  great  ideas  or  visions 
of  the  Word  and  Wisdom  of  God— eternal,  crea- 
tive, converting— the  prologue  to  John's  Gospel 
finds  fulfilled  in  Jesus  Christ.    In  words  that 

almost  actually  repeat  the  terms  used  of  Wisdom 
in  the  book  of  Proverbs,  John  says  that  "in  the 
beginning  was  the  Word,  and  the  Word  was 
with  God,  and  the  Word  was  God.  All  things 
were  made  by  him.  In  him  was  life;  and  the 
life  was  the  light  of  men.  .  .  .  And  the  Word 
became  flesh,  and  dwelt  among  us  (and  we  be- 
held his  glory,  the  glory  as  of  the  only  begotten 
of  the  Father),  full  of  grace  and  truth." 

Books  of  Reference:  Delitzsch's  Messianic  Proph- 
ecies in  their  Historical  Succession;  Gloag's  Messianic 
Prophecy;  Briggs'  Messianic  Prophecy;  Edersheim's 
Prophecy  and  History  in  Relation  to  the  Messiah. 


By  EEV.  WILLIAM  HEBEE  WEIGHT,  M.A.,  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  Rector  of 
St.  George's,  Worthing,  with  the  Editor. 


1: 23.  Inimanuel  the  child  of  a  virgin.  Isa.  7: 14. 
2:   6.  Out  of  Bethlehem  shall  come  a  Governor. 

Mic.  5:2. 
2: 15.  Out  of  Egypt  have  I  called  my  son.    Hos. 

2:  IS.  Massacre  of  Rachel's  children.    Jer.  31: 15. 
3:   3.  Voice  crying  in  the  wilderness.   Isa.  40: 3. 
4:   4.  Man  shall  not  live  by  bread  alone.    Deut, 

4:   6.  He  shall  give  his  angels  charge  over  thee. 

Ps.  91:11. 
4:   7.  Thou  shalt  not  tempt  the  Lord  thy  God. 

Deut.  6:10. 
4:10.  Thou  shalt  worship  the  Lord  thy  God. 

Deut.  6: 13. 
4: 15, 16.  The  dwellers  in  the  land  of  the  shadow 

of  death.    Isa.  9: 1,2. 
5:   3.  Blessed  are  the  poor  in  spirit.    Isa.  61: 1. 
5:   4.  They  that  mourn.    Isa.  61 :  2. 
5:   5.  The  inheritance  of  the  meek.    Ps.  37:11. 
5:   8.  The  pure  in  heart.    Ps.  24:  4. 
5: 21.  Thou  shalt  not  kill.   Ex.  20: 13;  Deut.  5: 17. 
5:  27.  Thou  shalt  not  commit  adultery.     Ex.  20: 

14;  Deut.  5:18. 
5:31.  The  writing  of  divorcement.  Deut.  24:1. 
5 :  33.  Perf  orm  unto  the  Lord  thine  oaths.    Num. 

30:2;  Deut.  23:21. 
5:  34.  Heaven  is  my  throne.    Isa.  66: 1. 
5:  35.  The  city  of  the  great  King.    Ps.  48: 2. 
5: 38.  An  eye  for  an  eye.    Ex.  21:  24;  Lev.  24: 20. 
5: 43.  Love  thy  neighbour.    Lev.  19: 18. 
5: 48.  Be  ye  therefore  perfect.    Deut.  18: 13. 
6:   6.  Enter  into  thy  closet.    Isa.  26:20;  II.  Ki. 

7:22.  Have  we  not  prophesied  in  thy  name? 

Jer.  27:15;  14:14. 
7 :  23.  Workers  of  ini quitv.    Ps.  6 : 8. 
8:   4.  Show  thyself  to  the  priest.    Lev.  13: 49. 
8: 11.  Many  shall  come  from  the  east  and  west. 

Mai.  1:11;  Isa.  59: 19. 
8: 17.  He  bore  our  sicknesses.    Isa.  53:  4. 
9: 13.  I  will  have  mercy,  and  not  sacrifice.  Hos. 

9:36.  Sheep  having  no  shepherd.    Num.  27:17; 

Ezek.  34:5. 
10:35,36.  A  man's  foes  they  of  his  own  house- 
hold.   Mic.  7:6. 
11:   5.  The  blind  shall  see.    Isa.  29: 18. 
11:  5.  The  gospel  preached  to  the  poor.  Isa.  61 : 1. 
11 :  10.  Behold,  I  send  my  messenger.    Mai.  3: 1. 
11: 14.  This  is  Elias,  which  was  for  to  come.  Mai. 

11: 23.  Exalted  to  heaven,  shalt  be  brought  down 

to  hell.    Isa.  14:  13,  15. 
11 :  29.  Ye  shall  find  rest  unto  your  souls.  Jer.  6 :  16. 
12:   4.  David  eating  the  showbread.    &e  I.  Sam. 

12:   7.  Mercy,  and  not  sacrifice.    Hos.  6:  6. 
12: 18-21.  Behold  my  servant.    Isa.  42: 1-4;  41 :  9. 


12: 40.  Jonah  in  the  whale's  belly.    See  Jon.  1: 17; 

13: 14, 15.  By  hearing  ye  shall  hear,  and  shall  not 

understand.    Jer.  6 :  9,  10. 
13: 32.  Birds  lodge  in  the  branches  thereof.  Ezek. 

17:23;  Dan.  4:12. 
13: 35.  I  will  utter  things  kept  secret.    Ps.  78:  2. 
13: 41.  Shall  gather  out  of  his  kingdom  all  things 

that  offend.    Zeph.  1 :  3. 
13:43.  Then  shall  the  righteous  shine  forth.  Dan. 

15:   4.  Honour  thy  father  and  mother.    Ex.  20: 

12;  Deut.  5:16. 
15:   4.  He   that  curseth   father  or  mother.    Ex. 

15 : 8,  9.  This  people  honoureth  me  with  their  lips. 

Isa.  29: 13. 
16:27.  He  shall  reward  every  man  according  to 

his  works.    Ps.  62: 12;  Prov.  24: 12. 
17: 11.  Elias  truly  shall  first  come,  and  restore  all 

things.    Mai.  4 :  5. 
18:16.  In  the  mouth  of  two  or  three  witnesses. 

Deut.  19:15. 
19:   4.  At  the  beginning  he  made  them  male  and 

female.    Gen.  1 :  27. 
19:   5.  The  institution  of  marriage.  See  Gen.  2: 24. 
19:   7.  The  writing  of  divorcement.  #ee  Deut.24 : 1. 
19:18.  Thou  shalt  do  no  murder.    Ex.  20:13-16; 

Deut.  5:17-20. 
19:19.  Honour  thy  father  and  mother.    Ex.  20: 

12;  Deut.  5:16. 
19 :  19.  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbour.    Lev.  19 :  18. 
19: 26.  With  God  all  things  are  possible.  Gen.  18: 

14;  Job  42:  2;  Zech.  8:6. 
21:   5.  Behold,  thy  King  cometh.   Zech.  9:9;  Isa, 

21:   9.  Hosanna  in  the  highest!    Ps.  118: 25. 
21 :  13.  The  house  of  prayer.    Isa.  56 :  7. 
21: 13.  Become  a  den  of  thieves.    Jer.  7: 11. 
21: 15.  The  children's  Hosanna.  See  Ps.  118:  25. 
21 :  16.  Out  of  the  mouth  of  babes.    Ps.  8 : 2. 
21 :  33.  "  My  vineyard. "    Isa.  5 : 1-7. 
21:42.  The  stone  rejected  by  the  builders.    Ps. 

21:44  The  stone  of  stumbling.    Isa,  8: 14, 15. 
22:  24.  The  law  of  the  Levirate.    See  Deut.  25:  5. 
22:32.  God,  not  of  the  dead,  but  of  the  living. 

Ex.  3:6. 
22:37.  Thou  shalt  love  the  Lord  thy  God  with 

all  thy  heart,    Deut.  6 : 5. 
22 :  39.  And  thy  neighbour  as  thyself.   Lev.  19 :  18. 
22: 44.  The  Lord  said  unto  my  Lord.    Ps.  110 : 1. 
23: 38.  Your  house  is  left  unto  you  desolate.   Jer. 

22:5;  12:7. 
23:39.  Blessed  is  he  that  cometh  in  the  name 

of  the  Lord.    Ps.  118:26. 
24:   6.  These  things  must  come  to  pass.   Dan.  2:28. 
24:   7.  Nation  shall  rise  against  nation.  Isa,  19: 2. 
24: 10.  Many  shall  be  offended.  Dan.  11 :  41  (LXX.). 



24:15.  The  abomination  of  desolation.    Dan.  9: 

27;  12: 1J. 
21 :  21.  Great  tribulation.    Dan.  12: 1. 
24:24.  False    prophets    shall    show   great   signs. 

Deut,  13:  L 
21:20.  The  moon  shall  not  give  her  light.    Isa. 

24:  2!).  The  stars  shall  fall  from  heaven.  Isa.  34:  4. 
24:30.  Then   shall   all    the   tribes    of   the   earth 

mourn.     Zech.  12:  12. 
24:30.  The  Son  of  man  coming  in  the  clouds  of 

heaven.    Dan.  7: 13. 
24 :  31.  He  shall  send  his  angeJs  with  a  great  sound 

of  a  trumpet.    Isa.  27: 13. 
24:31.  His  elect  from  the  four  winds,  from  one 

end  of  heaven  to  the  other.    Zech.  2:0; 

Deut.  30 : 4. 
24:  38.  Until  the  day  that  Noah  entered  into  the 

ark.    Gen.  7:  7. 
25:31.  The  Son  of  man  shall  come,  and  all  the 

holy  angels  with  him.    Zech.  14:5. 
25:  46.  The  righteous  into  life  eternal.    Dan.  12:  2. 
26:15.  They    covenanted   with    him    for   thirty 

pieces  of  silver.    Zech.  11:12. 
26:28.  This  is  my  blood  of  the  new  testament. 

Ex.  24:8;  cf.  Zech.  0:11. 
26:  31.  I  will  smite  the  Shepherd.    Zech.  13:  7. 
26:  38.  My  soul  is  exceeding  sorrowful.     Ps.  42:  5. 
26:  64.  Ye  shall  see  the  Son  of  man  sitting  on  the 

right  hand  <  >f  power.  Dan.  7 :  13 ;  Ps.  110 : 1. 
27:   9.  Took  the  thirty  pieces  of  silver.     Zech. 

27:34.  They  gave  him  to  drink  wTine  mingled 

with  gall.    Ps.  69:21. 
27 :  35.  They  parted  my  garments.    Ps.  22 :  18. 
27:39.  They  reviled   him,  wagging  their  heads. 

Ps.  22:7;  109:25. 
27:43.  He  trusted  in  God;  let  him  deliver  him 

now.    Ps.  22:  8. 
27 :  46.  My  God !  my  God !  why  hast  thou  forsaken 

me?    Ps.  22:1. 
27 :  48.  One  . .  .  took  a  sponge,  and  filled  it  with 

vinegar.    Ps.  69:  21. 


1 :   2.  Behold,  I  send  my  messenger.    Mai.  3 : 1. 
1:   3.  The  voice  of  one  crying  in  the  wilderness. 

Isa.  40:3. 
1:  44.  Show  thyself  to  the  priest.    Lev.  13:  49. 
2 :  26.  David  and  the  showbread.    I.  Sam.  21 :  6. 
4:12.  Seeing  they  may  see,  and  not  perceive. 

Isa.  6:9,  10. 
4: 29.  He  putteth  in  the  sickle,  because  the  har- 
vest is  come.    Joel  3: 13. 
4:32.  The  fowls  of  the  air  may  lodge  under  the 

shadow  of  it.    Dan.  4: 12;  Ezek.  17:23. 
6:34.  Sheep  not  having  a  shepherd.    Num.  27: 

17;  Ezek.  34:5. 
7:6,  7.  This  people  honoureth  me  with  their  lips. 

Isa.  29:13. 
7: 10.  Honour  thy  father  and  thy  mother.    Ex. 

20:12;  Deut,  5: 16. 
7: 10.  Whoso  curseth  father  or  mother.  Ex.  21 :  17. 
8: 18.  Having  eyes,  see  ye  not?   Jer.  5: 21;  Ezek. 

9:  12.  Elias  .  .  .  restoreth  all  things.    Mai.  4:5. 
9:  IS.  Where  their  worm  dieth  not.    Isa.  66:  24. 
10:   4.  The  bill  of  divorcement.    See  Deut.  24: 1. 
10:   6.  God  made  them  male  and  female.    Gen. 

10:7,8.  A  man  shall  leave  father  and  mother, 
and  shall  cleave  to  his  wife.    Gen.  2:  24. 
10:19.  Do  not  commit  adultery.     Ex.  20:13-16; 

Deut.  5:17-20. 
10: 19.  Do  not  kill.    Ex.  20: 12;  Deut.  5: 16. 
10:27.  With  God  all  things  are  possible.    Gen. 

18: 14;  Job  42:  2;  Zech.  8:  6  (LXX.). 
11:  9.  Blessed  is  he  that  cometh  in  the  name 

of  the  Lord.    Ps.  118:25,  26. 
11: 17.  The  house  of  prayer.    Isa.  56:  7. 
11: 17.  A  den  of  thieves.    Jer.  7: 11. 
12:   1.  A  certain  man  planted  a  vineyard.    Isa. 


12: 10,  11.  The  stone  which  the  builders  rejected. 
Ps.  118:22,23. 

12: 19.  If  a  man's  brother  die,  .  .  .  and  leave  no 
children.    Deut.  25:5. 

12:  26.  I  am  the  God  of  Abraham.    Ex.  3:  6. 

12:29,  30.  The  Lord  our  God  is  one  Lord.  Deut. 
6:4,  5. 

12:  31.  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself. 
Lev.  19:18. 

12:  32.  There  is  one  God.     Deut.  6:  4. 

12:  32.  And  none  other  but  he.     Deut.  4:  &5. 

12:33.  To  love  him  with  all  the  heart.  Deut.  6:5. 

12: 33.  To  love  his  neighbour  as  himself.  Lev.  19: 

12:33.  Is  more  than  all  whole  burnt  offerings. 
I.Sam.  15:22. 

12:36.  The  Lord  said,  .  .  .  Sit  thou  on  my  right 
hand.     Ps.  110:1. 

13:   7.  Must  needs  be.    Dan.  2:  28. 

13:   8.  Nation  shall  rise  against  nation.  Isa.  19:2. 

13:12.  Children  shall  rise  up  against  their  par- 
ents.   Mic.  7:6. 

13:14.  The  abomination  of  desolation.  Dan.  9: 
27;  12:11. 

13: 19.  Affliction,  such  as  was  not  from  the  begin- 
ning of  the  creation.    Dan.  12: 1.  . 

13:22.  False  prophets  shall  show  signs  and  won- 
ders.   Deut.  13:  J -3. 

13: 24.  The  sun  shall  be  darkened.    Isa.  13: 10. 

13: 25.  The  powers  in  the  heavens  shall  be  shak- 
en.   Isa.  34: 4. 

13:26.  The  Son  of  man  coming  in  the  clouds. 
Dan.  7: 13. 

13: 27.  His  angels  shall  gather  his  elect.  Zech.  2: 
6;  Deut,  30:4. 

14 :  18.  One  of  you  which  eateth  with  me.    Ps.  41 : 9. 

14:24.  My  blood  of  the  new  testament.  Ex.  24: 
8;  Zech.  9:11. 

14: 27.  I  will  smite  the  Shepherd.    Zech.  13:  7. 

14: 34.  My  soul  is  exceeding  sorrowful.     Ps.  42: 5. 

14:  62.  The  Son  of  man  sitting  on  the  right  hand 
of  power.    Dan.  7: 13;  Ps.  110: 1,  2. 

15:24.  They  parted  his  garments,  casting  lots 
upon  them.    Ps.  22:18. 

15: 28.  He  was  numbered  with  the  transgressors. 
Isa,  53:32. 

15: 29.  They  railed  on  him,  wagging  their  heads. 
Ps.  22:7;  109:25. 

15 :  34.  Eloi !  Eloi !  lam  a  sabachthani  ?    Ps.  22 : 1. 

15: 36.  They  gave  him  vinegar  to  drink.  Ps.  69: 21. 

16:19.  He  ascended  up  into  heaven.  Cf.  II.  Ki. 

16: 19.  And  sat  at  the  right  hand  of  God.  Ps.110: 1. 

1:15.  He  shall  drink  neither  wine  nor  strong 

drink.    Num.  6:3. 
1:17.  To  turn  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the 

children.    Mai.  4:5,  6. 
1:32.  The  Lord  God  shall  give  him  the  throne 

of  his  father  David.   Isa.  9:  7;  Ps.  132: 11. 
1:37.  With  God  nothing  shall  be  impossible. 

Gen.  18:14. 
1 :  46,  47.  My  soul   doth   magnify   the  Lord.    I. 

Sam.  2: 1. 
1 :  48.  He  hath  regarded  the  low  estate  of  his 

handmaiden.    I.  Sam.  1: 11. 
1 :  49.  Holy  is  his  name.    Ps.  Hi :  9. 
1 :  50.  His  mercy  is  on  them  that  fear  him.     Ps. 

1:51.  He  hath  showed  strength  with  his  arm. 

Ps.  89:  10. 
1:  52.  He  hath  put  down  the  mighty.   Job  12: 19. 
1 :  52.  And  exalted  them  of  low  degree.     Job  5-. 

11;  I.  Sam.  2:7. 
1:53.  He  hath  filled  the  hungry.    Ps.  107:9;  I. 

Sam.  2:5. 
1:54.  He  hath  holpen  his  servant  Israel.    Isa. 

41:8,9;  Ps.  98:3. 
1 :  55.  As  he  spake  to  our  fathers.    Mic.  7 :  20. 
1 :  68.  Blessed  be  the  Lord  God  of  Israel.     Ps.  41: 

13;  72:18;  106:48. 
1:  68.  He  hath  redeemed  his  people.  Ps.  Ill:  9. 




1:  69.  And  hath  raised  up  an  horn  of  salvation. 

Ps.  132:17;  I.  Sain.  2: 10. 
1:71.  That  we  should  be  saved  from  our  ene- 
mies.   Ps.  106: 10. 
1 :  72,  73.  To  remember  his  holy  covenant,  the 

oath.    Ps.  105:  8,  9. 
1:  76.  Thou  shalt  go  before  the  face  of  the  Lord 

to  prepare  his  ways.    Mai.  3: 1. 
1:  79.  To  give  light  to  them  that  sit  in  darkness. 

Isa,  9:  2. 
2:  22.  When  the  days  of  her  purification  were 

accomplished.    Lev.  12:  6. 
2:  23.  Every  male  shall  be  holy  unto  the  Lord. 

Ex.  13: 12. 
2:  24.  A  pair  of  turtle-doves,  or  two  young  pi- 
geons.   Lev.  12:  8;  5: 11. 
2:30, 31.  Thy    salvation,   prepared    before    the 

face  of  all  people.    Isa,  40:  5;  52: 10. 
2:  32.  A  light  to  lighten  the  Gentiles.    Isa.  25:  7; 

42:6;  49:6. 
2:  32.  The  glory  of  thy  people  Israel.    Isa.  46: 13. 
2:  52.  Increased  in  favour  with  God  and  man. 

I.  Sam.  2:  26. 
3:  4-6.  Prepare  ye  the  way  of  the  Lord.     Isa. 

4:   4.  Man  shall  not  live  by  bread  alone.    Deut. 

4:   8.  Thou  shalt  worship  the  Lord  thy  God,  and 
him  only  shalt  thou  serve.     Deut,  6: 13. 
4: 10, 11.  He  shall  give  his  angels  charge  over 

thee.    Ps.  91:11,  12. 
4: 12.  Thou  shalt  not  tempt  the  Lord  thy  God. 

Deut,  6: 16. 
4: 18,  19.  He  hath  anointed  me  to  preach  the 

gospel  to  the  poor.    Isa.  61 : 1,  2. 
4:26.  Sarepta,  .  .  .  unto  a  woman  that  was  a 

widow.    I.  Ki.  17:  9. 
5: 14.  Show  thyself  to  the  priest.    Lev.  13:  49. 
6:    1.  David  eating  the  showbread.  I.  Sam.  21:6. 
7:  22.  The  blind  see,  ...  to  the  poor  the  gospel  is 

preached.    Isa.  61: 1. 
7:  27.  Behold,  I  send  my  messenger.    Mai.  3: 1. 
8: 10.  Seeing  they  might  not  see.    Isa,  6:  9. 
10: 15.  Thou,  Capernaum,  exalted  to  heaven,  shalt 

be  thrust  down  to  hell.  •  Isa.  14: 13,15. 
10:  27.  Thou  shalt  love  the  Lord  thy  God.     Deut. 

10:  27.  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself. 

Lev.  19: 18. 
10:  28.  Do  this,  and  thou  shalt  live.    Lev.  18:  5. 
12:  53.  The  son  against  the  father;  the  daughter 

against  the  mother.    Mic.  7:  6. 
13: 19.  The  fowls  of  the  air  lodged  in  the  branches 

of  it.    Dan.  4:12,21. 
13:  27.  Depart  from  me,  all  ye  workers  of  iniq- 
uity.   Ps.  6:8. 
13:  29.  They  shall  come  from  the  east,  and  from 

the  west.    Mai.  1: 11;  Isa.  59: 19. 
13:  35.  Your  house  is  left  unto  you  desolate.  Jer. 

22:5;  12:  7. 
13:  35.  Blessed  is  he  that  cometh  in  the  name  of 

the  Lord.    Ps.  118:  26. 
11: 10.  Friend,  go  up  higher.    Cf.  Pro  v.  25:  7. 
17:  14.  Show  yourselves  unto  the  priests.    Lev. 

13:  49. 
17: 27.  Until  the  day  that  Noah  entered  into  the 

ark.    Gen.  7:  7. 
17:  29.  The  same  day  ...  it  rained  fire.  Gen.  19:  24. 
17:  31.  Let  him  not  return  back.    Gen.  19:  26. 
18:  20.  Do  not  commit  adultery,  .  .  .  Honour  thy 
father  and  thy  mother.    Ex.  20:12-16; 
Deut.  5: 16-20. 
19: 10.  The  Son  of  man  is  come  to  seek  and  to 

save.    Cf.  Ezek.  34: 16. 
19:  38.  Blessed  be  he  that  cometh  in  the  name  of 

the  Lord.    Ps.  118:26. 
19:  44.  And  shall  lay  thee  even  with  the  ground. 

Ps.  137:9. 
19:  46.  My  house  is  the  house  of  prayer.  Isa,  56:  7. 
19:  46.  Ye  have  made  it  a  den  of  thieves.  Jer.  7:  11. 
20:  9.  A  certain  man  planted  a  vineyard.  Isa.  5: 1. 
20: 17.  The  stone  which  the  builders  rejected. 
Ps.  118:22. 


20:  28.  If  a  man's  brother  die  without  children. 

Deut.  25:  5. 
20:  37.  The  Lord  the  God  of  Abraham.  Ex.  3:  6. 
20:  42,  43.  The  Lord  said  unto  my  Lord.  Ps.  110:  1. 
21:  9.  Must  come  to  pass.  Dan.  2:  28. 
21:  10,  Nation  shall  rise  against  nation.  Isa.  19:  2. 
21:  22.  These  be  the  days  of  vengeance.  Hos.  9:  7. 
21:24.  Jerusalem  shall  be  trodden  down  of  the 

Gentiles.  Zech.  12:  3  (LXX.);  Isa.  63:  18; 

Ps.  79:1;  Dan.  8:  10. 
21:25.  Distress  of  nations,  .  .  .  the  sea  and  the 

waves  roaring.    Ps.  65:  7. 
21 :  26.  The  powers  of  heaven  shall  be  shaken. 

Isa.  34 : 4. 
21:  27.  The  Son  of  man  coming  in  a  cloud.    Dan. 

21 : 3-5.  As  a  snare  shall  it  come  on  all  them  that 

dwell,  etc.    Isa.  21: 17. 
22:20.  The    new   testament    in    my   blood.    Cf. 

Ex.  24:  8;  Zech.  9:11. 
22 :  37.  He  was  reckoned  among  the  transgressors. 

Isa.  53 :  12. 
22: 69.  The  Son  of  man  sitting  on  the  right  hand 

of  the  power  of  God.  Dan.  7 :  13 ;  Ps.  110 :  1 . 
23: 30.  They  shall  say  to  the  hills,  Cover  us.   Hos. 

23:34.  They  parted  his  raiment,  and  cast  lots. 

Ps.  22:18. 
23:  35.  The  rulers  derided  him.    Ps.  22: 7. 
23:36.  The   soldiers   offering   him   vinegar.    Cf. 

Ps.  69:21. 
23:46.  Into  thy  hands   I   commend  mv  spirit. 

23 :  49.  All  his  acquaintance  stood  afar  off.    Ps. 

38:11;  88:8. 
24:   5.  Why  seek  ye  the  living  among  the  dead? 

Isa,  8:19. 
24 :  16.  It  behoved  Christ  to  suffer.    Cf .  Isa.  53 :  5. 


1 :  23.  Make  straight  the  way  of  the  Lord.    Isa. 

1:  36.  "Lamb  of  God."    Isa.  53:7. 
1:51.  The   angels   ascending    and    descending. 

Gen.  28:12. 
2 :  17.  The  zeal  of  thine  house  hath  eaten  me  up. 

Ps.  69:9. 
3: 13.  No  man  hath  ascended  up  to  heaven,  but 
he  that  came  down  from  heaven,  even 
the  Son.    Pro  v.  30:4. 
6 :  31.  He  gave  them  bread  from  heaven.    Ex. 

16:4-15:  Ps.  78:24. 
6 :  45.  They  shall  be  all  taught  of  God.    Isa,  54 :  13. 
7: 37.  If  any  man  thirst,  let  him  come  unto  me. 

Isa.  55 : 1. 
7: 39.  This  spake  he  of  the  Spirit.    Isa.  44:  3. 
7:  42.  Of  the  seed  of  David.    Ps.  89:  3,  4. 
7 :  42.  Out  of  the  town  of  Bethlehem.    Mic.  5 : 2. 
8: 17.  The  testimony  of  two  men  is  true.    Deut. 

10: 16.  One  shepherd.    Ezek.  37:  24;  34:23. 
10:  34.  I  said,  Ye  are  gods.    Ps.  82:  6. 
12 :  13.  He  that  cometh  in  the  name  of  the  Lord. 

Ps.  118:26. 
12: 15.  Fear  not,  daughter  of  Zion.    Zech.  9:  9. 
12:  27.  Now  is  my  soul  troubled.    Ps.  6:  3. 
12:  38.  Who  hath  believed  our  report?    Isa.  53: 1. 
12:  40.  He  hath  hardened  their  heart,    Isa.  6: 10. 
13: 18.  He  that  eateth  bread  with  me.    Ps.  41:  9. 
13: 19.  I  tell  you  .  .  .  that ...  ye  may  believe  that 

I  am  he.    Isa.  43: 10. 
15:  25.  They  hated  me  without  a  cause.    Ps.  25: 

19;  69:  4. 
16:  22.  Your  heart  shall  rejoice.    Isa.  66: 14. 
17: 12.  The  son  of  perdition.     Cf.  Ps.  109:  8. 
19:24.  They  parted  my  raiment  among  them. 

Ps.  22:  18. 
19:  28,  29.  I  thirst.  Ps.  69:  21. 
19:  36.  A  bone  of  him  shall  not  be  broken.    Ex. 

12:  46;  Num.  9: 12;  Ps.  34:  20. 
19: 37.  They    shall    look    on    him    whom    they 

pierced.    Zech.  12: 10. 
20 :    9.  He  must  rise  again  from  the  dead.  Ps.  16 :  10. 



1:  20.  Let  his  habitation  be  desolate.     Ps.  69:  25. 
1;  20.  His  bishopric;  let  another  take.     Ps.  109:  8. 
2:  17-21.  I  will  pour  out  of  my  Spirit.     Joel  2: 

2:  25-28.  I  foresaw  the  Lord  always  before  my 

face.    Ps.  16:8-11. 
2:30.  Knowing  that  God  had  sworn  with  an 

path.    Ps.  132:11. 
2:  31.  His  soul  was  not  ieft  in  hell.    Ps.  16:  10. 
2:  34.  The  Loud  said  unto  my  Lord.    Ps.  110:  1. 
2:  39.  The  promise  is  to  as  many  as  the  Lord  our 

God  shall  call.     lsa.  57:  19;  Joel  2:  32. 
3:  13.  The  God  of  our  fathers.    Ex.  3:  6. 
3:  22.  A  Prophet  shall  the  Lord  your  God  raise 

up  unto  you.    Dent.  18: 15-18. 
3:23.  Shall  be  destroyed  from  among  the  peo- 
ple.   Lev.  23:29. 
3:25.  In  thy  seed  shall  all  the  kindreds  of  the 

earth  be  blessed.    Gen.  22: 18. 
4: 11.  The  stone  which  was  set  at  naught  of  you 

builders.    Ps.  118:  22. 
4:  24.  Which  hast  made  heaven  and  earth.    Ex. 

20:11;  Ps.  110:6. 
4:  25,  26.  Why  did  the  heathen  rage?     Ps.  2:  1,  2. 
5:30.  Jesus,  whom  ye  hanged  on  a  tree.    Deut. 

7:   2.  The    God    of    glory    appeared    unto   our 

father  Abraham.    Ps.  29:  3. 
7:   3.  And  said,  Get  thee  out  of  thy  country. 

Gen.  12:  1;  48:  1. 
7:   5.  And  gave  him  not  so  much  as  to  set  his 

foot  on.    Deut.  11:  5. 
7:   5.  Yet  he  promised  he  would  give  unto  him 
for  a  possession.    Gen.  17:  8;  48:  4;  Deut. 
32:  19. 
7:   6.  That  his  seed  should  sojourn  in  a  strange 

land.    Gen.  15: 13,  14;  Ex.  2:  22. 
7:   7.  The  nation  to  whom  they  shall  be  in  bond- 
age will  I  judge.    Ex.  3: 12. 
7:   8.  He  gave  him  the  covenant  of  circumci- 
sion.   Gen.  17:  10,  11. 
7:   8.  Begat  Isaac,    and   Circumcised   him   the 

eighth  day.    Gen.  21:4. 
7:   9.  The  patriarchs,  moved  with  envy.    Gen. 

37:  11. 
7:    9.  Sold  Joseph  into  Egypt.    Gen.  45:  4. 
7:    9.  But  God  was  with  him.    Gen.  39:  2,  3,  21. 
7: 10.  And  gave  him  grace  in  the  sight  of  Pha- 
raoh.   Gen.  39:21. 
7: 10.  [Pharaoh]  made  him  governor  over  Egypt. 

Gen.  41:  40,  43,  46;  Ps.  105:  21. 
7: 11.  There  came  a  dearth  over  all  the  land  of 

Egypt.    Gen.  41:54,  55. 
7: 11.  Our  fathers  found  no  sustenance.  Gen.  42: 5. 
7: 12.  When  Jacob  heard  that  there  was  corn  in 

Egypt.    Gen.  42:2. 
7: 13.  Joseph  was  made  known  to  his  brethren. 

Gen.  45: 1. 
7: 14.  All  his  kindred,  threescore  and   fifteen 

souls.    Deut.  10:  22. 
7: 15.  Jacob  went  down  into  Egypt,  and  died, 

he,  and  our  fathers.    Ex.  1:  6. 
7: 16.  And  were  laid  in  the  sepulchre  that  Abra- 
ham bought.    Josh.  24:  32. 
7: 16.  Of  the  sons  of  Emmor  the  father  of  Sy- 

chem.    Gen.  50: 13;  23: 16,  17. 
7:  17,  18.  The    people   grew   and   multiplied  in 

Egypt.    Ex.  1:7,  8. 
7: 19.  The  same  dealt  subtilely  with  our  kin- 
dred.   Ex.  1:9,  10. 
7: 19.  They  cast  out  their  young  children,  that 

they  might  not  live.    Ex.  1:  18. 
7:  20.  Moses  was  exceeding  fair.    Ex.  2:  2. 
7:21.  Pharaoh's  daughter  took  him  up.  Ex.  2:5. 
7:  21.  And  nourished  him  for  her  own  son.    Ex. 

2:  10. 
7:  23.  It  came  into  his  heart  to  visit  his  breth- 
ren.   Ex.  2:  11. 
7:  24.  He  smote  the  Egyptian.    Ex.  2: 12. 
7:27,28.  Who  made  thee  a  ruler  and  a  judge 

over  us?    Ex.  2:  13,  14. 
7:  29.  Then  fled  Moses  at  that  saying.  Ex.  2:15-22. 
7:  30.  There  appeared  to  him  an  Angel.  Ex.  3: 1. 


7:  32.  I  am  the  God  of  thy  fathers.    Ex.  3:  6. 
7:  33.  Put  off  thy  shoes  from  thy  feet.     Ex.  3:  5. 
7:34.  I  have  seen  the  aillictioii  of  my  people. 

Ex.  3:7-10;  2:24. 
7:  35.  Who  made  thee  a  ruler  and  a  judge?    Ex. 

7:  36.  He  showed  wonders  and  signs.    Ex.  7:  3. 
7:  37.  A  Prophet  like  unto  me.    Deut.  18:  15-18. 
7:39.  In  their  hearts  turned  back  into  Egypt. 

Num.  14:3,  4. 
7:  40.  Make  us  gods  to  go  before  us.   Ex.  32: 1,  23. 
7:11.  They  made  a  calf.     Ex.  32:  Wu 
7:  12.  God  gave  them  up  to  worship  the  host  of 

heaven.    Jer.  7: 18  (LXX.);  19:  13. 
7:  42,  43.  Have  ye  oflercd  to  me  slain  beasts  and 

sacrifices?    Amos  5:  25,  26. 
7:  44.  That  he  should  make  it  according  to  the 
fashion  that  he  had  seen.     Ex.  25:  1-10. 
7:  45.  Into  the  possession  of  the  Gentiles.     Gen. 

17:8;  18:4;  Deut.  32:49. 
7:46.  [David]  desired   to  find  a  tabernacle  for 

"    the  God  of  Jacob.    Ps.  132:5. 
7:  47.  Solomon  built  him  an  house.    I.  Ki.  6: 1-2. 
7:  49,  50.  Heaven  is  my  throne.    Isa.  06: 1,  2. 
7:  51.  Ye  stiff-necked  [people].    Ex.  33:  3-5. 
7:  51.  And  uncircumcised  in  heart  and  ears.  Jer. 

9:  26;  6: 10;  Num.  27: 14;  Isa.  63: 10. 
8:  21.  Thy  heart  is  not  right.    Ps.  78:  37. 
8:  23.  The  bond  of  iniquity.    Isa.  58:  6. 
8:  32,  33.  He  was  led  as  a  sheep  to  the  slaughter. 

Isa.  53 :  7,  8. 
10:  34.  God  is  no  respecter  of  persons.  Deut.  10: 17. 
10:  36.  The  word  which  God  sent  unto  the  chil- 
dren of  Israel.    Ps.  107:  20;  117:  IS. 
10:  36.  Preaching  peace.    Isa.  52:  7;  Nah.  1:  15. 
10:  38.  How  God  anointed  Jesus  with  the  Holy 

Ghost.    Isa.  61: 1. 
10:  39.  Hanged  on  a  tree.  Deut.  21:  22,  23. 
13: 10.  The  right  ways  of  the  Lord.    Hos.  11:  9. 
13: 17.  With  an  high  arm  brought  he  them  out. 

Ex.  6: 1,  6. 
13: 18.  Suffered  he  their  manners  in  the  wilder- 
ness.   Deut.  1:  31. 
13: 19,  Destroyed  seven  nations  in  Canaan.  Deut. 

13: 19.  Divided  their  land  to  them.    Josh.  14:  1. 
13:  22.  I  have  found  David.    Ps.  89:  20. 
13:  22.  A  man  after  mine  own  heart.    I.  Sam. 

13: 14. 
13:  26.  To  you  is  the  word  of  this  salvation.    Ps. 

13:  33.  Thou  art  my  Son,  this  day  have  I  begotten 

thee.    Ps.  2:7. 
13:  34.  The  sure  mercies  of  David.    Isa.  5-5:  3. 
13:  35.  Thou  shalt  not  suffer  thine  Holy  One  to 

see  corruption.    Ps.  16:  10. 
13:  36.  David  was  laid  unto  his  fathers.  I.  Ki.  2: 10. 
1.3:  41.  Behold,  ye  despisers,  and  wonder.  Iiab.  1: 5. 
13:  47.  Set  thee  to  be  a  light  of  the  Gentiles.    Isa. 

14: 15.  The  Maker  of  heaven  and  earth.    Ex.  20: 

11;  Ps.  146:6. 
15: 16.  After  this  I  will  return.    Jer.  12:  15. 
15: 16,  17.  The  rebuilding  of  David's  tabernacle. 

Amos  9:  11,  12. 
15: 18.  Known  unto  God  are  all  his  works.    Isa. 

45:  21. 
17:24.  God  dwclleth  not  in  temples  made  with 

hands.     II.  Chr.  6:  iS. 
17:  25.  He  giveth  to  all  1  ife  ami  breath.    Isa.  42:  5. 
17:  31.  He  will  judge  the  world  in  righteousness. 

Ps.  9:8;  96;  13;  98:9. 
18:  9,  10.  Be  not  afraid,  for  I  am  with  thee.    Isa. 

43:5;  Jer.  1:8. 
20:  28.  The  church  of  God,  which  he  hath  pur- 
chased.   Ps.  74:2. 
20:  32.  Inheritance  among  the  sanctified.    Deut. 

21 :  26.  The  days  of  purification.    Num.  6:  5. 
23:   5.  Thou  shalt  not  speak  evil  of  the  ruler 

of  thy  people.    Ex.  2^:  28. 
26:  16.  Rise,  and  stand  upon  thy  feet.    Ezek.  2: 1. 
26:  17.  Unto  whom  now  I  send  thee.     Jer.  1:  7,  8. 




26: 18.  To  open  their  eyes.  Isa.  42:  7,  16. 
28:  26.  Go  unto  this  people,  and  say.     Isa.  6:  9,  10. 
28:  28.  The  salvation  of  God  is  sent  unto  the  Gen- 
tiles.   Ps.  67:2. 


1: 17.  The  just  shall  live  by  faith.    Hab.  2:  4. 
1 :  23.  And  changed  the  glory.    Ps.  106: 20. 
2:   6.  Who  will  render  to  every  man  according 

to  his  deeds.    Ps.  62:  12;  Prov.  24: 12. 
2: 11.  God  no  respecter  of  persons.    Deut.  10: 17. 
2:  24.  The  name  of  God  is  blasphemed  among 

the  Gentiles  through  you.    Isa.  52:  5. 
3:   4.  Let  God  be  true,  but  every  man  a  liar.  Ps. 

116: 11. 
3:   4.  That  thou  migh test  be  justified.    Ps.  51:4. 
3: 10-12.  None  righteous  .  .  .  not  one.     Ps.  14: 1-3. 
3:13.  Their  throat  is  an  open  sepulchre.    Ps.  5: 

3: 14.  Whose  mouth  is  full  of  cursing.    Ps.  10:  7. 
3: 15-17.  Their  feet  are  swift  to  shed  blood.     Isa. 

3: 18.  No  fear  of  God  before  their  eyes.  Ps.  36: 1. 
3:  20.  By  the  deeds  of  the  law  no  flesh  justified. 

Ps.  143:  2. 
4:   3.  It  was  counted  unto  him  [Abraham]  for 

righteousness.    Gen.  15 :  6. 
4: 7,  8.  Blessed   are    they  whose    iniquities  are 

forgiven.    Ps.  32: 1,  2. 
4:   9.  Faith  reckoned  to  Abraham.    Gen.  15:  6. 
4: 11.  He  received  the  sign  of  circumcision.  Gen. 

17: 11. 
4: 17.  A  father  of  many  nations.    Gen.  17:  5. 
4: 18.  So  shall  thy  seed  be.    Gen.  15:  5. 
4:22-24.  It  was  imputed  to  him  for  righteous- 
ness.   Gen.  15:  6. 
4:  25.  Delivered  for  our  offences.    Isa.  53: 12. 
5:   5.  Hope  maketh  not  ashamed.    Ps.  22:  5. 
7:   7.  Thou  shalt  not  covet.    Ex.  20: 14-17;  Deut. 

5: 18-21. 
8:  33,  34.  God  who  justifies,  who  is  he  who  con- 
demns?   Isa.  50:8. 
8:  34.  Christ,  who  is  even  at  the  right  hand  of 

God.    Ps.  110: 1. 
8:  36.  For  thy  sake  we  are  killed.    Ps.  42:  22. 
9:   7.  In  Isaac  shall  thy  seed  be  called.    Gen. 

9:   9.  And  Sarah  shall  have  a  son.   Gen.  18:  10. 
9: 12.  The  elder  shall  serve  the  younger.    Gen. 

25:  23. 
9: 13.  Jacob  have  I  loved,  but  Esau  have  I  hated. 

Mai.  1:2,3. 
9: 15.  I  will  have  mercy  on  whom  I  will  have 

mercy.    Ex.  33: 19. 
9: 17.  For  this  same  purpose  have  I  raised  thee 

up.    Ex.  9: 16. 
9:18.  Whom  he  will  he  hardeneth.     Ex.  7:  3; 

9:12;  14:4,  17. 
9:  20.  Shall  the  thing  formed  say  to  him  that 

formed  its?    Isa.  29: 16;  45:  9. 
9:  21.  Hath  not  the  potter  power  over  the  clay? 

Jer.  18:  6;  Isa.  29:  16;  45:  9. 
9:  22.  If  God  endured  with  much  long-suffering 

the  vessels  of  wrath.    Jer.  50:  25. 
9:  22.  Fitted  to  destruction.    Isa.  54: 16. 
9:  25.  I  will  call  them  my  people,  etc.  Hos.  2:  23. 
9:  26.  Children  of  the  living  God.    Hos.  1:  10. 
9:  27.  A  remnant  shall  be  saved.    Isa.  10:  22,  23. 
9:  29.  Except  the  Lord  of  Sabaoth  had  left  us  a 

seed     Isa  1*9 
9:  32.  They  stumbled.  '  Isa.  8: 14. 
9:  33.  The  rock  of  offence.    Isa.  28: 16. 
10:   5.  The  man  that  doeth  these  things  shall 

live  by  them.    Lev.  18:  5. 
10:6-9.  Sav  not,  Who  shall  go  up  into  heaven? 

Deut,  30: 12-14. 
10: 11.  Whosoever  belie veth  on  him  shall  not  be 

ashamed.    Isa.  28:  16. 
10: 13.  Whosoever  shall  call.    Joel  2:  32. 
10: 15.  How  beautiful  are  the  feet.    Isa.  52:  7. 
10: 16.  Who  hath  believed  our  report?    Isa.  53: 1. 
10: 18.  Their  sound  went  into  all  the  earth.    Ps. 



10: 19.  I  will  provoke  you  to  jealousy.     Deut. 

10:20,  21.  I  was  found  of  them  that  sought  me 

not.    Isa.  65: 1,  2. 
11: 1,  2.  Hath  God  cast  off*  his  people?    Ps.  94: 14: 

I.  Sam.  12:  22. 
11:   3.  They  have  killed  thy  prophets.  I.Ki.l9:10. 
11:  4.  I  have  reserved  to  myself  seven  thousand 

men.    I.  Ki.  19: 18. 
11:   8.  God  hath  given  them  the  spirit  of  slum- 
ber, etc.    Isa.  29: 10;  Deut.  29:  4. 
11:9,10.  Let  their  table  be  made  a  snare.    Ps. 

69:22,23;  35:8. 
11: 11.  Salvation  is  come  ...  to  provoke  them  to 

jealousy.    Deut.  32:  21. 
11:  26.  The  Deliverer  out  of  Sion.    Isa.  59:  20. 
11:  27.  This  is  my  covenant  unto  them.  Isa.  27:  9. 
11:34,35.  Who   hath   known   the   mind   of   the 

Lord?    Isa.  40: 13,  14. 
12: 16.  Be  not  wise  in  your  own  conceits.  Prov.  3: 7. 
12: 17.  Provide  things  honest  in  the  sight  of  all 

men.    Prov.  3:  4  (LXX.). 
12: 19.  Avenge  not  yourselves.    Deut.  32:  35. 
12: 20.  If  thine   enemy  hunger,  feed   him,  etc. 

Prov.  25:  21,  22. 
13:   9.  Thou  shalt  not  commit  adultery.     Ex.20: 

13-17;  Deut.  5: 17-21. 
13:   9.  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself. 

Lev.  19: 18. 
14: 11.  Every  knee  shall  bow  to  me.    Isa.  45:  23; 

49: 18. 
15:   3.  The  reproaches  of  them  that  reproached 

thee  fell  on  me.    Ps.  69:  9. 
15:   9.  I  will  confess  to  thee  among  the  Gentiles. 

Ps.  18:  49. 
15: 10.  Rejoice,   ye   Gentiles,    with    his    people. 

Deut,  32:43. 
15: 11.  Praise  the  Lord,  all  ye  Gentiles.    Ps.  117: 1. 
15: 12.  In  him  shall  the  Gentiles  trust.  Isa.  11: 10. 
15:  21.  To  whom  he  was  not  spoken  of,  they  shall 

see.    Isa.  52: 15. 

I.  Corinthians. 

1 :  19.  I  will  destroy  the  wisdom  of  the  wise,  etc. 

Isa.  29: 14. 
1:20.  Where  is  the  wise?    where  is  the  scribe? 

Isa.  19: 12;  33: 18. 
1:31.  He  that  glorieth,  let  him  glory  in  the 

Lord.    Jer.  9:21. 
2:   9.  The  things  which  God  hath  prepared  for 

them  that  love  him.    Isa.  64:  4. 
2: 16.  Who  hath  known  the  mind  of  the  Lord, 

etc.    Isa,  40:13. 
3: 19.  He  taketh  the  wise  in  their  own  crafti- 
ness.   Job  5: 13. 
3:  20.  The  Lord  knoweth  the  thoughts  of  the 

wise.    Ps.  94: 11. 
4 :  13.  Offscouring  of  all  things.  Lam.  3 :  45  (Heb.). 
5:   7.  Our  passover  is  sacrificed  for  us.  Ex.  12:  21. 
5:  13.  Put  away  from  among  yourselves  that 

wicked  person.    Deut.  22:  24. 
6: 16.  For  two  shall  be  one  flesh.    Gen.  2:  24. 
9:   9.  Thou  shalt  not  muzzle  the  ox.    Deut.  25:  4. 
10:   5.  They  were  overthrown  in  the  wilderness. 

Num.  14:  16. 
10:   6.  Our  examples,  that  we  should  not  lust  as 

they  lusted.    Num.  11:  34. 
10:   7.  The  people  sat  down  to  eat  and  drink,  and 

rose  up  to  play.    Ex.  32:  6. 
10:  20.  They  [the  Gentiles]  sacrifice  to  devils,  and 

not  to  God.    Deut.  32: 17. 
10:  21.  The  Lord's  table.    Mai.  1:  7, 12. 
10:22.  Do  we  provoke   the  Lord  to  jealousy? 

Deut,  32:21. 
10:  26.  The  earth  is  the  Lord's.    Ps.  24: 1. 
11:   7.  He  [man]  is  the  image  and  glory  of  God. 

Gen.  5: 1. 
11:25.  The  new  testament  in  my  blood.    Ex.24: 

8;  Zech.  9: 11. 
13:    5.  Thinketh  no  evil.    Zech.  8: 17  (LXX.). 
14:21.  With  men  of  other  tongues  will  I  speak 

unto  this  people.    Isa.  28: 11,  12. 
14:  25.  And  report  that  God  is  in  you.    Isa.  45: 14. 



1.  Corinthians. 

15:25.  Till   lie  hath  put  all  enemies  under  his 

feet.    Ps.  110:  J. 
15:  27.  He  hath  put  all  things  under  his  feet.    Ps. 

15:32.  Let  us  eat  and  drink;  for  to-morrow  we 

die.    Isa.  22: 13. 
15  45.  The  first  man  Adam  was  made  a  living 

soul.    Gen.  2:  7. 
15.  47.  The   first   man   is  of  the   earth,  earthy. 

Gen.  2:  7. 
15 .  .54.  Death  is  swallowed  up  in  victory.  Isa.  25:  8. 
15  55.  O  grave,  where  is  thy  victory?   Hos.  13: 14. 

II   Corinthians. 
3:   3.  Written  not  in  tables  of  stone.    Ex.  31: 18; 

3     3.  In  fleshy  tables  of  the  heart.    Pro  v.  3:  3; 

Ezek.  11:19;  3G:26. 
3.13.  Moses  put  a  veil  over  his  face.    Ex.  34: 

33,  35. 
3: 16.  When  it  shall  turn  to  the  Lord,  the  veil 

shall  be  taken  away.    Isa.  25:  7. 
3: 18.  We  all . . .  beholding  the  glory  of  the  Lord. 

Ex.  24:  17. 
4:  13.  I  believed,  therefore  have  I  spoken.    Ps. 

116: 10. 
5: 17.  Old  things  have  passed  away.     Isa.  43: 

6:   2.  I  have  heard  thee  in  a  time  accepted.    Isa. 

6:   9.  As   chastened   and   not   destroyed.      Ps. 

118:  18. 
6: 11.  Our  heart  is  enlarged.    Ps.  119:  32. 
6: 16.    I  will  dwell  in  them,  and  walk  in  them. 

Lev.  26: 11,  12;  Ezek.  37:  27. 
6: 17.  Come  out  and  be  ye  separate.    Isa.  52:  11; 

Jer.  51:45;  Ezek.  20:  33. 
6: 18.  Ye  shall  be  my  sons  and  daughters.    Hos. 

1:10;  Isa.  43:6. 
8:  15.  He  that  gathered  much  had  nothing  over. 

Ex.  16: 18. 
8:  21.  Providing  for  honest  things  in  sight  of 

the  Lord  and  of  men.    Prov.  3:  4  (LXX.). 
9:    7.  God  loveth  a  cheerful  giver.     Prov.  22:8 

9:    9.  He  hath  dispersed,  he  hath  given  to  the 

poor.    Ps.  112:  9. 
9:  10.  Multiply  your  seed  sown.    Hos.  10: 12;  Isa. 

55: 10. 
10:  17.  He  that  glorieth,  let  him  glory  in  the  Lord. 

Jer.  9:24. 
11:    3.  As  the  serpent  beguiled  Eve.    Gen.  3: 13. 
13:   1.  In  the  mouth  of  two  or  three  witnesses. 

Deut.  19:15. 

1:15.  From    my   mother's   womb,   and   called. 

Isa.  49:1. 
2:  16.  Shall  no  ilesh  be  justified.    Ps.  143:  2. 
3:    6.  It  was  accounted  to  him  for  righteous- 
ness.   Gen.  15:  6. 
3:   8.  In  thee  shall  all  nations  be  blessed.    Gen. 

12:3;  18:18. 
3;  10.  Cursed  is  every  one  that  continueth  not  in 

all  things  which  are  written  in  the  law. 

Deut.  27:26. 
3;  11.  The  j  ust  shall  live  by  faith.    Hab.  2:  4. 
.'i:  12.  The  man  that  doeth  them  shall  live  in 

them.    Lev.  18:  5. 
3: 13.  Cursed  is  every  one  that  hangeth  on  a 

tree,    Deut.  21:23. 
3: 16.  He  saith,  And  to  thy  seed.    Gen.  12:  7;  13: 

15;  17:7-  22:18;  21:7. 
4:27.  Rejoice,   tnou   barren   that    bearest    not. 

Isa.  54: 1. 
4:30.  Cast  out  the  bond  woman  and  her  son. 

Gen.  21:10. 
5:  14.  Thou  shaltlove  thy  neighbour.  Lev.  19: 18. 
6:  16.  The  Israel  of  God.    Ps.  125:  5;  128:  6. 


1:18.  His  inheritance  in  the  saints.    Deut.  33: 
:5,  2T-29. 


1:20.  And   set  him  [Christ]  at  his  own  right 

hand.    Ps.  110: 1. 
1:  22.  Hath  put  all  things  under  his  feet.    Ps. 

2:  13,  17.  Ye  who  were  afar  ofT  are  made  nigh. 

Isa.  57:19;  52:7. 
2:  20.  The  chief  corner  stone.    Isa.  28: 16. 
4:  8-11.  He  led  captivity  captive.    Ps.  68: 18. 
4:  25.  Speak  every  man  truth  with  his  neighbour. 

Zech.  8:  16. 
4:  26.  Be  ye  angry,  and  sin  not.    Ps.  4:  4. 
5:   2.  Himself  for  us  an  offering.    Ps.  40:  6. 
5:   2.  For  a  sweet-smelling  savour.    Ezek.  20:  41. 
5: 18.  Be   not  drunk   with   wine.     Prov.   23:  31 

5:  31.  For  this  cause  shall  a  man  leave  his  father 

and  mother.    Gen.  2:  24. 
6:  2,  3.  Honour  thy  father   and   mother.     Ex. 

20: 12;  Deut.  5: 16. 
6:   4.  In  the  nurture  and  admonition  of  the 

Lord.    Prov.  2:  2;  3: 11,  12. 
6: 14.  Having  your  loins  girt  about  with  truth. 

Isa.  11:5. 
6: 14.  Having  on  the  breastplate  of  righteous- 
ness.   Isa.  59: 17. 
6: 15.  Feet  shod  with  the  preparation  of  the 

gospel  of  peace.  Isa,  52:  7;  49:  3-9. 
6:  17.  The  helmet  of  salvation.  Isa.  59: 17. 
6:17.  The  sword  of  the  Spirit.    Isa.  11:4;  49:2; 

51:16;  Hos.  6:  5. 


his   shall   turn   to   my  salvation.    Job 

13: 16. 
11.  In  the  name  of  Jesus  every  knee  shall 

bow,  etc.    Isa.  45:  23. 
Sons  of  God,  blameless,  in  the  midst  of  a 

perverse  nation,  etc.    Deut.  32:  5. 
That  I  have  not  laboured  in  vain.    Isa.  49: 

4;  65:23. 
The  book  of  life.    Ps.  69:  28. 
An  odour  of  a  sweet  smell.    Ezek.  20:  41. 





4:    3. 


2:   3.  Are  hid  all  the  treasures  of  wisdom.    Isa. 

45:3;  Prov.  2:  3,  4. 
2:22.  After  the  commandments  and  doctrines 

of  men.    Isa.  29: 13. 
3:    1.  Christ  sitting  on  the  right  hand  of  God. 

Ps.  110: 1. 
3: 10.  After  the  image  of  him  that  created  him. 

Gen.  1:27. 

I.  Thessalonians. 

2:   4.  Trieth  our  hearts.    Jer.  11:20. 

2: 16.  To  fill  up  their  sins  alway.    Gen.  15: 16. 

4:   5.  The  Gentiles  which  know  not  God.    Jer. 

10:25;  Ps.  79:  6. 
4:   6.  The  Lord  is  the  avenger.    Ps.  94:  1. 
4:   8.  Given   unto  us  his   Holy  Spirit.     Ezek. 

37: 14. 
5:   8.  Putting  on  the  breastplate  of  faith.    Isa. 

59: 17. 
5:  22.  Abstain  from  all  appearance  of  evil.    Job 

1:1;  2:3. 

II.  Thessalonians. 

1:  8.  In  flaming  fire  taking  vengeance.  Isa. 
66: 15. 

1:  8.  On  them  that  know  not  God.  Jer.  10:  25; 
Ps.  79:  6. 

1:  9.  From  the  presence  of  the  Lord.  Isa.  2: 10, 
11,  19,  21. 

1: 10.  When  he  shall  come  to  be  glorified.  Ps. 
89:  7;  68:  35  (LXX.);  Isa.  49:  3. 

1:  12.  That  the  name  of  our  Lord  may  be  glori- 
fied.   Isa.  (id:  5. 

2:  3.  Man  of  sin  (cf.  I.  Ki.  11:  16);  son  of  perdi- 
tion (ct  Ps.  109:  7  and  John  17:  12). 

2:  4.  Who  exalt  eth  himself  ab'pve  all  that  is 
called  God.     Dan.  11:36,  37. 

2:  4.  As  God  sitteth  in  the  temple  of  God. 
Ezek.  28:2. 



II.  Thessalonians. 

2:    8.  Shall    consume   with    the    spirit   of   his 

mouth.    Isa.  11:  4;  Job  4:  9. 
2: 13.  Beloved  of  the  Lord.    Deut.  33: 12. 

I.  Timothy. 

2: 13.  Adam  was  first  formed.    Gen.  1:  27. 
5:  18.  Thou  shalt  not  muzzle  the  ox.  Deut.  25:  4. 
5: 19.  Receive  not  an  accusation  but  before  two 
or  three  witnesses.    Deut.  19: 15. 

II.  Timothy. 

2: 19.  The  Lord  knoweth  them  that  are  his. 

Num.  16:  5. 
2: 19.  Every   one   that    nameth   the   name   of 

Christ.    Isa.  26: 13. 
4: 14.  The   Lord   reward  him   according  to  his 

works.    Ps.  62: 12;  Pro  v.  24: 12. 
4: 17.  Out  of  the  mouth  of  the  lion.    Ps.  22:  21. 


2: 14.  Purify  unto  himself  a  peculiar  people. 
Ezek.  37:  23;  Deut.  14:  2;  Ps.  130:  8. 


1:   3.  Sat  down  on  the  right  hand.    Ps.  110: 1. 
1:   5.  Thou  art  my  Son,  etc.    Ps.  2:  7. 
1:   5.  I  shall  be  to  him  a  Father.    II.  Sam.  7: 14. 
1:   6.  Let  all  the  angels  worship  him.    Deut.  32: 

43(LXX.);  Ps.  97:7. 
1:   7.  Who  maketh  his  angels  spirits,  etc.    Ps. 

1:  8,  9.  Thy  throne,  O  God,  is  for  ever  and  ever. 

Ps.  45:  6,  7. 
1  10-12.  Thou,  Lord,  hast  laid  the  foundation  of 

the  earth,  etc.    Ps.  102 :  25,  26. 
1: 13.  Sit  on  my  right  hand,  etc.    Ps.  110: 1. 
2:  6-8.  What  is  man,  etc.    Ps.  8:  4,  5. 
2: 11, 12.  I  will  declare  thy  name.    Ps.  22:  22. 
2: 13.  I  will  put  my  trust  in  him.    Isa.  8: 17. 
2: 13.  Behold,  I  and  the  children.    Isa.  8: 18. 
2: 17.  Like  unto  his  brethren.    Ps.  22:  22. 
3:  2,  5.  Moses  was  faithful.    Num.  12:  7. 
3:  7, 11, 13, 15-19.  To-day,  if  ye  will  hear  his  voice. 

Ps.  95:  7-11. 
3: 17.  Grieved  forty  years.    Num.  14:  29. 
4: 1-3.  A  promise  ...  of  entering  into  his  rest. 

Ps.  95: 11. 
4:   4.  God  did  rest  the  seventh  day.    Gen.  2:2. 
4:  5,  6.  If  they  shall   enter  into  rny  rest.     Ps. 

95: 11. 
4:  7.  To-day  if  ye  will  hear  his  voice.    Ps.  95: 

4: 10.  For  he  that  is  entered  into  his  rest  hath 

ceased  from  his  works.    Gen.  2:  2. 
4: 11.  Labour  to  enter  into  that  rest.    Ps.  95: 11. 
5:   5.  Thou  art  my  Son,  etc.    Ps.  2:  7. 
5:  6, 10.  Priest  after  the  order  of  Melchisedec. 

Ps.  110:  4. 
6:   7.  The  earth  bringeth  forth  herbs.  Gen.  1:11. 
6:   8.  Which  beareth  thorns,  etc.    Gen.  3: 17,  18. 
6:13,14.  God  sware  by  himself,  etc.     Gen.  22: 

16, 17. 
6: 19.  Which  entereth  into  that  within  the  veil. 

Lev.  16:  2. 
6:  20.  An  high  priest  after  the  order  of  Mel- 
chisedec.   Ps.  110:  4. 
7: 1,  2,  3.  Melchisedec,  king  of  Salem,  etc.    Gen. 

14: 17, 18. 
7: 4,  6, 10.  To   whom   Abraham   gave   a  tenth. 

Gen.  14: 19,  20. 
7: 11,  15,  17,  21,  24,  28.  The  order  of  Melchisedec. 

Ps.  110:4. 
7:  28.  The  Son  ...  for  evermore.    Ps.  2:  7. 
8:    1.  Set  on  the  right  hand.    Ps.  110: 1. 
8:   2.  A  minister  of  the  true  tabernacle,  which 

the  Lord  pitched.    Num.  24:  6. 
8:   5.  Make  according  to  the  pattern  showed. 

Ex.  25:40. 
8:  8-13.  I  will  make  a  new  covenant,  etc.    Jer. 

9:20.  This  is  the  blood  of  the  testament,  etc. 

Ex.  24:  8. 
9:  28.  To  bear  the  sins  of  many.    Isa.  53: 12. 


10:  5-10.  Sacrifice  and  offering  thou  wouldest  not, 

etc.    Ps.  40:  6-8. 
10: 12.  Sat  down  on  the  right  hand,  etc.  Ps.  110: 1. 
10: 16,  17.  I  will  put  my  laws  into  their  hearts, 

etc.    Jer.  31:33,  34. 
10:  21.  An  High  Priest  over  the  house  of  God. 

Zech.  6: 12,  13;  Num.  12:  7. 
10:27.  Fiery  indignation  devouring  the  adver- 
saries.   Isa.  26: 11  (LXX.). 
10:  28.  Died  under  two  or  three  witnesses.  Deut. 

17:  6. 
10:  29.  The  blood  of  the  covenant.    Ex.  24:  8. 
10:30.  Vengeance  belongeth  unto  me,  etc.;  the 

Lord  shall  judge,  etc.     Deut.  32:  35,  36. 
10:  37.  He  that  shall  come  will  come.  Hab.  2:  3, 4. 
11:   4.  God  testifying  of  his  [Abel's]  gifts.    Gen. 

11:   5.  Enoch  was  not  found,  because  God  had 

translated  him.    Gen.  5:  24. 
11:   8.  Abraham,  when  he  was  called  to  go  out 

.  .  .,  obeyed.    Gen.  12: 1. 
11:   9.  Sojourned  in  the  land  of  promise.    Gen. 

23:  4. 
11: 12.  As  many  as  the  stars  of  heaven.    Gen.  22: 

17;  32:12. 
11: 13.  Strangers   and   pilgrims.     Gen.  23:  4;    I. 

Chr.  29: 15. 
11:17.  Abraham,  when  tried,  offered  up  Isaac. 

Gen.  22: 1-10. 
11: 18.  In  Isaac  shall  thy  seed  be  called.    Gen. 

11:21.  Jacob  worshipped,  leaning  upon  the  top 

of  his  staff.    Gen.  47:  31. 
11: 23.  Moses  . . .  was  hid  three  months.   Ex.  2.  2. 
11:24.  Moses,  when  he  was  come  to  years.    Ex. 

11:  26.  The  reproach  of  Christ.   Ps.  89:  50,  51;  69:  9. 
11:  28.  The  passover  and  the  sprinkling  of  blood, 

etc.    Ex.  12:  21-29. 
12:   2.  Set  down  at  the  right  hand.    Ps.  110: 1. 
12:   3.  Contradiction  of  sinners,  etc.  Num.  16:  38. 
12:  5-7.  Despise  not  the  chastening  of  the  Lord, 

etc.    Prov.  3: 11, 12. 
12: 12.  Lift  up  the  hands,  etc.    Isa.  35:  3. 
12: 13.  Make  straight  paths.    Prov.  4:  26  (LXX.). 
12: 14.  Follow  peace.    Ps.  34: 14. 
12: 15.  Lest  any  root  of  bitterness  .  .  .  trouble 

you.    Deut.  29: 18  (LXX.). 
12: 16.  Esau,  who  sold  his  birthright.  Gen.  25:  33. 
12: 18, 19.  The  mount  that  burned  with  fire,  etc. 

Deut.  4: 11,  12. 
12: 19.  The  sound  of  a  trumpet,  and  the  voice  of 

words.    Ex.  19: 16;  Deut.  5:  23,  25. 
12:  20.  If  so  much  as  a  beast  touch  the  mountain. 

Ex.  19: 12. 
12:  21.  Moses  said,  I  exceedingly  fear.    Deut.  9: 19. 
12:26,  27.  Yet  once  more  I  shake  not  the  earth 

only.    Hag.  2:  6. 
12:  29.  Our  God  is  a  consuming  fire.    Deut.  4:  24. 
13:   5.  I  will  never  leave  thee.    Deut.  31:  6,  8; 

Josh.  1 : 5. 
13:    6.  The  Lord  is  my  helper.    Ps.  118:  6. 
13:   8.  The  same  yesterday,  and  to-day,  and  for 

ever.    Cf.  Isa.  43: 13. 
13: 11,  13.  Whose  blood  is  brought  into  the  sanc- 
tuary for  sin.    Lev.  16:  27. 
13: 15.  Let  us  offer  the  sacrifice  of  praise.    Ps.  50: 

14;  Lev.  7:12. 
13: 15.  The  fruit  of  the  lips.  Isa.  57: 19;  Hos.  14:  2. 
13:  20.  The  great  Shepherd  of  the  sheep.  Isa,  63:11, 
13:  20.  The  blood  of  the  everlasting  covenant. 

Zech.  9: 11;  Isa.  55:  3;  Ezek.  37:  26. 

1: 10, 11.  As  the  flower  of  grass.    Isa.  40:  6,  7. 
2:   8.  The  royal  law.    Lev.  19:  18. 
2: 11.  Do  not  commit  adultery,  etc.  Ex.  20: 13, 14. 
2:  21.  Abraham  had  offered  Isaac  his  son  upon 

the  altar.    Gen.  22:2,  9. 
2:  23.  Abraham  believed  God.    Gen.  15:  6. 
2:  23.  The  friend  of  God.    Isa.  41 :  8;  II.  Chr.  20:  7. 
3:   9.  After  the  similitude  of  God.    Gen.  1:  26. 
4:   6.  God  resisteth  the  proud.    Prov.  3:  34. 



.  crieth  against  you.    Cf.  Deut. 

5:   4.  The  hire 


5:   5.  As  in  a  day  of  slaughter.    Jer.  12:  3. 
5:    7.  The  early  and  latter  rain.     Deut.  ±1:14; 

Jer.  5:  24. 
5:11.  The  Lord  is  very  pitiful.  Cf.Ps.103:  8;  111:4. 
5:20.  Shall  hide  a  multitude  of  sins.  Prov.  10:12. 

I  Pfeter 

1:  Hi.  Be  ye  holy.    Lev.  11:  44;  19:  2;  20:  7. 

1:  17.  If  ye  call  on  the  Father.    Jer.  3:  19. 

1:  IS.  Redeemed  not  with  .  .  .  silver.     Isa.  52:  3. 

1:  23.  God,  which  livcth  and  abideth.  Dan.  0:  26. 

1 :  21,  25.  All  flesh  is  as  grass,  etc.    Isa.  40:  0-8. 

2:    3.  Tasted  that  the  Lord  is  gracious.    Ps.  31:8. 

2:    4.  A  stone  disallowed.    Ps.  118:  22. 

2:   0.  Behold,  1  lav  in  Zion  a  stone,  etc.    Isa. 

28:  10. 
2:   7.  The  stone  which  the  builders  disallowed. 

Ps.  118:  22. 
2:    8.  A  stone  of  stumbling.    Isa.  8:14,  15. 
2:   9.  A  royal  priesthood,  a  peculiar  people.  Ex. 

19:  5,  0;  Isa.  43:  20,  21. 
2: 10.  Which  in  time  past  were  not  a  people, 

but  are  now.    Hos.  1:  6,  10;  2:  23. 
2: 11.  Strangers  and  pilgrims.    Ps.  39: 12. 
2: 12.  In  the  day  of  visitation.    Isa.  10:  3. 
2: 17.  Fear  God.    Honour  the  king.    Prov.  24:21. 
2:  22.  Did  no  sin,  neither  was  guile  found  in 

his  mouth.    Isa.  53:  9. 
2:  24.  Who  his  own  self  bare  our  sins.  Isa.  53: 12. 
2:  24.  By  whose  stripes  ye  were  healed.  Isa.  53:  5. 
3:    6.  Not  afraid  with  amazement.     Gen.  18:  15; 

Prov.  3:  25. 
3: 10-12.  He  that  will  love  life,  and  see  good  days, 

etc.  Ps.  34: 12-10. 
3: 14,  15.  Be  not  afraid  of  their  terror,  etc.    Isa. 

8: 12,  13. 
3:  22.  On  the  right  hand  of  God.    Ps.  110: 1. 
4:    8.  Charity  shall  cover  .  .  .  sins.     Prov.  10:  12. 
4:  14.  If  ye  be  reproached  for  the  name  of  Christ, 

etc.    Ps.  89:  50,  51. 
4: 14.  The  Spirit  of  God  resteth  upon  you.    Isa. 

4: 17.  Begin  at  the  house  of  God.    Ezek.  9:  6. 
4: 18.  If  the  righteous  shall  scarcely  be  saved. 

Prov.  11:31. 
5:   5.  God  resisteth  the  proud.    Prov.  3:  34. 
5:   7.  Casting  all  your  care  upon  him.  Ps.  55:  22. 

II.  Peter. 
2:   2.  By  reason  of  whom  the  way  of  truth  shall 

be  evil  spoken  of.    Cf.  Isa.  52:  5. 
2:  22.  The  dog  is  turned  to  his  own  vomit  again. 

Prov.  20:  11. 
3:   8.  One  day  is  with  the  Lord  as  a  thousand 

years.    Ps.  90:  4. 
3: 12.  The  heavens  shall  be  dissolved.    Isa.  34:  4. 
3: 13.  New  heavens  and  a  new  earth.    Isa.  65: 

17;  00:  22. 


9.  Michael  the  archangel.    Dan.  12: 1. 

9.  The  Lord  rebuke  thee.  Zech.  3:  2. 
12.  Feeding  themselves.  Ezek.  34:  8. 
14.  The  Lord  cometh  with  ten  thousand  of 

his  saints.    Deut.  33:  2;  Zech.  14:  5. 
23.  Pulling  them  out  of  the  fire.     Zech.  3:  2. 
23.  Garment  spotted  by  the  flesh.     Zech.  3:  3. 

The  Revelation. 
1:    1.  Things  which  must  shortly  come  to  pass. 

Dan.  2:  28. 
1:   4.  From  him  which  is  and  which  was.     Ex. 

3:  11;  Isa.  11:  1. 
1:    5.  The  faithful  Witness.    Ps.  89:  37. 
1 :   5.  The  first- begotten.    Ps.  89:  27. 
1:    5.  Unto  him  who  washed  us  from  our  sins. 

Ps.  130:8;  Isa.  10:2. 
1:   6.  Kings  and  priests  unto  God.    Ex.  19:  6. 
1:   7.  Behold,  he  cometh  with  clouds.    Dan.  7: 

13.    Cf.  Isa..  19:  1. 
1:   7.  And  every  eye  shall  see  him,  etc.    Zech. 

12: 10, 12. 

The  Revelation. 

1:   8.  I  am  Alpha  and  Omega.    Ex.  3:  II;  Isa.  41:4. 
1 :   8.  The  Almighty.    Amos  4: 13  (LXX.). 
1: 13.  One   like   the   Son   of  man.     Dan.  7: 13; 

Ezek.  1:26;  8:2. 
1: 13.  Clothed  in  a  garment  down  to  the  foot. 

Ezek.  9:2,  11  (LXX.). 
1 :  13.  Girt  about  with  a  golden  girdle.    Dan.  10:  5. 
1: 14.  His  head  and  his  hair  were  white  like 

wool.    Dan.  7:  9. 
1: 14,  15.  His  eyes  like  a  flame  of  fire.    Dan.  10:  6. 
1: 15.  His  voice  as  the  sound  of  many  waters. 

Ezek.  1:24;  43:2. 
1: 16.  As  the  sun  ...  in  his  strength.    Judg.  5:  31. 
1:  17.  Fear  not.    Dan.  10:  19. 

1 :  17.  I  am  the  first  and  the  last,.    Isa.  44:  6;  48: 12. 
1: 19.  The  things  which  shall  be  hereafter.    Isa. 

48:6;  Dan.  2:  29. 
2:   7.  To  eat  of  the  tree  of  life.    Gen.  2:  9;  3:  22; 

Ezek.  31:8. 
2:    8.  I  am  the  first  and  the  last.    Isa.  44:  0. 
2:10.  Ye  shall  have  tribulation  ten  days.    Cf. 

Dan.  1 :  12,  14. 
2: 14.  To  eat  things  sacrificed  to  idols.    Num.  31 : 

16.  {See  on  Balaam,  References  to  Old  Tes- 
tament Histo  ries. ) 
2:  14.  And  to  commit  fornication.    Num.  25: 1,  2. 
2: 17.  A  new  name  written.    Isa.  02:  2;  65:  15. 
2: 18.  His  feet  like  fine  brass.    Dan.  10:  0. 
2:  20.  To  eat  things  sacrificed  to  idols,  etc.  Num. 

25: 1-3. 
2:  23.  I  am  he  which  searcheth  the  hearts,  etc. 

Jer.  17:  10;  Ps.  7:9;  02:12. 
2:  26,  27.  He  shall  rule  them  with  a  rod  of  iron, 

etc.    Ps.  2:8  9. 
3:   5.  Blot  out .  .' .  f  roni  the  book  of  life.    Ex.  32: 

33;  Ps.  09:  28. 
3:   7.  Hath  the  key  of  David,  etc.    Isa.  22:  22. 
3:   9.  I  will  make  them  to  come  and  worship, 

etc.    Isa.  45:  11;  49:  23;  60: 14. 
3:   9.  I  have  loved  thee.    Isa.  43:  4. 
3: 12.  Name  of  the  city  of  my  God.    Ezek.  48:  35. 
3: 12.  My  new  name.    Isa.  62:  2;  65: 15. 
3: 14.  The  faithful  Witness.    Ps.  89:  37. 
3: 14.  The  beginning  of  the  creation.    Prov.  8:  22. 
3: 17.  I  am  rich.    Hos.  12:  8. 
3: 19.  As  many  as  I  love  I  rebuke,  etc.    Prov. 

4:   1.  The  voice  of  a  trumpet.    Ex.  19: 16. 
4:   1.  Things  which  must  be  hereafter.    Dan. 

2:  29. 
4:   2.  One  sat  on  the  throne.    Isa.  6:  1;  Ps.  47:  8. 
4:   3.  Rainbow  round  about  the  throne.    Ezek. 

4:   5.  Out  of  the  throne  proceeded  lightnings 

and  thunderings.   Ezek.  1:  13;  Ex.  19:  16. 
4:   6.  Like  unto  glass,  and  in  the  midst  of  the 

throne,  and  round  about  the  throne, 

four  living  creatures.    Ezek.  1:  5,  18,  22; 

Isa.  6: 1. 
4:   7.  Like  lion,  ox,  man,  eagle.    Cf.  Ezek.  1: 10; 

10: 14. 
4:   8.  The  four  living  creatures  had  each  six 

wings  about  him.    Isa.  0:  2. 
4:   8.  Full  of  eyes  within.    Ezek.  1: 18;  10: 12. 
4:   8.  Holy,  holy,  holy,  Lord  God.    Isa.  0:  3. 
4:   8.  Which  was,  and  is,  and  is  to  come.    Ex. 

3:14;  Isa.  41:4, 
4:   9.  To  whim  who  sat  on  the  throne.    Isa.  6:1; 

Ps.  47:8. 
4:  9,  10.  To  him  who  livcth:  for  ever  and  ever. 

Dan.  4:34;  0:26. 
5:    1.  Him  that  sat  on  the  throne.    Isa.  6: 1;  Ps. 

5:   1.  A  book  written  within  and  on  the  back 

side.    Ezek.  2:9,  10. 
5:    1.  A  book  sealed.    Isa.  29:  11. 
5:   5.  The  Lion  of  the  tribe  of  Juda,  the  Root 

of  David.    Cf.  Gen.  49:  9;  Isa.  11:  10. 
5:   0.  A  Lamb  as  it  had  been  slain.    Isa.  53:  7. 
5:   6.  Having  seven  eyes  sent  forth  into  all  the 

earth.    Zech.  4: 10. 
5:   7.  Him  that  sat  upon  the  throne.    Isa.  0:  1; 

Ps.  47:8. 



The  Revelation. 
5:   8.  Vials  full  of  odours  [margin,  incense].    Ps. 

5:   9.  They  sung  a  new  song.    Ps.  144:  9. 
5: 10.  Unto  our  God  kings  and  priests.    Ex.  19:6. 
5: 11.  Ten  thousand,  etc.    Dan.  7: 10. 
5: 12.  The  Lamb  that  was  slain.    Isa.  53:  7. 
5: 13.  To  him  that  sitteth  on  the  throne.    Isa. 

6:1;  Ps.  47:8. 
6:2,4,5.  On  the  white,  red,  and  black  horses. 

Cf.  Zech.  1:8;  6:2,3,6. 
6:   8.  Death  and  Hell.    Hos.  13: 14. 
6:   8.  With  the  sword  and  with  famine,  etc. 

Ezek.  29:  5;  33:  27;  14:  21;  5: 12;  34:  28. 
6: 10.  How  long,  O  Lord?    Zech.  1: 12. 
6:10.  Dost  thou  not  avenge  our  blood?    Deut. 

32:43;  II.  Ki.  9:  7. 
6: 10.  On  them  that  dwell  on  the  earth.    Hos  4: 1. 
6: 12.  The  moon  became  as  blood.    Joel  2:  31. 
6: 13, 14.  The  stars  of  heaven  fell,  etc.    Isa.  34:  4; 

13: 10. 
6: 15.  The  kings  of  the  earth,  and  the  great  ones, 

did  hide  themselves.    Ps.  48:  4;  2:  2;  Isa. 

24:21;  34:  12. 
6: 15.  In  the  dens  and  rocks  of  the  mountains. 

Jer.  4:29;  Isa.  2: 10. 
6: 16.  And  said  to  the  mountains,  Fall  on  us, 

etc.    Hos.  10:  8. 
6: 16.  Him  that  sitteth  on  the  throne.    Isa.  6: 1; 

Ps.  47:  8. 
6: 17.  The  great  day  of  his  wrath  is  come.    Ps. 

110:  5;  Joel  2: 11;  Zeph.  1: 14,  15. 
6: 17.  Who  shall  be  able  to  stand?    Mai.  3:  2. 
7:   1.  The  four  corners  of  the  earth.    Ezek.  7:  2. 
7:    1.  The  four  winds.    Ezek.  37:  9;  Zech.  6:  5. 
7:   3.  Sealed  ...  in  their  foreheads.    Ezek.  9:  4. 
7:10.  Sitteth  upon  the   throne.    Isa.  6:  1;  Ps. 

7: 14.  Came  out  of  great  tribulation.    Dan.  12: 1. 
7: 14.  Washed  their  robes  ...  in  the  blood.    Gen. 

49: 11. 
7:15.  He  that  sitteth  on  the  throne.    Isa.  6: 1: 

Ps.  47:8. 
7: 16.  They  shall  hunger  no  more,  etc.  Isa.  49: 10. 
7: 17.  The  Lamb  shall  feed  them.    Ezek.  34:23. 
7: 17.  Living  fountains  of  waters.    Jer.  2: 13. 
7: 17.  God  shall  wipe  away  all  tears.   Isa.  25:  8. 
8:  3.  Stood  at  the  altar.    Amos  9: 1. 
8:   3.  Incense.    Ps.  141:2. 
8:   5.  The  censer,  and  filled  it  with  fire,  etc. 

Lev.  16: 12. 
8:  5.  Voices,  and  thunderings,  and  lightnings. 

Ex.  19: 16. 
8:   7.  Hail  and  fire  mingled  with  blood.    Ex.  9: 

24;  Ezek.  38:22;  Joel  2:  30. 
8:   8.  Great  mountain  burning.    Jer.  51:25. 
8:   8.  The  third  part  of  the  sea  became  blood. 

Cf.  Ex.  7:19. 
8: 10.  There  fell  a  star  from  heaven.    Isa.  14: 12. 
9:  2.  Arose  as  the  smoke  of  a  great  furnace. 

Gen.  19:28;  Ex.  19: 18. 
9:  2.  The  sun  and  air  were  darkened.    Joel  2: 10. 
9:   3.  Locusts  upon  the  earth.    Cf.  Ex.  10:  12, 15. 
9:   4.  Seal  of  God  in  their  foreheads.    Ezek.  9:  4. 
9:   6.  Seek  death,  and  not  find  it.    Job  3:  21. 
9:   7.  Locusts  like  unto  horses.    Joel  2:  4. 
9:   8.  Their  teeth  were  as  the  teeth  of  lions. 

Joel  1:6. 
9:   9.  The  sound  of  chariots.    Joel  2:  5. 
9: 11.  Abaddon.    See  Job  26:  6,  R.  V.;  Job  28:  22. 
9:14.  The  great  river  Euphrates.    Gen.  15:18; 

Deut.  1:7. 
9 :  20.  Works  of  their  hands.    Isa.  17 :  8 ;  Dan.  5 :  3. 
9:  20.  Idols  of  gold  and  silver.    Dan.  5:  4,  23. 
9:  20.  Should  not  worship  devils.    Deut.  32: 17. 
9:  20.  Which  neither  can  see,  nor  hear,  nor  walk. 

Ps.  115:  7. 
9:  21.  Of  their  sorceries.    II.  Ki.  9:  22. 
10:   4.  Seal  up  those  things.    Cf.  Dan.  8:  26;  12:  4. 
10:   5.  Lifted  up  his  hand  to  heaven,  etc.    Dan. 

12:  7;  Gen.  14:  19.  22;  Neh.  9:  6. 
10:   7.  The  mystery  of  G-od  .  .  .  declared  to  his 

servants  the  prophets.    Amos  3:7;  Dan. 

9:6,10;  Zech.  1:6. 

The  Revelation. 

10:   9.  Little  book  . .  .  Take  it,  and  eat  it  up  .  .  . 

sweet  as  honey.    Ezek.  3: 1. 
10: 11.  Prophesy  before  peoples  and  nations,  etc. 

Jer.  1: 10;  25:  30;  Dan.  3:  4. 
11:    1.  A  reed  like  unto  a  rod.    Ezek.  40:3.    On 

measuring  of  temple  cf.  Ezek.  40:  47. 
11:   2.  The  holy  city  shall  they  [the  Gentiles] 

tread  under  foot.    Zech.  12:3  (LXX.); 

Isa.  63:18.    Cf.  Dan.  8:  13. 
11.   4.  The  two  olive  trees,  and  the  two  candle- 
sticks, etc.    Zech.  4:  2,  3,  11,  14. 
11:   5.  Fire  .  .  .  devoureth    their   enemies.      II. 

Ki.  1:10. 
11:   5.  Fire  out  of  their  mouth.    II.  Sam.  22:9: 

Jer.  5: 14. 
11:   6.  These  have  power  to  shut  heaven,  that  it 

rain  not.    I.  Ki.  17: 1. 
11:   6.  And  over  waters  to  turn  them  to  blood. 

Ex.  7: 17, 19. 
11:   6.  To  smite  the  earth  with  all  plagues.    I. 

Sam.  4:8. 
11:   7.  The  beast  that  ascendeth  out  of  the  bot- 
tomless pit,  etc.    Dan.  7:  3,  7. 
11:   8.  City  spiritually  called  Sodom.    Isa.  1: 10. 
11: 10, 11.  Great  fear  fell  upon  them.    Ps.  105:  38. 
11: 11.  Life  entered  into  them,  etc.    Ezek.  37:  5-10. 
11: 12.  Ascended  up  to  heaven.    II.  Ki.  2: 11. 
11: 13.  A  great  earthquake.    Ezek.  38: 19,  20. 
11: 13.  Gave  glory  to  the  God  of  heaven.    Josh. 

7: 19;  Dan.  2: 19. 
11: 15.  The  kingdoms  of  our  Lord.    Obad.  21;  Ps. 

22:  28. 
11: 15.  He  shall  reign  for  ever  and  ever.    Ex.  15: 

18;  Ps.  10: 16. 
11 :  17.  Lord  God  Almighty,  which  art,  and  wast, 

and  art  to  come.    Ex.  3: 14;  Isa.  12:  4. 
11: 18.  The  nations  were  angry.    Ps.  99: 1  (LXX.); 

Ps.  2: 1  (Heb.)  and  46:  6  (Heb.). 
11: 18.  Fear  thy  name,  small  and  great.    Ps.  115: 

11: 18.  Thy  servants  the  prophets.    Amos  3:  7; 

Dan.  9:6;  Zech.  1:6. 
11: 19.  In  his  temple  the  ark  of  his  testament. 

I.  Ki.  8:1,  6;  II.  Chr.  5:  7. 
11: 19.  Lightnings,  voices,  thundering,  and  great 

hail.    Ex.  19:16;  9:24. 
12:   2.  Cried,  travailing  in  birth,  and  in  pain  to 

be  delivered.    Isa.  66:  7. 
12:    3.  Ten  horns.    Dan.  7:7. 
12:   4.  Drew  the  third  part  of  the  stars  of  heaven. 

Dan.  8: 10. 
12:   5.  She  brought  forth  a  man-child.    Isa.  66:  7. 
5.  Who  was  to  rule  all  nations  with  a  rod  of 

iron.    Ps.  2:  9. 
7.  Michael  and  his  angels  fought.    Dan.  10: 

13,  20. 
12:   9.  The  old  serpent.    Gen.  3: 1. 
12:   9.  Called  the  Devil  and  Satan.    Zech.  3: 1,  2. 
12: 12.  Rejoice,  ye  heavens.    Isa.  44:  23;  49: 13. 
12: 14.  For  a  time,  and  times,  and  half  a  time. 

Dan.  7:25;  12:7. 

1.  A  beast  rise  up  out  of  the  sea,  having  . .  . 
ten  horns.    Dan.  7:  3,  7. 

2.  His  mouth  as  the  mouth  of  a  lion.    Dan. 

7:  4-6. 
13:   5.  Speaking  great  blasphemies.    Dan.  7:8. 
13:   7.  To  make  war  with  the  saints,  and  over- 
come them.    Dan.  7:  21. 
13:   8.  Whose  names  are  not  written  in  the  book 

of  life.    Dan.  12: 1;  Ps.  69:  28. 
13:   8.  The  Lamb  slain.    Isa.  53:  7. 
13: 10.  He  that  leadeth  into  captivity  shall  go 

into  captivity,  etc.    Jer.  15:  2. 
13: 15.  As  many  as  would  not  worship  the  image. 

Dan.  3:5,  6. 
14:    1.  Written  in  their  foreheads.    Ezek.  9:  4. 
14:   2.  As  the  voice  of  many  waters.    Ezek.  1:  24; 

43:2;  Dan.  10:6. 
14:   3.  They  sung  as  it  were  a  new  song.  Ps.  144 :  9. 
14:   5.  In  their  mouth  was  found  no  guile.    Isa. 

53:9;  Zeph.  3: 13. 
14:   7.  Him  that  made  heaven  and  earth  and  sea. 

Ex.  20:11;  Ps.  146:6. 






The  Revelation. 

14:   8.  Babylon  the  great  is  fallen,  is  fallen.    Isa. 

21:9:  Dan.  4:30;  Jer.  51:7. 
14:  10.  Shall  drink  of  the  wine  .  .  .  poured  out 

without  mixture  into  the  cup  of  his 

indignation.    Isa.  51 :  17  and  Ps.  75:  8. 
14:  10.  With   tire    and    brimstone.      Gen.   19:  24; 

Ezek.  38:  22. 
14: 11.  The  smoke  .  .  .  ascendeth  up  for  ever  and 

ever.    Isa.  34: 10. 
14: 14.  Upon  the  cloud  one  sat  like  unto  the  Son 

of  man.    Dan.  7:  13;  10:  16. 
14: 15,  18,  20.  Thrust  in  thy  sickle  .  .  .  for  the  time 

is  come  for  thee  to  reap.    Joel  3:  13. 
15:    1.  Seven  plagues.    Lev.  26:21. 
15:    3.  They  sing  the  song  of  Moses.    Ex.  15: 1. 
15:   3.  Great  and  marvellous  are  thy  works.    Ps. 

111:2;  Ex.  34:10. 
15:   3.  Just  and  true  are  thy  ways.    Deut.  32:4; 

Jer.  10:  10. 
15:   4.  Who  shall  not  fear  thee,  O  Lord?  Jer.  10:  7. 
15:   4.  All  nations  shall  come  and  worship  before 

thee.    Ps.  86:9;  Mai.  1:11. 
15:   5.  The  temple  of  the  tabernacle  of  the  testi- 
mony.   Num.  1:  50. 
15:   6.  Seven  plagues.    Lev.  26:  21. 
15:   8.  The  temple  was  filled  with  smoke.  Isa.  6:4. 
15:    8.  No  man  was  able  to  enter.   Ex.  40:  34,  35. 
15:   8.  Seven  plagues.    Lev.  26:  21. 
16:    1.  Voice  out  of  the  temple.    Isa.  66:  6. 
16:   1.  Pour  out .  .  .  the  wrath  of  God  upon  the 

earth.    Ps.  69:  24;  79:  6;  Jer.  10:  25. 
16:   2.  There  fell  a .  .  .  sore  upon  the  men.    Ex. 

9:9,10;  Deut.  28:35. 
16:   3.  Became  as  blood.    Ex.  7:  20,  21. 
16:   4.  The  rivers  became  blood.    Ps.  78:  44. 
16:   5.  Thou  art  righteous.    Ps.  119: 137. 
16:   5.  Which  art,  and  wast,  and  shalt  be.    Ex.  3: 

14;  Isa.  41:4. 
16:   6.  They  poured  out  blood.    Ps.  79:  3. 
16:   6.  Thou  hast  given  them  blood  to  drink.  Isa. 

16 :  7.  Even  so,  Lord  God  Almighty.    Amos  4 :  13 

16:  7.  Righteous  are  thy  judgments.    Ps.  19:  9. 
16: 10.  Kingdom  was  full  of  darkness.    Ex.  10: 22. 
16: 11.  The  God  of  heaven.    Dan.  2: 19. 
16:12.  The  great  river  Euphrates.    Gen.  15:  18; 

Deut.  1: 7. 
16: 12.  The  water  thereof  was  dried  up.    Isa.  44: 

27;  Jer.  50:38. 
16: 12.  The  kings  of  [from]  the  east  [lifaj  from  the 

sun-rising].    Isa.  41: 2,  25. 
16: 13.  Like  frogs.    Ex.  8 : 3. 
16 :  14.  God  Almighty.    Amos  4 :  13  (LXX.). 
16 :  16.  Armageddon.    Zech.  12 :  11. 
16: 17.  Voice  out  of  the  temple.    Isa.  66:6. 
16 :  18.  Lightnings,  and  voices,  and  thunders.  Ex. 

16: 18.  Such  as  was  not .  . .  upon  the  earth.  Dan. 

12 : 1. 
16 :  19.  Great  Babylon.    Dan.  4 :  30. 
16:19.  The  cup  of  the  wine  of  the  fierceness  of 

his  wrath.    Isa.  51: 17;  Jer.  25: 15. 
16 :  21.  A  great  hail.    Ex.  9 :  24. 
17 :   1.  Sitteth  upon  many  waters.    Jer.  51: 13. 
17 :  2.  With  whom  the  kings  of  the  earth  have 

committed  fornication.    Isa.  23: 17. 
17:  3.  Beast, .  .  .  having  . . .  ten  horns.    Dan.  7: 7. 
17:  4.  A  golden  cup  in  her  hand.    Jer.  51:7. 
17:   5.  Babylon  the  great.    Dan.  4:30. 
17:  8.  The  beast  shall  ascend  out  of  the  bottom- 
less pit.    Cf.  Dan.  7 : 3. 
17:  8.  Not  written  in  the  book  of  life.    Dan.  12: 

1;  Ps.  69:28;  Cf.  Isa.  4:3. 
17 :  12.  The  ten  horns  are  ten  kings.    Dan.  7 :  24. 
17 :  14.  Lord  of  lords,  and  King  of  kings.    Deut. 

10:17;  Dan.  2:47. 
17: 15.  The  waters  upon  which  the  whore  sitteth. 

Cf.  Jer.  51: 13. 
17:18.  That  great  city,  which  reigneth  over  the 

kings.    Cf.  Ps.  2:2;  89:27. 
IS:  2.  Babylon  the  great  is  fallen.     Isa.  21:  9; 

Dan.  4:30. 

The  Revelation. 


2.  And  is  become  the  habitation  of  devils. 
Jer.  9:11. 

2.  The  hold  of  every  foul  spirit.    Isa.  13:21: 
34 :  14. 

3.  All  nations  have  drunk  of  the  wine  of 
her  fornication.    Jer.  51:7;  25:16-27. 

4.  Come  out  of  her,  my  people.  Jer.  51: 6, 9,  45. 
6.  Reward  her  even  as  she  rewarded  you.  Ps. 


6.  According  to  her  works.    Jer.  50: 29. 

7.  She  saith  in  her  heart,  I  sit  a  queen,  etc. 
Isa.  47:7,  8,  11. 

8.  In  one  day  shall  come.    Isa.  47: 9. 

8.  Strong  is  the  Lord  who  judgeth  her.  Jer. 

9.  The  kings  of  the  earth  shall  bewail  her. 
Ezek.  26:16,  17;  27:30-33. 

9.  Who  have  committed  fornication  with 
her.    Isa.  23 :  17. 

10.  Alas,  that  great  city  Babylon,  that  mighty 
city !    Dan.  4 :  30 ;  Ezek.  26 :  17. 

11.  The  merchants  shall  weep  and  lament 
over  her.    Ezek.  27:36. 

13.  The  merchandise  of .  .  .  slaves  and  souls 
of  men.    Ezek.  27:13. 

15.  The  merchants  .  .  .  w^eeping  and  lament- 
ing.   Ezek.  27 :  31,  32. 

17.  Every  shipmaster,  .  .  .  and  sailors,  etc. 
Ezek.  27 :  28,  29. 

18.  What  city  is  like  unto  this  great  city! 
Ezek.  27 :  32. 

19.  They  cast  dust  on  their  heads,  and  cried, 
etc.    Ezek.  27 :  30. 

19.  Wherein  were  made  rich  all,  etc.  Ezek. 
27:9,33,36;  also,  26:19. 

20.  Rejoice  .  .  .  thou  heaven.    Deut.  32:43. 

21.  A  stone,  and  cast  it  into  the  sea,  saying, 
Thus  shall  Babylon  the  great  city.   Jer. 

51:  63,  64. 
18:21.  And  shall  not  rise  again.  Jer.  51: 64;  Ezek. 

18:22.  The  voice  of  harpers  shall  be  heard  no 

more  in  thee.    Ezek.  26: 13. 
18:22,  23.  The  sound  of  a  millstone  .  .  .  and  the 

light  of  a  candle.    Jer.  25 :  10. 
18 :  23.  The  voice  of  the  bridegroom  and  the  bride. 

Jer.  25:10. 
18: 23.  Thy  merchants  were  the  great  men  of  the 

earth.    Isa.  23:8. 
18 :  23.  By  thy  sorceries  were  all  nations  deceived. 

Isa.  47:9. 
18:24.  In  her  was  found  the  blood  of  all  that 

were  slain  upon  the  earth.    Jer.  51: 49. 
19 : 1,  3,  4,  6.  Saying,  Alleluia !    Ps.  104 :  35. 
19:  2.  Righteous  are  his  judgments.    Ps.  19:9. 
19:  2.  He  hath  avenged  the  blood  of  his  serv- 
ants.   Deut.  32 :  43. 
19 :  3.  Her  smoke  rose  up  for  ever.    Isa.  34 :  10. 

That  sat  on  the  throne.    Isa.  6:1;  Ps.  47 :  8. 
19:  5.  Praise  our  God,  all  ye  his  servants.    Ps. 

19:  5.  And  ye  that  fear  him,  both  small  and 

great.    Ps.  22 :  23,  etc. 
19:  6.  Voice  of  a  great  multitude.    Dan.  10:  6. 
19:   6.  Voice  of  many  waters.    Ezek.  1: 24;  43: 2. 
19:  6.  The  Lord  God  omnipotent  reigneth.    Ps. 

93:1;  99:1. 
19:  6,7.  Let  us  be  glad  and  rejoice.  Cf.  Ps.  97:1. 
19: 11.  I  saw  heaven  opened.  Ezek.  1:1. 
19: 11.  In  righteousness  he  doth  judge.  Ps.  96: 13. 
19: 12.  His  eyes  were  as  a  flame  of  fire.  Dan.  10:  6. 
19: 15.  Out  of  his  mouth  a  sharp  sword.  Isa.  11 :  4. 
19:15.  Shall  smite  the  nations  and  rule  them 

with  a  rod  of  iron.    Ps.  2:8,  9. 
19: 15.  He  treadeth  the  wine-press.    Joel  3: 13. 
19: 15.  Of  Almighty  God.    Amos  4 :  13  (LXX.). 
19:16.  King  of  kings,  and  Lord  ol  lords.    Deut. 

10:17;  Dan.  2:47. 
19: 17.  Saying  to  all  the  fowls  that  fly,  Come,  etc. 

Ezek.  39:  19,  20. 
19: 19.  The  kings  of  the  earth  gathered.    Ps.  2:2. 
19 :  20.  Burning  with  brimstone.    Gen.  19 :  24;  Isa. 




The  Revelation. 

19 :  21.  All  the  fowls  were  filled  with  their  flesh. 

Ezek.  39 :  20. 
20:  2.  That  old  serpent.    Gen.  3: 1. 
20:  2.  The  Devil  and  Satan.    Zech.  3: 1,  2. 
20:  4.  I  saw  thrones,  and  they  sat  upon  them, 

and  j  udgment  was  given.     Dan.  7 :  9,  22. 
20:  6.  Priests  of  God.    Isa.  61:  6. 
20:  8.  Which  are  in  the  four  quarters  of  the 

earth,  Gog  and  Magog.    Ezek.  7 :  2  and 

Ezek.  38:2. 
20.  9.  On  the  breadth  of  the  earth.    Hab.  1 :  6. 
20:  9.  The  beloved  city.    Jer.  11 :  15 ;  12 :  7. 
20:  9.  Fire  came  down  from  heaven  and  con- 
sumed.   II.  Ki.  1 :  10. 
20:10.  Fire  and  brimstone.    Gen.  19:24;   Ezek. 

20 :  11.  I  saw  a  throne,  and  him  that  sat.    Isa. 

6:1;  Dan.  7:9. 
20 :  11.  From  whose  face  the  earth  . . .  fled  away. 

Ps.  114:  3,  7. 
20 :  11.  No  place  for  them.    Dan.  2 :  35. 
20 :  12.  The  books  were  opened.    Dan.  7 :  10. 
20 :  12.  The  book  of  life.    Ps.  69 :  28. 
20: 15.  Whosoever  was  not  found  written  in  the 

book.   Dan.  12 : 1 ;  Ps.  69 :  28.   Cf .  Isa.  4 :  3. 
21 :   1.  A  new  heaven  and  a  new  earth.    Isa.  65 : 

17;  66:22. 
21 :  2.  The  holy  city, .  .  .  Jerusalem.    Isa.  52 : 1. 
21 :  2.  As  a  bride  adorned.    Isa.  61 :  10. 
21:   3.  The  tabernacle  of  God  is  with  men,  and 

he  shall  dwell  with  them,  etc.    Ezek. 

37:27.    Cf.  Zech.  2:10. 
21 :  4.  God  shall  wipe  away  all  tears  from  their 

eyes.    Isa.  25 :  8 ;  Jer.  31 :  16. 
21 :  4.  No  more  sorrow  or  crying.    Isa.  65 :  19,  17. 
21 :  5.  Sat  upon  the  throne.    Isa.  6:1;  Ps.  47 : 8. 
21 :  5.  Behold,  I  make  all  things  new.    Isa.  43: 19. 
21:   6.  I  will  give  unto  him  that  is  athirst,  etc. 

Isa.  55:1;  Zech.  14:8. 
21:  7.  I  will  be  his  God,  etc.    II.  Sam.  7: 14;  Ps. 

21:  8.  Burnetii  with  fire  and  brimstone.    Gen. 

19:24;  Isa.  30:33. 
21:  9.  The  seven  plagues.    Lev.  26:21. 
21 :  10.  He  carried  me  away ...  to  a  mountain, 

Ezek.  40:2. 
21 :  10.  The  holy  city  Jerusalem.    Isa.  52 : 1. 
21 :  11.  Having  the  glory  of  God.    Isa.  58 :  8 ;  60 : 1, 

2,  19. 
21 :  12.  Had  .  .  .  gates . . .  and  names . . .  the  twelve 

tribes,  etc.    Ezek.  48 :  31-34  (Heb.). 

The  Revelation. 

21 :  13.  On  this  verse  cf .  Ezek.  48 :  31-34. 

21 :  15.  A  reed  to  measure.    Ezek.  40 :  3,  5. 

21 :  16.  Lieth  four-square.    Ezek.  43: 16. 

21 :  17.  And  he  measured  the  wall.    Ezek.  41 :  5. 

21 :  18, 19.  The  building  of  the  wall  of  it  was  of 

jasper.    Cf.  Isa.  54 :  11,  12. 
21:22.  The   Lord    God   Almighty.     Amos   4:   13 

21 :  23.  No  need  of  the  sun  or  the  moon.  Isa.  60 :  19. 
21 :  23.  The  glory  of  the  Lord  doth  lighten  it.    Isa. 

60:1,2,  19. 
21:24.  Nations  shall  walk  in  its  light.    Isa.  60:  2. 
21:24.  The  kings  of  the  earth  shall  bring  their 

glory,  etc.    Isa.  60 :  10,  11. 
21 :  25.  The  gates  shall  not  be  shut.    Isa.  60 :  11. 
21 :  27.  There  shall  enter  into  it  nothing  that  de- 

filetn.    Isa.  52:1. 
21:27.  Which  are  written  in  the  book  of  life. 

Dan.  12:1;  Ps.  69:28. 
22:   1.  A  river  of  water  of  life  proceeding,  etc. 

Zech.  14 :  8.    Cf .  Ezek.  47 : 1. 
22:  2.  On  either  side  the  river  the  tree  of  life. 

Gen.  2:  9, 10;  3:  22;  Ezek.  47:  7,  12. 
22 :  2.  Fruit  every  month.    Ezek.  47 :  12. 
22 :  3.  There  shall  be  no  more  curse.    Zech.  14 :  11. 
22 :  4.  They  shall  see  his  face.    Ps.  17 :  15. 
22:  5.  They  need  no  light  of  the  sun,  for  the 

Lord  God  shall  lighten  them.    Isa.  60 :  19. 
22:  5.  They  shall  reign  for  ever.    Dan.  7: 18. 
22 :   6.  Things  which  must  shortly  be  done.    Dan. 

22:  7.  Behold,  I  come  quickly.    Isa.  40:10. 
22 :  10.  Seal  not  the  sayings.    Dan.  12 :  4. 
22 :  12.  See  v.  7.    My  reward  is  with  me.   Isa.  40 :  10. 
22 :  12.  To  give  every  man  according  as  his  work 

shall  be.  Ps.  28 :  4 ;  62 :  12 ;  J  er.  17 :  10. 
22 :  13.  The  first  and  the  last.  Isa.  44 :  6 ;  48 :  12. 
22:14.  Blessed  are  they  that  wash  their  robes.1 

Gen.  49:11. 
22: 14.  That  they  may  have  right  to  the  tree  of 

life.    Gen.  2:9;  3:22. 
22 :  16.  Root  and  offspring  of  David.    Isa.  11 :  10. 
22 :  17.  Let  him  that  is  athirst  come.    Isa.  55 :  1 ; 

Zech.  14:8. 
22:18.  If  any  man  shall  add  unto  these  things. 

Deut.  4:2;  12:32;  29:20. 
22:19.  God  shall  take  away  his  part  from  the 

tree  of  life  [marginal  reading,  A.  V.l. 

Gen.  2:9;  3:22. 

1  This  is  the  reading  of  the  two  oldest  MSS. 



By  EEV.  WILLIAM  HEBER  WRIGHT,  M.A.,  with  the  Editor. 


1.  Genesis.— The  creation  generally,  Gen.  1— 
see  Acts  14:  15;  II.  Pet.  3:  4,  5.  Creation  out  of 
nothing,  Heb.  11:  3;  of  light,  II.  Cor.  4:  6;  of  man 
and  woman  in  God's  image  and  from  dust,  I.  Cor. 
11:  7-12;  15:  45-47.  God's  rest,  Gen.  2— see  Heb. 
4:4;  cf.  Mark  2 :  27,  28.  Garden  of  Eden,  Rev.  2 : 
7;  22:  1,  2.  Tree  of  life,  Rev.  2:7;  22:  2,  14.  Man 
first  formed,  then  woman,  I.  Tim.  2 :  13 ;  I.  Cor. 
11 :  9.  Woman  out  of  man,  I.  Cor.  11 :  8.  Creation 
subject  to  man,  Heb.  1:  8.  Institution  of  mar- 
riage, Matt.  19:  4-6;  I.  Cor.  6: 16.  Temptation  of 
the  serpent,  Gen.  3— see  John  8:  44;  II.  Cor.  11:  3; 
II.  Cor.  2:  11;  I.  John  3:8;  Rev.  12:  9;  cf.  20:  2. 
Adam  tempted  by  Eve,  I.  Tim.  2 :  14.  Sin  and 
consequences,  Rom.  5:  12-19;  I.  Cor.  15:  22;  Heb. 
9 :  27.  Creation  cursed  for  man's  sake,  Rom.  8 :  22. 
Struggle  between  good  and  evil,  I.  John  3:  8,  10; 
and  victory  of  good,  Rom.  16:  20;  II.  Tim.  1:  10; 
Heb.  2:  14,  15.  Abel's  faith,  Gen.  4-see  Heb.  11: 
4.    Murdered  by  Cain,  I.  John  3:  12;  cf.  John  8: 

44;  Jude  11.  Blood  of  Abel,  Matt.  23:  35;  Luke 
11:  51;  Heb.  12:  24.  Like  begets  like,  Gen.  5: 1— 
see  John  3 :  6.  Enoch's  life  and  translation,  Gen. 
5:  21-2-4— see  Jude  14,  15;  Heb.  11:  5.  Story  of 
Noah,  Gen.  6  ff.— see  II.  Pet.  2 :  5.  Preparation  of 
the  ark,  Heb.  11 :  7;  I.  Pet.  3:  20.  The  flood,  Gen. 
7-9— see  Matt.  24:  37-39;  Luke  17:  26,  27;  I.  Pet.  3: 
20;  II.  Pet.  2:5;  3:6.  History  of  Abraham,  Gen. 
12  ff.— see  Acts  7 :  2  ff. ;  Rom.  4 :  3  ff.  Promise  to 
Abraham,  Luke  1:  73;  Acts  3:  25,  26;  Gal.  3:  8. 
His  sojourn  in  Canaan,  Acts  7:  4;  Heb.  11:  8-10. 
Promise  of  the  land,  Acts  7 :  5.  Melchizedek  and 
Abraham,  Gen.  14— see  Heb.  7.  Abraham's  seed 
as  the  stars,  Gen.  15:  5— see  Heb.  11:  12;  Rom.  4: 
3  ff.  Abraham's  faith  (vi  6) — see  Rom.  4 :  3,  9, 18- 
22;  Gal.  3:6;  Jas.  2:  23.  Bondage  of  his  seed  (v. 
13),  Luke  1:  72-75;  Acts  7:  6,  7.  Abraham  and 
Hagar,  Gen.  16 — see  Gal.  4:  24.  Father  of  many 
nations,  Gen.  17:  5— see  Rom.  4:  16,  17.  Circum- 
cision (v.  10),  Rom.  4:  11, 12.  Abraham  and  the 
angels,  Gen.  18:  2-5— see  Heb.  13:  2.  Sarah 
calls  him  "lord"  (v.  12)— see  I.  Pet.  3:  6.    Sodom 



and  Gomorrha— Lot,  Gen.  19— see  Matt.  10:  15; 
11:  24;  Mark  0:  11;  Luke  10:  12;  17:  28,  29;  Rom. 
9:  29;  II.  Pet.  2:  (5-8;  Jude  7;  cf.  Rev.  11:  8.  Lot's 
wife  (v.  20)— sec  Luke  17:  32.  Birth  of  Isaac,  Gen. 
21— see  Gal.  4:  23,  2S.  Sarah's  faith  (v.  2),  Heb.  11: 
11.  Isaac's  circumcision  (v.  1),  Acts 7:  8.  Ishmael 
mocking  (v.  9),  Gal.  1:  29.  Bondwoman  cast  out, 
Gal.  4:  30.  Offering  up  of  Isaac,  Gen.  22:  10— see 
Heb.  11:  17-19;  Jas.  2:  21-21.  Promise  "by  oath" 
(v.  17)— see  Luke  1:  72-75;  Heb.  0:  13,  11.  "Thy 
seed"  (v.  18)— see  Acts  3:  25;  Gal.  3:  10,  17.  Jacob 
and  Esau,  Rom.  9:7  11'.  Esau  and  his  birthright, 
Gen.  25:  31— see  Heb.  12:  10.  Esau's  sorrow,  Gen. 
27:  31 -see  Heb.  12:  17.  Isaac  and  "things  to 
come  "  (vs.  31-10)— see  Heb.  11 :  20.  Jacob's  dream, 
Gen.  28:  12— see  John  1 :  51.  Jacob's  history,  Gen. 
37— see  Acts  7:  8  11*.;  Heb.  11:  9.  Joseph  and  his 
brethren  (v.  28),  Acts  7:  9  IF.  Jacob  blessing  Jo- 
seph's sons,  Gen.  48:  20— see  Heb.  11:  21.  The 
"lion's  whelp,"  Gen.  19:  9— see  Rev.  5:5.  "The 
royal  tribe"  (v.  10)— see  Heb.  7:  14.  Joseph's 
bones.  Gen.  50:  25— see  Heb.  11:  22. 

2.  Exodus.— Israel  in  Egypt,  Ex.  1— see  Acts 
7 :  15  ff'.  Story  of  Moses,  Ex.  2— see  Acts  7 :  20  rT. ; 
Heb.  11:  23  II.  Burning  bush,  Ex.  3— see  Luke 
20:  37;  Acts  7:  30.  Magicians  of  Egypt— Moses, 
Ex.  7 :  11— see  II.  Tim.  3 : 8.  Pharaoh's  obstinacy, 
Ex.  9  If.— see  Rom.  9:  17.  The  Passover  and  the 
first-born,  Ex.  12— see  Heb.  11:  28.  Putting  away 
of  leaven  (v.  15)— see  I.  Cor.  5:  7.  The  exodus  (vs. 
37-51)— see  Acts  7:  36;  13:  17;  Jude  5.  Pillar  of 
cloud,  Ex.  13 :  21— see  I.  Cor.  10 : 1.  Passage  of  the 
Red  Sea,  Ex.  14 :  22— see  Acts  7 :  36 ;  I.  Cor.  10 : 1,  2  ; 
Heb.  11 :  29.  Song  of  victory,  Ex.  15— see  Rev.  15: 
3.  Manna  in  wilderness,  Ex.  16: 15— see  John  6: 
31,  32;  I.  Cor.  10:  3.  Gathering  of  manna— see  II. 
Cor.  8 :  15.  Pot  of  manna  (vs.  33,  34)— see  Heb.  9 : 4. 
Smitten  rock,  Ex.  17— see  I.  Cor.  10: 4.  Giving  of 
law  on  Sinai,  Ex.  19,  20— see  Acts  7:38  ff". ;  Gal. 
3:  19;  4:  24,  25;  Heb.  12:  18,  21.  Mount  not  to  be 
touched,  Ex.  19: 12— see  Heb.  12:  20.  Sprinkling 
of  the  people,  Ex.  24 :  8— see  Heb.  9  :  18-20.  Ark 
and  mercy  seat,  Ex.  25:  10-16— see  Heb.  9:  4,  5. 
Table,  showbread,  and  candlestick  (vs.  23-31), 
Heb.  9 :  2.  Tabernacle,  Ex.  26 :  30— see  Acts  7 :  44 ; 
Heb.  8:  5;  9:  2,  7.  The  veil  (vs.  31-33)— see  Matt. 
27:51;  Mark  15:38;  Heb.  6:19;  9:3.  Most  holy 
place  (v.  33)— see  Heb.  9:  7,  8;  10:  19.  Daily  ofler- 
i  ng,  Ex.  29 :  38— see  Heb.  10 :  11.  Golden  altar,  Ex. 
30 :  1-3— see  Heb.  9 : 4  (see  marg.  R. V.) ;  Rev.  8 :  3, 4. 
Golden  calf,  Ex.  32:  4-6— see  Acts  7:40;  I.  Cor.  10: 
7.  Tables  of  stone  (v.  16)— see  II.  Cor.  3:3;  Heb. 
9:  4.  Veil  on  Moses'  face,  Ex.  34:  33— see  II.  Cor. 

3.  Leviticus.— Circumcision,  Lev.  12:  3— see 
John  7 :  22.  Purification  of  women,  Lev.  12 :  6— see 
Luke  2:  22-24.  Law  of  leprosy,  Lev.  14:  2  ff.— see 
Matt.  8:4;  Luke  17: 14.  Day  of  atonement,  Lev. 
16— see  Heb.  9:  7.  Adulteress  to  be  stoned,  Lev. 
20 :  10— see  John  8 : 5.  Showbread  for  priests,  Lev. 
24:5,  9— see  Matt.  12:4. 

4.  Numbers.— Oath  of  exclusion,  Num.  14:  23 
—see  Heb.  3: 11;  "Breach  of  promise  "  (v.  29),  see 
Heb.  3:  16,  17;  4:  1;  Jude  5.  The  forty  years  (v. 
33),  see  Acts  7:  30,  12;  13: 18;  Heb.  3:  9.  Rebellion 
of  Korah,  Num.  16:  32,  33— see  Jude  11.  Aaron's 
rod,  Num.  17:  2,  4,  10— see  Heb.  9:  4.  Fiery  ser- 
pents, Num.  21:  6— see  I.  Cor.  10:  9.  Serpent  of 
brass  (v.  8),  see  John  3: 14.    The  story  of  Balaam, 

Num.  22— see  Jude  11:  11.  Pet.  2:  16;  Rev.  2:  14. 
Rebellions  of  Israel,  Num.  25: 1-9— see  I.  Cor.  10: 

5.  Deuteronomy.— Expulsion  of  Canaanites, 
Dent.  7:  1— see  Acts  13:  19.  Prophet  like  Moses, 
Deut.  18:  15,  18,  19— see  Acts  7:  37.  Law  about 
oxen,  Deut.  25:4— see  I.  Cor.  9:  9;  I.  Tim.  5:  18. 
Divorce,  Deut.  24:  1— see  Matt.  19:  7;  Mark  10:  4, 
etc.  Two  witnesses,  Deut.  19:  15— see  II.  Cor. 
13:  1.  Body  of  Moses,  Deut.  34:  6— see  Jude  9 
(also  Zech.  3). 


Joshua.— God's  promise  never  to  forsake  Josh- 
ua, see  Heb.  13:  5.  Rahab  and  spies,  Josh.  2— see 
Pleb.  11:  31;  Jas.  2:  25.  Walls  of  Jericho,  Josh. 
6 :  20— see  Heb.  11:  30.  Tabernacle  at  Shiloh,  Josh. 
18: 1— see  Acts  7:  45.  Division  of  land  (v.  10),  see 
Acts  13:  19.  Removal  of  Joseph's  bones,  Josh. 
24 :  32-see  Heb.  11:22. 

Judges.— Rule  of  the  judges,  Judg.  2:  16— see 
Acts  13:  20.  Gideon,  Judg.  6-8;  Barak,  Judg.  4; 
Samson,  Judg.  14,  15;  Jepbthah,  Judg.  11— see 
Heb.  11:  32. 

I.  Samuel.— Samuel,  I.  Sam.  3 :  20— see  Acts  13 : 
20;  Heb.  11:  32.  People  ask  a  king,  I.  Sam.  8:5— 
see  Acts  13:  21.    Saul,  I.  Sam.  10:  21— see  Acts  13: 

21,  22.    David,  I.  Sam.  13:  14— see  Acts  7:  46;  13: 

22.  David  and  the  showbread,  I.  Sam.  21:  6— see 
Matt.  12:3,4. 

II.  Samuel.— David's  exploits,  II.  Sam.— see  Heb. 
11 :  32.  David's  seed,  II.  Sam.  7 :  12— see  Acts  13 :  23. 
Successors  of  David,  Matt.  1:  6  ff. ;  Luke  3 :  23  ff. 
David  and  the  temple,  II.  Sam.  7:  2,  3— see  Acts 
7:  46. 

I.  Kings.— Solomon,  I.  Ki .  6— see  Acts  7: 47.  Queen 
of  Sheba,  I.  Ki.  10:  1— see  Matt.  12:  42;  Luke  11: 
31.  Jezebel,  I.  Ki.  16 :  31-33— see  Rev.  2 :  20.  Elij  ah 
and  the  drought,  I.  Ki.  17 : 1— see  Luke  4 :  25;  Jas. 
5 :  17,  18.  Widow  of  Zarephath  (v.  9),  Luke  4 :  26. 
Raising  of  the  widow's  son  (v.  23),  see  Heb.  11 :  35. 
Elijah's  intercession,  I.  Ki.  19:  14— see  Rom.  11: 
3.    Seven  thousand  faithful  (v.  18),  see  Rom.  11 :  4. 

II.  Kings.— The  Shunammite's  son,  II.  Ki.  4:  34 
—see  Heb.  11:  35.  Naaman  and  Elisha,  II.  Ki.  5 
—see  Luke  4:  27.  Star  worship,  II.  Ki.  17: 16;  23: 
4, 5— see  Acts  7 :  42.  Exile  to  Babylon,  IL  Ki.  24 :  15 
—see  Matt.  1: 11;  Acts  7:  43. 

I.  Chronicles.— See  the  genealogies  in  Matt.  1 
and  Luke  3. 

II.  Chronicles.— The  murder  of  Zechariah,  II. 
Chr.  24:  20,  21— see  Matt,  23:  35-  Luke  11:  51. 

Ezra.— See  references  in  Matt.  1: 12  and  Luke  3 : 
27  to  Zerubbabel  (Zorobabel)  and  Shealtiel  (Sa- 


Job.— Patience  of  Job,  Job  1:  22— see  Jas.  5:  11. 

Daniel.— Daniel's  three  friends,  Dan.  3:  27— see 
Heb.  11:  34.  Daniel  and  lions,  Dan.  6:  22— see 
Heb.  11:  33.  Daniel  the  prophet,  see  Matt.  24: 15; 
Mark  13:  14. 

Jonah.— Jonah  in  the  fish,  Jon.  1: 17— see  Matt. 
12:  40;  16:  4.  Mission  to  Nineveh,  Jon,  3:  4— see 
Luke  11:  30. 

Book  of  Reference:  Toy's  Quotations  in  the 
New  Testament.  For  the  references  to  the  Psalms 
and  Prophets  see  preceding  articles. 

By  REV.  C.  H.  H.  WRIGHT,  D.D.,  Ph.D. 


1.    PARABLES. 

The  trees  making  a  king,  addressed 

by    Jothain    to    the    men    of 

^heehem,       •  -  Judg.  (J:  7-15. 

The  riddle  put  forth  by  Samson  to 

his  marriage  guests,  -       -       -  Judg.  14:  14. 

The  poor  man's  ewe  lamb,  told  by 

Nathan  to  David,        -       -  '     -  II.  Sa.  12:  1-6. 

Parable  of  the  woman  of  Tekoah 

and  her  two  sons,       -       -       -  II.  Sa.  14 : 6-11, 



The  escaped  prisoner,  addressed  to 

Ahab  by  the  unknown  prophet,  I.  Ki.  20: 35-40. 
The   vision   of  Micaiah,   told   by 

him  to  Ahab,  -  -  -  -  I.  Ki.  22 :  19-23. 
The  thistle  and  cedar,  addressed 

by  Jehoash  to  Amaziah,  -  -  II.  Ki.  14:  9. 
The  drunkard,  addressed  to  the 

people  of  Israel,  -  -  -  -  Pro  v.  23: 29-35. 
The  sluggard  and  his  vineyard,  to 

the  people  of  Israel,  -  -  -  Pro  v.  24: 30-34. 
The  unfruitful  vineyard,  to  the 

people  of  Israel,  -  Isa.  5:  1-6. 

The  plowman,  or  good  out  of  evil, 

to  the  people  of  Israel,  -  -  Isa.  28:  23-29. 
The  great  eagles  and  the  vine,  -  Ezek.  17:  3-10. 
The  lion's  whelps,      -  Ezek.  19:  2-9. 

The  two  harlots,  addressed  to  the 

people  of  Israel,    -  Ezek.  23. 

The  boiling  pot  and  its  scum,  ad- 
dressed to  the  people  of  Israel,  Ezek.  24:  3-5. 
The  cedar  in  Lebanon,     -  Ezek.  31. 

The  sea  monster,       -  -  Ezek.  32: 1-16. 

The  shepherds  and  the  flock,  -  Ezek.  34. 
The  dry  bones  in  the  valley,  -  -  Ezek.  37. 
The  living  waters,     -  Ezek.  47. 

Many  others,  as  in  Amos  7-9;  Zech.  1:  7-6;  and 

the  true  and  the  false  shepherd  in  Zech.  11. 

2.    MIRACLES. 

Destruction  of  Sodom  and  Gomor- 
rah, -------  Gen.  19:  24. 

Lot's  wife  turned  to  a  pillar  of  salt,  Gen.  19 :  26. 

Birth  of  Isaac,      -----  Gen.  21 :  1-3. 

The  burning  bush  not  consumed,  Ex.  3:  2. 

Aaron's  rod  changed  into  a  ser- 
pent,        ------  Ex.  7:  10-12. 

The  plagues  of  Egypt— 

1.  The  waters  made  blood,      -  Ex.  7:  20-25. 

2.  The  frogs,         -       -       -       -  Ex.  8:  5-14. 

3.  The  lice, Ex.  S:  16-18. 

4.  The  flies,   -  -Ex.  8:20-24. 

5.  The  murrain,  -  Ex.  9:  3-6. 

6.  The  boils,  -       -       -       -       -  Ex.  9:  8-11. 

7.  The  thunder,  hail,  etc.,        -  Ex.  9:  22-26. 

8.  The  locusts,      -       -       -       -  Ex.  10:  12-19. 

9.  The  darkness,  -       -       -       -  Ex.  10:  21-23. 
10.    The  death  of  the  first-born,  Ex.  12:  29,  30. 

The  Red  Sea  divided  by  east  wind ; 

Israel  passes  through,  -  -  Ex.  14:  21-31. 
The  waters  of  Marah  sweetened,  -  Ex.  15:  23-25. 
The  manna  sent  daily  —  Sabbath 

excepted,  -----  Ex.  16:  14-35. 
The  water  from  the  smitten  rock 

atRephidim,         -       -       -       -  Ex.  17: 5-7. 
Nadab  and  Abihu  consumed  for 

offering  "strange  fire,"      -       -  Lev.  10:  1,  2. 
Part  of  Israel  burned  for  ungrate- 
ful'and  faithless  discontent,    -  Num.  11:  1-3. 
The  earth  swallows  Koran,  etc., 

fire  and  plague  follow,  -  -  Num.  16:  32  ff. 
Aaron's  rod  budding,        -  Num.  17:  1  ff. 

Water  from  the  rock  smitten  twice 

at  Meribah,  -  -  -  -  -  Num.20: 7-11. 
The  brazen  serpent;  Israel  healed,  Num.  21:  8,  9. 
The  river  Jordan  stopped;   Israel 

crosses  dryshod,    -       -       -       -  Josh.  3:  14-17. 
The  walls  of  Jericho  fall  down,     -  Josh.  6:  6-20. 
Sun  and  moon  stayed  (?);    hail- 
storm in  aid  of  Israel,        -       -  Josh.  10: 11-14. 
Strength  of  Samson,  -  Judg,  14-16. 

The  water  flows  from  the  hollow  [margin. 

place,  "in  Lehi"  (Heb.),  -  -Judg.  15:19. 
Dagon  falls  twice  before  the  ark; 

emerods  on  Philistines,  -  -  I.  Sa.  5:  1-12. 
The  men  of  Beth-shemesh  smitten 

for  looking  into  the  ark,  -       -  I.  Sa.  6:  19. 
A  thunderstorm  causes  a  panic  in 

the  Philistines'  army,        -       -  I.  Sa.  7: 10-12. 
The  thunder  and  rain  in  harvest,  I.  Sa.  12: 17, 18. 
The  sound  in  the  mulberry  trees; 

i.e.,  God  goeth  before,  -  -  II.  Sa.  5:  23-25. 
Uzzah  struck  dead  for  touching 

the  ark, II.  Sa.  6:  7. 

Jeroboam's  hand  withered  and  his 

new  altar  destroyed,  -  -  -  I.  Ki.  13:  4-6. 
The  widow  of  Zarephath's  meal 

and  oil  increased  by  Elijah,  -  I.  Ki.  17: 14-16. 
The  widow's  son  raised  from  death,  I.  Ki.  17 :  17-24. 
Drought,  fire   from   heaven,  and 

rain  at  the  prayer  of  Elijah; 

Elijah  wondrously  fed,      -       -  I.  Ki.  17-19. 
Wall  of  Aphek  falls  upon  thou- 
sands of  Syrians,  -       -       -       -  I.  Ki.  20:  30. 
Ahaziah's  captains  and  men  con- 
sumed by  fire,        -       -       -       -  II.  Ki.  1:10-12. 
The  river  Jordan  divided  by  Elijah  [14. 

and  Elisha  successively,    -       -  II.  Ki.  2:  7,  8, 
Elijah  translated  to  heaven,  -       -  II.  Ki.  2:  11. 
The  waters  of  Jericho  healed  with 

salt,  -------  II.  Ki.  2: 21, 22. 

Bears  destroy  forty-two  mocking 

"young  men  "  (Heb.),  -  -  II.  Ki.  2:  24. 
Water  for  Jehoshaphat  and  the 

allied  army,   -  -  II.  Ki.  3 :  16-20. 

The  widow's  oil  multiplied,    -       -  II.  Ki.  4:  2-7. 
The  gift  of  a  son  to  the  Shunam- 

mite,    and   the   raising   after- 
wards  of   that  son  from   the 

dead,         -  -  II.Ki.4: 14-37. 

The   deadly   pottage   cured  with 

meal,        ------  II.  Ki.  4: 38-41. 

The  hundred  men  fed  with  twenty 

loaves,      -  -  II.Ki.4 :  42-44. 

Naaman  cured  of  leprosy,  and  the 

di'sease  transferred  to  Gehazi,  II.  Ki.  5: 10-27. 
The  iron  ax-head  made  to  swim,  -  II.  Ki.  6:  5-7. 
The    Syrian    army  smitten  with 

blindness,  and  cured,  -       -       -  II.  Ki.  6: 18-20. 
Elisha's  bones  revive  the  dead,     -  II.  Ki.  13:  21. 
Sennacherib's  army  destroyed  by 

a  blast, II.  Ki.  19:35. 

The  shadow  of  the  sun  goes  back 

ten  degrees  on  the  sun-dial  of 

Ahaz,       - II.  Ki.  20: 9-11. 

Uzziah  struck  with  leprosy,   -       -  II.  Chr.  26: 16- 
Shadrach,  Mesh  ach,  and  Abednego  [21. 

delivered  from  the  furnace,  -  Dan.  3 :  19-27. 
Daniel  saved  in  the  den  of  lions,  -  Dan.  6:  16-23. 
Deliverance  of  Jonah,       -       -       -  Jon.  2:  1-10. 


(1)    Peculiar  to  St.  Matthew. 

20:  1-17. 
22:  1-14. 
25:  1-13. 

The  tares, Matt. 

The  hidden  treasure,  -  Matt. 

The  pearl  of  great  price,  -       -       -  Matt. 

The  drag  net, Matt. 

The  unmerciful  servant,  -       -       -  Matt. 
Laborers  in  the  vineyard,        -       -  Matt. 
The  father  and  two  sons,  -       -       -  Matt. 
The  marriage  of  the  king's  son,     -  Matt. 
The  ten  virgins,  -----  Matt. 

The  talents,  ------  Matt. 

The  sheep  and  goats,  -  Matt. 

(2)  Peculiar  to  St.  Mark. 

Growth  of  seed. Mk.  4:  26-29. 

The  household  watching,        -       -  Mk.  13:  34-36. 

(3)  Peculiar  to  St.  Luke. 

The  two  debtors,        -       -       -       -  Lk.  7: 36-50. 
The  good  Samaritan,        -  Lk.  10 :  25-37. 

The  friend  at  midnight,  -  Lk.  11:  5-8. 

The  rich  fool, Lk.  12:  16-21. 

The  servants  watching,  -  Lk.  12:  35-40. 

The  steward  on  trial,       -  Lk.  12:  42-48. 

The  barren  fig-tree,  -  -  Lk.  13:  6-9. 

The  great  supper,       -       -       -       -  Lk.  14:  16-24. 
The  tower  and  the  warring  king,  Lk.  14:  28-33. 
The  lost  piece  of  money,         -       -  Lk.  15:  8-10. 
The  prodigal  son  and   his  elder 

brother, Lk.  15:  11-32. 

The  unjust  steward,  or  dishonest 

land  agent, Lk.  16:  1-13. 



The  rich  man  and  Lazarus,    -       -  Lk.  16:  19-31. 
The  master  and  servant,         -       -  Lk.  17:  7-10. 
The  importunate  widow,        -       -  Lk.  18:  1-8. 
The  Pharisee  and  the  publican,    -  Lk.  18:  9-14. 
The  pounds, Lk.  19:  12-27. 

(4)  Peculiar  to  St.  John. 
The  bread  of  life,       -  John  6. 

The  shepherd  and  the  sheep,         -  John  10. 
The  vine  and  the  branches,    -       -  John  15. 

(5)   Common  to  Matthew  and  Luke. 
House  built  on  rock  and 

on  sand,         -       -       -  Matt.  7:  24;  Lk.  6:  48. 
The  leaven,         -       -       -  Matt.  13:  33;  Lk.  13:  20. 
The  lost  sheep,  -       -       -  Matt.  18:  12;  Lk.  15. 

(6)   Common  to  Matthew,  Mark,  and  Luke. 

The    candle    under    a 

bushel,-       -       -       -  Matt.  5;  Mk.4;  Lk.8. 

The    new    cloth    on    old 

garment,        -       -       -  Matt.  9;  Mk.2;  Lk.5. 

New  wine  and  old  bottles,  Matt.  9;  Mk.  2;  Lk.  5. 

The  sower,  -  Matt.  13 ;  Mk.  4 ;  Lk.  8. 

The  mustard  seed,     -       -  Matt.  13:  31,  32;  Mk.  4: 
31,32;  Lk.  13:18,  19. 

The   vineyard   and   hus- 
bandmen,     -       -       -  Matt.21;Mk.l2;Lk.20. 

Young  leaves  of  the  fig- 
tree,        -       -       -       -  M  att.  24;  Mk.  13;  Lk.  21. 


(1)  Peculiar  to  St.  Matthew. 
Two  blind  men  cured,      -  Matt.  9:  27-31. 

Dumb  spirit  cast  out,        -       -       -  Matt.  9 :  32,  as. 
Tribute  money  provided,        -       -  Matt.  17:24-27. 

(2)  Peculiar  to  St.  Mark. 

Deaf  and  dumb  man  cured,    -       -  Mk.  7:  31-37. 
Blind  man  cured,      -  -Mk.  8:22-26. 

(3)  Peculiar  to  St.  Luke. 
Jesus   passes    through    crowd   at 

Nazareth, Lk.  4:  28-30. 

Draught  of  fishes,      -  -  Lk.  5:  1-11. 

Widow's  son  raised  to  life  at  Nain,  Lk.  7:  11-17. 
Woman's  infirmity  cured,      -       -  Lk.  13:  11-17. 

Dropsy  cured, Lk.  14:  1-6. 

Ten  lepers  cleansed,  -  Lk.  17:  11-19. 

The  ear  of  Malchus  healed,     -       -  Lk.  22:  50, 51. 

(4)    Peculiar  to  St.  John. 

Water  made  wine  at  Cana,     -       -  John  2:  1-11. 

Nobleman's  son  cured  of  fever,     -  John  4:  46-54. 

Impotent  man  cured  at  Jerusalem,  John  5:  1-9. 

Jesus  passes  through  crowd  in  the 

temple, John  8:  59. 

Man  born  blind  cured  at  Jerusa- 
lem,          John  9:  1-7. 

Lazarus  raised  from  the  dead  at 

Bethany, John  11: 38-44. 

Falling  backward  of  the  soldiers,  John  18:  5,  6. 

Draught  of  153  fishes,        -       -       -  John  21:  1-14. 

(5)  Common  to  Matthew  and  Mark. 
Syrophenician's  daugh- 
ter cured,       -       -       -  Matt.  15:  28;  Mk.  7:  24. 

Thejfour  thousand  fed,    -  Matt.  15:  32;  Mk.  8: 1. 
The  fig-tree  blasted,  -       -  Matt.  21 :  19;  Mk.  11 :  13. 

(6)  Common  to  Matthew  and  Luke. 
Centurion's  palsied  serv- 
ant cured,      -       -       -  Matt.  8:5;  Lk.  7:  1. 

Blind  and  dumb  demo- 
niac cured,    -       -       -  Matt.  12:22;  Lk.  11:14. 

(7)     Common  to  Mark  and  Luke. 
Demoniac  in  synagogue 

cured,      -       -       -       -  Mk.  1:  23;  Lk.  4:  33. 

(8)     Common  to  Matthew,  Mark,  and  Luke. 
Peter's  mother-in-law 

cured,       -       Matt.  8:  14;  Mk.  1:  30;  Lk.  4:  38. 

The  tempest  stilled,  - 

-  Matt.  8:  23;  Mk.  4:  37;  Lk.  8:  22. 
The  demoniacs  cured, 

-  Matt.  8:  28;  Mk.  5:  1;  Lk.  8:  26. 
The  leper  cured,  Matt.  8:  2;  Mk.  1:  40;  Lk.  5:  12. 
The  daughter  of   Jairus 

raised  to  life,  Matt.  9:  23;  Mk.  5:  23;  Lk.  8: 41. 
Woman's  issue  of  blood 

cured,  -  -  Matt.  9:  20;  Mk.  5:  25;  Lk.  8:  43. 
A  paralytic  cured, 

-  Matt.  9:  2;  Mk.  2:  3;  Lk.  5:  18. 
Man's    withered    hand 

cured,  -  -  Matt.  12:  10;  Mk.  3:  1;  Lk.  6:  6. 
Devil  cast  out  of  boy, 

-  Matt.  17: 14;  Mk.  9: 14;  Lk.  9: 37. 
Blind  men  cured, 

-  Matt.  20 :  30;  Mk.  10: 46 ;  Lk.  18 :  35. 

(9)     Common  to  Matthew,  Mark,  and  John. 
Christ  walks  on  the  sea,  - 

-  Matt.  14: 25 ;  Mk.  6 :  48 ;  John  6 :  19. 

(10)     Common  to  All  the  Evangelists. 
The  five  thousand  fed,     - 

-  Matt.  14: 15;  Mk.  6:  30;  Lk.  9: 10; 

John  6:  1-14. 


The  outpouring   of   the 

Holy  Spirit,  with  the 

accompanying  signs,  -  Acts  2. 
The  gift  of  tongues,  -       -  Acts  2:  4-11;  10:  44-46. 
Lame  man  at  Beautiful 

Gate  of  the  temple,    -  Acts  3. 
Death   of  Ananias  and 

Sapphira,       -       -       -  Acts  5. 
Healing  of  sick  in  streets 

by  Peter,  etc.,       -       -  Acts  5:  15, 16. 
Prison  opened  for  apos- 
tles by  angels,       -       -  Acts  5:  19;  12:  7-11. 
Stephen's  dying  vision  of 

Christ,     -  Acts  7:  55,  56. 

Unclean  spirits  cast  out 

by  Philip,       -       -       -Acts  8:  6,  7. 
Christ's  appearance  to 

Saul   on    his  way  to 

Damascus,     -       -       -  Acts  9:  3  ff.;  22:  6  ff.; 
26:  13-19. 
Saul's   recovery  of   his 

sight,  ...  -  Acts  9:  17, 18;  22:  12, 13. 
Eneas  healed  of  palsy  by 

Peter,       -       -       -       -  Acts  9:  33, 34. 
Raising  of  Dorcas  to  life 

by  Peter,   -     -  Acts  9:  40. 

Vision  of  Cornelius,         -  Acts  10:  3,  4,  30-32. 
Vision  of  Peter,  -       -       -  Acts  10  and  11. 
Peter   miraculously   re- 
leased from  prison,     -  Acts  12:  7-11. 
Ely  mas    stricken   with 

blindness  by  Paul,      -  Acts  13:  11. 
Healing  of  cripple  at  Lys- 

tra, Acts  14:  8-18. 

Vision  of  "man  of  Mace- 
donia" seen  by  Paul,  -  Acts  16:  9. 
Spirit  of  divination  cast 

out  of   a   damsel   by 

Paul,        -       -       -  Acts  16:  16-18. 

Earthquake  atPhilippi,  -  Acts  16:  25,  26. 
Special  miracles  wrought 

by  Paul  at  Ephesus,  -  Acts  19:  11,  12. 
Evil  spirit  puts  to  flight 

Sceva's  sons,         -       -  Acts  19:  13-16. 
Raising  of  Eutvchus  to 

life  by  Paul,  -       -       -  Acts  20:  9-12. 
Prophecies  of  Agabus,     -  Acts  11:  28;  21:  11. 
Appearances  of  Christ  to 

Paul,        -  Acts  9:  3  ff.;  22:  17-21; 

23:  11;  27:23,24. 
Paul  unharmed  by  bite  of 

viper,       -  Acts,28:  3-5. 

Paul    heals   Publius'   fa- 
ther and  other  sick  at 

Melita,    -       -       -       -Acts  28:  8, 9. 



4.     MIRACLES    REFERRED    TO    IN    THE 

Miracles  wrought  by  Paul 

and  others,    -       -       -  Rom.  15:  18,  19;  I.  Cor. 
12:  9,  10,  28-31;   14: 
18;  Gal.  3: 5;  I.  Tim. 
Miracle  of  tongues,    -       -  I.  Cor.  14:  27-33. 
Appearances   of   Christ 

after  his  resurrection,  I.  Cor.  15:  4-8. 
Visions   and  revelations 

of  Paul,  -       -       -       -  II.  Cor.  12: 1-5,  with  12. 

'Powers  of  the  world  to 
come"  (i.e.,  of  gospel 


The   visions  of  John    in 
Patmos,  - 

-  Heb.2:4;  6:5. 

Rev.  1:  10;  4  to  end  of 

Books  of  Eeperence:  Trench  on  the  Parables 
and  Miracles;  Thompson's  Christian,  Miracles  ;  Burton's 
Christ's  Acted  Parables;  Thomson's  The  Parables  and 
Their  Home;  Taylor's  Parables  and.  Miracles  of  Our 
Saviour;  Arnot's  Parables  of  Our  Lord;  Laidlaw's  The 
Miracles  of  Our  Lord;  George  MacDonald's  Miracles 
of  Our  Lord;  Goebel's  Parables  of  Jesus. 

By  BEY.  -HUGH  MACMILLAN,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  F.B.S.E. 

MATTHEW  6: 9-13,  and  LUKE  11: 1-13. 

The  Lord's  Prayer  is  the  true  model  of  prayer 
— "After  this  manner,"  etc.;  "When  ye  pray, 
say,"  etc.  It  lays  down  the  lines  on  which  we 
should  frame  our  petitions;  removes  the  dis- 
tance and  ceremoniousness  of  our  approach  to 
God;  counteracts  the  selfishness  of  our  desires, 
and  enlarges  our  horizon  so  as  to  comprehend 
the  welfare  of  the  whole  world.  It  was  given 
by  Christ  to  his  disciples  on  two  different  occa- 
sions: the  first  in  connection  with  the  Sermon 
on  the  Mount;  the  second  after  two  years,  when 
the  disciples  asked  Jesus  to  teach  them  how  to 
pray.  It  is  the  Ten  Commandments  turned  into 
prayer,  the  commandments  to  keep  God's  law 
being  converted  into  prayers  to  enable  us  to 
keep  that  law.  There  is  a  striking  correspond- 
ence between  each  clause  of  the  Lord's  Prayer 
and  one  of  the  commandments,  and  the  order 
in  which  they  mutually  occur. 

It  consists,  first,  of  an  invocation  or  mode  of 
address  to  God.  The  word  "Our"  indicates  the 
great  change  which  Christ  introduced  into  the 
whole  conception  of  worship.  There  was  no  so- 
cial worship  in  the  Jewish  temple.  The  priest 
went  alone  into  the  holy  place,  while  the  people 
stood  outside.  But  in  the  Christian  church  the 
worship  of  God  is  for  all  the  people,  with  one 
heart  and  one  voice ;  and  in  private  prayer  we 
cannot  be  accepted  if  we  come  in  a  selfish  and 
exclusive  spirit. 

Our  "Father."  The  relation  of  God  as  a  Father 
belongs  to  all  men  alike  by  right  of  creation 
and  providence ;  but  it  is  by  the  grace  of  God  in 
conversion  that  we  receive  the  spirit  of  adop- 
tion whereby  we  cry,  "Abba,  Father." 

The  words  "  which  art  in  heaven  "  imply  that  as 
our  Father  is  in  heaven,  so  our  desires  and 
affections  should  ascend  beyond  earth. 

The  order  of  the  petitions  is  very  remarkable. 
It  begins  with  the  recognition  of  God's  rights  as 
Maker,  Sovereign,  Proprietor,  — "  thy  name," 
"thy  kingdom,"  "thy  will";  and  then  it  goes 
on  to  the  recognition  of  man's  needs— our  bread, 
our  debts,  our  temptations,  and  our  deliverance. 
The  essence  of  sin  is  the  inversion  of  this  di- 
vine order,  putting  the  creature  first  and  the 
Creator  last,  giving  precedence  to  man's  need 
over  God's  rights. 

"Hallowed  be  thy  name"  teaches  us  that  as  chil- 
dren we  are  to  treat  with  a  holy  love  and  fear 
the  name  and  relation  of  Father  in  which  we 
stand  to  God. 

"Thy  kingdom  come"  is  a  petition  that  God's 
reign  of  righteousness  and  peace  and  joy  may 
be  set  up  in  our  hearts,  and  that  we  may  be 
enabled  to  extend  it  by  our  character,  conduct, 
and  work  in  the  world  around. 

"Thy  will  be  done  in  earth,  as  it  is  in  heaven" 
shows  to  us  that  God's  will  is  the  highest  ulti- 
mate good  of  all  his  creatures;  that  all  his  laws 
have  been  devised  to  bring  about  this  result; 
and  that  in  proportion  as  we  obey  this  will  is 
our  true  welfare  promoted.    When  our  will  and 

the  Father's  are  absolutely  one,  we  shall  know 
that  all  things  work  together  for  our  good. 

"Give  us  this  day  our  daily  bread."  At  first  sight 
referring  to  the  most  urgent  want  of  man,  we 
find  that  this  petition  is  only  one  out  of  several 
others;" not  the  first  as  the  most  important,  not 
the  last  as  the  longest  remembered,  but  en- 
closed among  those  which  refer  to  spiritual 
things,  to  the  establishment  of  God's  kingdom 
and  the  overthrow  of  Satan's.  If  we  hallow 
God's  name  and  submit  to  his  reign  and  seek  to 
do  his  will,  then  we  can  with  confidence  ask 
him  for  the  blessings  which  our  natural  life 
requires  for  its  support  and  welfare.  God  gives 
us  that  for  which  we  ourselves  have  to  toil ;  not 
arbitrarily,  but  by  wise  and  beneficent  law ;  not 
all  at  once,  but  day  by  day. 

"Forgive  us  our  debts,  as  ice  forgive  our  debtors." 
The  word  "forgive,"  being  made  up  of  the  prep- 
osition "from,"  means  literally  "allow  our 
debts  to  be  put  away  from  us."  The  word  "  debt " 
has  a  very  close  resemblance  to  the  word  "  duty  " ; 
and  our  debts  are  therefore  our  failures  in  duty. 
We  ask  God  to  take  away  from  us  the  careless- 
ness and  indifference  in  which  such  failures 
originate ;  not  to  save  us  from  our  obligations  or 
the  consequences  of  our  sin,  but  from  our  sin 
itself.  Forgive  us,  not  in  proportion  as,  but  like  as, 
we  forgive  others.  If  we  forgive  others  slowly, 
grudgingly,  coldly,  so  shall  we  be  treated. 

"And  lead  us  not  into  temptation."  It  is  by 
temptation  that  we  are  tried  and  educated ;  yet 
we  are  justified  in  praying  to  our  Father  not  to 
lead  us  into  temptation  so  long  as  we  leave, 
with  childlike  submission,  to  his  loving  will 
the  means  by  which  our  faith  is  to  be  strength- 
ened and  our  spiritual  life  purified  and  en- 
nobled. We  are  not  to  go  willingly  into  temp- 
tation. The  temptation  itself  is  not  sin,  but  we 
fear  that  we  may  sin  through  it.  And  therefore 
this  petition  is  linked  along  with  the  next,  so  as 
to  make  of  the  two  one  petition.  KnoAving 
God's  power,  we  ask  him  to  deliver  us  from  the 
evil  that  is  in  the  temptation,  relying  upon  his 
promise  that  he  will  not  suffer  us  to  be  tried 
above  what  we  are  able,  but  with  every  tempta- 
tion will  provide  a  way  of  escape.  The  Revised 
Version  has  the  reading,  "deliver  us  from  the 
evil  one";  but  the  usage  of  the  Greek  language 
requires  that  the  original  should  be  translated, 
not  as  a  personal  word,  but  as  meaning  moral 
evil  in  its  totality. 

The  doxology,  "For  thine  is  the  kingdom,  and  the 
power,  and  the  glory,  for  ever,"  is  not  found  in  St. 
Luke,  and  is  omitted  in  many  manuscripts.  But 
it  is  an  appropriate  ending  of  the  Lord's  Prayer, 
giving  us  good  grounds  of  encouragement  to 
pray,  and  at  the  same  time  ascribing  all  the 
praise  to  God.  It  is  for  his  glory  that  all  wor- 
ship is  carried  on,  therefore  he  will  hear  our 
prayer,  and  do  for  us  exceeding  abundantly 
above  all  that  we  can  ask  or  think.    "Amen." 

Books  of  Reference  .  Boardman's  The  Model 
Prayer;  Gladden 's  The  Lord's  Prayer. 




By  REV.  ALEXANDER  STEWART,  D.D.,  Principal  of  St.  Mary's  College,  Uni- 
versity of  St.  Andrews. 

MATT.  5- 

LUKE  6:  20-49. 

1.  Introductory.— Our  Lord's  Sermon  on  the 
Mount  has  in  every  age  commanded  the  admi- 
ration, not  only  of  Christian  believers,  but  even 
of  skeptics  and  opponents  of  Christianity.    By 

common  consent  it  sets  forth  an  ideal  which 
"carried  morality  to  the  sublimest  point  at- 
tained, or  even  attainable',  by  humanity." 

2.  Time  and  Place.— Jesus  had  returned  to 
Capernaum  after  his  iirst  circuit  among  the 
cities  and  villages  of  Galilee.  This  journey,  as 
well  as  the  sojourn  in  Capernaum  by  which  it 
was  preceded  and  followed,  appears  to  have  been 
marked  by  a  series  of  miracles  of  healing  which 
spread  abroad  his  fame,  but  at  the  same  time 
excited  against  him  the  suspicions  and  hostility 
of  the  Pharisees  and  of  the  influential  classes 
among  the  Jews.  It  was  probably  this  circum- 
stance that  decided  him  to  select  definitely  from 
among  his  more  immediate  followers  the  twelve 
apostles,  that  they  might  not  only  have  the 
benefit  of  his  immediate  supervision  and  train- 
ing, but  might  prepare  to  extend  his  work. 
Leaving  Capernaum,  therefore,  he  retired  to  a 
mountain,  and  spent  the  night  in  prayer.  In 
the  morning  he  summoned  his  disciples,  and 
chose  the  little  band  who  were  henceforth  to  be 
so  closely  associated  with  him.  The  multitudes, 
too,  began  to  crowd  around  him.  Then  it  was 
that,  selecting  some  conspicuous  position  from 
which  he  might  be  seen  and  heard,  he  addressed 
to  his  disciples,  and  to  the  multitudes,  this  great 
discourse.  The  locality  is  doubtful.  "  The  moun- 
tain" cannot  have  been  far  from  Capernaum, 
but  it  has  been  questioned  whether  the  phrase 
even  indicates  a  particular  eminence.  A  tradi- 
tion of  the  Latin  Church,  which,  however,  does 
not  go  back  very  far,  points  to  the  Horns  of 
Hattin,  on  the  road  from  Tiberias  to  Nazareth. 
The  indications  of  the  sermon  itself,  in  its  allu- 
sions to  the  flowers  and  birds,  are  taken  as  evi- 
dence that  when  it  was  spoken  summer  had 
already  begun.  Andrews  {Life  of  Our  Lord  upon 
the  Earth;  revised  edition,  1892)  dates  it  midsum- 
mer, a.d.  28. 

3.  Two  Accounts.— The  resemblance  of  the 
discourses  reported  in  Matt.  5-7  and  Luke  6  is  so 
great — they  coincide  in  so  many  passages,  and 
follow  so  much  the  same  general  order— that 
only  the  weightiest  reasons  will  satisfy  the 
intelligent  reader  that  they  are  not  to  be  re- 
garded as  identical.  Differences  there  are,  both 
in  substance  and  in  setting,  but  where  these 
cannot  be  directly  reconciled,  they  may  be  ex- 
plained by  considerations  drawn  from  the  gen- 
eral nature  and  arrangement  of  the  respective 
Gospels,  or  the  special  aim  which  the  writers 
seem  to  have  had  before  them.  Andrews  {Life 
of  Our  Lord,  pp.  209,  270)  gives  a  summary  of  the 
opinions  which  have  been  held  as  to  the  rela- 
tion of  the  two  accounts. 

4.  Outline.— The  question  has  been  raised  as 
to  whether  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount  is,  even 
in  St.  Matthew's  report  of  it,  anything  more 
than  a  collection  of  fragments,  sayings  spoken 
at  various  times  and  places,  arranged  by  the 
evangelist,  or  whether  it  may  be  regarded  as  a 
more  or  less  systematic  development  of  one 
theme.  We  have  a  noble  introduction  and  an 
impressive  peroration ;  can  the  portions  between 
be  said  to  be  linked  together  in  anything  like 
order?  If  so,  what  is  the  general  subject?  It 
may  perhaps  be  granted  that  we  have  not  the 
whole  discourse,  but  only  those  portions  which 
fascinated  and  impressed  the  hearers,  and  that 

there  are  some  paragraphs  the  connecting  links 
between  which  may  have  been  omitted,  but  in 
general  the  order  of  thought  can  be  traced,  the 
great  theme  being  the  righteousness  required  of 
those  who  would  be  members  of  the  new  king- 

(Ch.  5:  1-12)  Christ  pronounces  those  "  blessed  " 
(hence  the  name  Beatitudes)  in  whom  are  found 
the  various  phases  of  this  righteousness,  the 
characteristics  of^the  subjects  of  the  kingdom. 
The  central  beatitude  is  the  fourth— "  Blessed 
are  they  which  do  hunger  and  thirst  after  right- 
eousness." The  first  three  dwell  more  upon 
what  men  should  be  in  themselves;  the  last 
four  upon  what  they  Should  be  in  relation  to 
others.  The  eighth  especially  emphasizes  the 
distinction  between  blessedness  and  happiness; 
between  the  inward  peace  and  the  outward  lot 
of  those  who  suffer  for  righteousness'  sake. 
(Vs.  13-16)  Righteousness  is  not  only  to  be  held 
fast,  but  to  be  propagated;  it  is  to  exert  its 
influence  upon  others.  (Vs.  17-20)  Contrast 
between  the  righteousness  demanded  by  Christ 
and  that  current  in  the  religious  circles  of  his 
day.  (Vs.  21-26)  The  spirit  of  worship  (vs.  23,  21), 
as  well  as  the  dictates  of  prudence  (vs.  25,  26), 
reinforces  this  extension  of  the  commandment. 
(Vs.  27-32)  The  second  and  third  examples  are 
found  in  the  law  forbidding  adultery,  and  in 
the  permission  of  divorce.  (Vs.  33-37)  The 
fourth  example  deals  with  violations  of  the 
Third  Commandment,  including  also  a  refer- 
ence to  the  Ninth.  The  insincere  use  of  the 
oath  it  condemns  as  profanity;  the  attempt  to 
get  credit  for  sincerity  by  means  of  it,  while 
leaving  a  loophole  for  the  evasion  of  its  obliga- 
tions, it  condemns  as  unveracity.  (Vs.  38-42)  The 
fifth  example  meets  the  temptation  to  turn  the 
arrangements  for  securing  public  justice  into 
the  instrument  of  private  vengeance.  (Vs.  43-48) 
The  sixth  example  is  the  misunderstanding  of 
the  law,  which  supposed  that  the  command- 
ment, "  Love  thy  neighbour,"  was  meant  to  limit 
the  sphere  of  love,  and  not  rather  to  be  a  stage 
in  its  gradual  expansion.  Here  Jesus  showTs 
that  the  righteousness  of  the  kingdom  is  limit- 
less as  the  perfection  of  the  heavenly  Father. 

(Ch.  6: 1)  This  characteristic  of  the  true  right- 
eousness involves,  it  is  now  seen,  a  purification 
of  its  motive  as  well  as  of  its  method.  Not  "to 
be  seen  of  men,"  but  the  approbation  of  "the 
Father  which  seeth  in  secret,"  is  its  appropriate 
reward.  This  is  illustrated  with  respect  to  alms- 
giving (vs.  2-4),  prayer  (vs.  5-15),  and  fasting  (vs. 
16-18).  In  contrast  with  the  false  idea  of  prayer, 
a  model  of  true  prayer  is  given  (vs.  9-13;  see  pre- 
ceding article),  and  again  in  regard  to  the  subject 
of  forgiveness  (vs.  14,  15)  the  state  of  the  heart 
is  made  the  test  of  true  righteousness.  Unlim- 
ited trust  is  opposed  to  dependence  upon  the 
outward  means  of  living  (vs.  19-21),  or  upon  that 
which  is  in  itself  evil,  and  even  to  a  double  or 
alternate  dependence  on  the  higher  and  the 
lower,  upon  God  and  upon  mammon  (v.  24). 
Trust  in  God  must  be  absolute,  and  it  will  be 
justified.  The  true  good  will  come  as  certainly 
as  food  to  the  birds,  which  sow  not,  and  beauty 
to  the  flowers,  which  spin  not  (vs.  25-30);  only 
that  true  good  must  be  sought  first  and  fore- 
most, and  it  consists  not  in  food,  or  drink,  or 
raiment,  but  in  "the  kingdom  of  God,  and  his 
righteousness  "  (vs.  31-34). 

(Ch.  7)  As  in  the  series  of  Beatitudes,  that 
concerning  righteousness  divided  those  which 
described  the  inner  personal  life  of  the  follower 
of  Christ  from  those  which  set  forth  his  relation 



to  others,  whether  man  or  God,  so  this  renewed 
mention  of  righteousness  (eh.  6:  33)  forms  a 
turning  point  in  the  discourse.  The  sixth  chap- 
ter had  treated  of  the  training  of  the  believer's 
spirit;  the  seventh  proceeds  to  describe  the 
regulation  of  his  outward  life— righteousness  in 
act  as  the  other  had  been  righteousness  in  prin- 
ciple. Here  (ch.  7)  the  method  is  still  from  the 
inward  to  the  outward— knowledge  of  self  the 
key  to  treatment  of  others :  charity,  not  censo- 
riousness  (vs.  1-5) ;  discretion,  not  impulsiveness 
(v.  6);  a  right  reading  of  the  better  tendencies  of 
human  nature,  as  on  the  one  hand  an  interpre- 
tation of  the  mind  of  God  in  his  love  and  wis- 
dom, and  so  an  encouragement  to  prayer,  and 
on  the  other  hand  a  key  to  the  mind  and  needs 
of  men,  so  leading  to  consideration  for  them 
(vs.  7-12).  The  Golden  Rule  (v.  12)  is  thus  a  prac- 
tical guide  to  the  righteousness  which  is  the 
theme  of  the  whole  discourse,  at  least  in  its 
man  ward  aspect.    This  only  is  the  safe  course ; 

the  easy  path  is  only  too  likely  in  the  end  to 
cost  those  dear  who  follow  it  (vs.  13,  14).  Pie  is  a 
false  prophet  who  teaches  otherwise,  and  such 
teaching  should  be  judged,  not  by  its  plausi- 
bility or  its  acceptableness,  but  by  its  results 
(vs.  15-20).  Even  sincerity  cannot  make  wrong 
right,  or  turn  falsehood  into  truth.  A  man 
may  be  self-deceived  and  never  doubt  that  the 
easy  is  as  safe  as  the  difficult  path,  the  broad 
way  as  the  narrow,  until  the  event  shows  his 
mistake  (vs.  21-23).  How  momentous,  then,  the 
choice  lying  before  each  man!  how  important 
that  he  should  select  as  the  foundation  of  his 
life-building  the  true  righteousness,  which  is 
like  the  rock,  and  not  the  false  righteousness  of 
scribe  and  Pharisee,  of  self-pleasing  and  self- 
deceiving  men,  which  is  like  the  shifting  sand 
(vs.  24-27). 

Books  of  Reference:  Trench's  The  Sermon  on  the 
Mount;  Wright's  Jfaster  mid  Men. 


By  KEV.  A.  B.  DAVIDSON,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  Professor  of  Hebrew,  etc., 

New  College,  Edinburgh. 

In  the  traditional  reading  of  the  synagogue, 
only  the  three  books,  Psalms,  Job,  and  Proverbs, 
are  delivered  with  a  special  musical  intona- 
tion, and  provided  for  this  purpose  with  a  dis- 
tinct accentuation  in  the  Bible,  though  other 
books,  such  as  the  Song  and  Lamentations,  have 
equal  right  to  be  called  poetical,  as  well  as  many 
occasional  pieces  scattered  throughout  the  prose 
parts  of  the  Bible. 

Subjects.— The  Old  Testament  does  not  em- 
brace all  the  literature  of  Israel — the  collection 
contains  only  writings  adapted  for  public  wor- 
ship, or  at  least  for  religious  edification.  Many 
sides  of  the  popular  life  of  ancient  Israel  are 
unrepresented  in  it.  Poetry,  accompanied  by 
music,  is  the  earliest  form  in  which  human 
feeling  expresses  itself.  The  lute  and  the  pipe 
were  among  the  first  inventions  of  mankind 
(Gen.  4:  21);  and  a  piece  of  poetry  is  perhaps  the 
earliest  writing  preserved  in  Scripture  (Gen.  4: 
23).  The  Eastern  ear  is  very  sensitive  to  the 
influence  of  speech,  particularly  when  rhyth- 
mical or  assonant,  and  the  speaker,  especially 
when  greatly  moved,  very  readily  expresses 
himself  in  impromptu  verse,  as  Judg.  15:  16: 

"  With  the  jawbone  of  an  ass— heaps  upon  heaps: 
With  the  jawbone  of  an  ass— I  have  slain  a  thousand 


(Cf.  Gen.  4:  23;  Judg.  14: 14;  11.  Sam.  3:  33.)  Deeds 
of  heroism  in  national  warfare  were  celebrated 
in  song  (Ex.  15;  Num.  21:  27-30;  Judg.  5;  I.  Sam. 
18:  7;  II.  Sam.  1:  19-27),  and  poetry  and  music 
enlivened  the  marriage  and  other  feasts  (Judg. 
14:  14;  Isa.  5:  12;  Amos  6:  5).  The  harvest  day 
(Isa.  9:  3),  the  treading  of  the  wine-press  (Isa.  16: 
10;  Judg.  9:  27),  the  sheep-shearing,  and  other 
joyful  seasons  in  the  domestic  life  of  the  hus- 
bandman, were  all  occasions  of  feasting,  accom- 
panied with  music  and  song.  The  "  capable " 
wife  (Prov.  31 :  10)  and  thrifty  husbandry  (Prov. 
27:  23)  have  both  been  sung  in  poetry.  Even 
the  discovery  of  a  living  spring  in  a  barren  land 
was  hailed  in  improvised  verse,  and  the  welling 
up  of  its  waters  accompanied  or  imitated  by 
rhythmical  strains  (Num.  21: 17).  The  people  of 
Israel,  in  its  more  prosperous  times,  lived  a 
joyous  life,  and  on  every  occasion  of  special 
gladness  the  emotion  found  living  expression 
in  poetry. 

Naturally,  however,  in  Israel  it  was  to  the 
service  of  religion  that  music  and  poetry  were 
mostly  dedicated.  The  sound  of  songs  and  the 
melody  of  the  viol  were  heard  in  the  courts  of 
the  Lord's  house  in  northern  Israel  as  well  as  in 

Judah  (Amos  5:  23);  and  the  joyous  bands  of 
pilgrims  came  up  to  Jerusalem  to  the  sound  of 
the  flute,  and  kept  the  feast  with  songs  in  the 
night  (Isa,  30:  29).  The  great  body  of  Hebrew 
poetry  is  of  a  religious  kind,  and  it  runs  through 
the  whole  scale  of  devout  feeling,  and  expresses 
every  form  of  religious  experience.  The  great 
collection  of  poetry  of  this  kind  is  the  Psalter; 
but  this  collection  consists  exclusivel y  of  hymns 
suitable  for  divine  worship.  A  good  amount  of 
religious  poetry  was  not  embraced  in  it,  and  lies 
scattered  throughout  the  pages  of  the  Old  Tes- 

Classes.— Of  the  various  kinds  of  poetry,  epic, 
dramatic,  and  lyric,  and  gnomic  or  didactic,  only 
the  last  two  were  cultivated  by  the  Hebrews. 
In  Job  and  the  Song  there  is  dramatic  move- 
ment and  dialogue,  a  kind  of  plot  and  a  denoue- 
menty  but  no  idea  of  a  scenic  representation 
probably  ever  occurred  to  the  writer  or  to  the 
readers.  Even  in  some  of  the  lj^rical  pieces,  as 
Ps.  2;  Ex.  15,  speakers  are  occasionally  intro- 
duced, showing  that  the  poet  was  not  without 
dramatic  feeling.  There  are  mythological  allu- 
sions in  the  Old  Testament  (Gen.  6),  but  to  the 
religious  mind  of  Israel  the  distinction  between 
God  and  the  world  was  so  absolute,  and  his 
supremacy  over  all  physical  forces  and  personal 
beings  so  immediate  and  complete,  that  the 
elements  of  epic  composition  were  wanting. 

The  mind  of  the  Hebrew  was  emotional,  with 
strong  feelings,  his  phantasy  powerful,  and  his 
thinking  intuitive  and  little  sustained;  hence, 
even  historical  writing  is  a  series  of  separate 
pictures  rather  than  a  continuous,  well-knit 
narrative,  and  his  poetry,  for  the  most  part, 
consists  of  brief  pieces  in  which  a  single  feeling 
or  an  intuition  finds  expression.  Thus  the  great 
majority  of  strictly  poetical  pieces  is  lyrical,  and 
even  the  elevated  half-poetical  oratory  of  the 
prophets  often  rises  into  lyric  measure  (Isa.  5, 
12,  47,  60;  Ezek.  19).  In  the  lyric  the  poet  ex- 
presses his  feeling  because  expression  is  delight- 
ful,   or,   if  the   feeling  be   painful,  because  it 

1  The  principal  poetical  pieces,  whether  religious  or 
not,  dispersed  through  the  Old  Testament  are  these: 
Gen.  4:  23,  24;  27:  27-29,  39,  40;  49:  1-27;  Ex.  15:  1-19,  21; 
Num.  10:  35,  36;  21:  14,  15,  17,  18,  27-30;  23:  7-10,  18-24; 
24:  3-9,  15-24;  Deut.  32.  1-43;  33:  1-29;  Josh.  10:  12,  13; 
Judg.  5:  1-31;  9:  8-15;  14:  14,  18;  10:  23,  24;  I.  Sam.  2: 
1-10;  18:  7;  II.  Sam.  1:  19-27;  3:  33,  34;  22:  1-51  (Ps.  18); 
23:  1-7;  I.  Chr.  16:  8-36;  Isa.  38:  9-20;  Jon.  2:  2-9;  Hab. 
3:  2-19.  There  are  also  many  pieces  of  poetry  in  the 
Prophets;  e.  g.,  Isa.  5:  1-7;  12;  47,  etc. 



affords  relief.  Often er  instead  of  speaking  to 
himself  he  speaks  to  God,  disburdening  his 
griefs  or  fears,  his  despondency  in  sackness 
(Ps.6),  or  when  forsaken  (Pfe.   12,  43),  in  the  ear 

of  God;  or  he  utters  his  thankfulness  (Ps.  30), 
his  anticipations  of  success  (Ps.  21),  or  of  the 
triumph  of  tile  kingdom  of  the  Lord  (Ps.  93  ct 
seq.  i,  or  his  feeling  of  the  great  ness  or  goodness  of 
God  experienced  in  his  history  or  displayed  in 
nature  (Ps.  N,  19,  KM,  29,  22,  2:5,  116,  etc.).  On  the 
other  hand,  the  intuition  or  thought  usually 
expresses  itself  in  a  (/name,  or  proverb.  When 
the  poet  becomes  conscious  of  others  besides 
himself,  both  the  lyric  and  the  proverb  may 
become  didactic  (Ps;  2,  15.  .'52,  37,  49,  etc.),  and  this 
is  the  prevailing  tone  of  the  proverb,  in  which 
the  "wise"  seek  to  impart  instruction  to  the 
young  and  the  simple  (Prov.  1:  2-7). 

Forms.— Hebrew  poetry  is  distinguished  from 
prose  partly  by  its  diction,  but  particularly 
by  its  form.  The  poetical  diction  employs  words 
not  found,  or  rare,  in  prose,  and  also  affects 
sonorous  grammatical  forms;  e.  g.,  the  fern. 
athah,  and  suffixes  like  amo,  cmo,  aiki,  etc.  The 
poetical  words  are  partly  archaic,  partly  bor- 
rowed from  other  strata  of  language  than  that 
in  classical  prose.  Many  of  them  belong  to  the 
wider  common  stock  of  Semitic  speech,  and 
arc  found  in  the  dialects  of  the  neighboring 
peoples.  In  form,  like  all  other  poetry,  the  He- 
brew is  rhythmical ;  but  the  rhythm  in  Hebrew 
is  not  bound  by  such  rigid  laws  as  in  modern,  or 
classical,  or  even  Arabic  poetry.  The  ancients, 
as  Josephus,  Origen,  and  Jerome,  found  the 
classical  meters  in  Hebrew,  and  modern  schol- 
ars have  been  unwearied  in  their  efforts  to 
discover  meters  of  some  kind;  but  meter  in  the 
strict  sense,  i.  e.,  lines  containing  a  definite 
number  of  feet,  whether  composed  of  recurrent 
groups  of  long  and  short  syllables,  or  recurrent 
accentual  beats,  does  not  appear  to  exist.  All 
that  can  be  said  is  that  the  line  or  stich  is 
usually  of  a  certain  length,  less  or  more  within 
certain  limits,  seven  or  eight  syllables  being  the 
average.  Two  or  more  such  lines  make  a  verse. 
The  members  of  a  verse  correspond  to  one 
another;  and  this  parallelism  in  thought  and 
consequently  of  rhythmical  expression  is  the 
characteristic  of  Hebrew  poetry.  The  rhyme,  or 
final  assonance,  occurs  occasionally  (Gen.  4:  43; 
Ps.  8:5;  Isa.  23:  16),  but  is  not  of  the  essence  of 
the  verse.  Assonance,  or  paronomasia,  is  greatly 
affected,  though  no  fixed  place  in  the  line  is 
assigned  to  it. 

The  parallelism  of  members  is  of  various  kinds, 
the  most  common  being  the  synonymous,  in 
which  the  second  member  repeats  the  idea  of 
the  first  with  some  variation  of  language,  as 
Ps.  114:3: 

"The  sea  saw  it  and  fled, 
Jordan,  and  it  was  driven  back," 

and  throughout  the  psalm.  Sometimes  the 
parallelism  is  double,  both  halves  of  one  mem- 
ber being  parallel  to  both  halves  of  the  other,  as 
Ps.  19:  7: 

"  The  law  of  the  Lord  is  perfect— restoring  the  soul; 
The  testimony  of  the  Lord  is  sure — making  wise  the 
simple,"  etc. 
Another  kind  of  parallelism  is  the  antithetic,  in 
which  the  two  members  express  ideas  opposed 
to  one  another.  This  form  is  common  in  Prov- 
erbs, particularly  in  chs.  10-15,  but  less  usual  in 

"  Righteousness  exalteth  a  nation, 
But  sin  is  a  reproach  to  any  people." 

—(Prov.  14:  34.) 
In  other  kinds  of  parallelism  the  second  mem- 
ber merely  completes  the  idea  of  the  first,  some- 
times with  a  reason  or  reflection,  and  sometimes 
with  a  comparison. 

"  Also  unto  thee,  O  Lord,  belongeth  mercy. 
For  thou  renderest  to  every  one  according  to  his 
work."  — (Ps.  02:  12.) 

Each  line  of  the  parallelism  is  usually  complete    ■ 
in  itself,  but  occasionally  the  sense  is  suspended 
and  completed  only  in  the  second  line. 

"  (live  unto  the  Lord,  ye  sons  of  the  mighty, 
Give  unto  the  Lord  glory  and  strength." 

— (Ps.  29:  1.) 

This  climacteric  parallelism  appears  in  an  am- 
plified form  in  some  of  the  Songs  of  Degrees  (Ps. 
120-134),  as  Ps.  121:3,4: 

"  He  will  not  suffer  thy  foot  to  be  moved: 
Ho  that  koopetli  thee  will  not  slumber. 
Behold,  ho  that  keepeth  Israel 
Shall  neither  slumber  nor  sleep." 
(Cf.  Ps.  122:  1,  2;  124:  1,  2;  Isa.  2G:  5,  6.) 

The  verse  usually  consists  of  two  parallel  lines, 
as  in  the  examples  already  given,  but  it  may 
have  one  to  six  members.  Verses  of  one  mem- 
ber are  rare,  and  usually  occur  at  the  beginning 
or  end  of  a  poem;  the  effect  of  the  monostich 
is  to  express  emphasis,  or  pathos,  or  add  solem- 
nity, as  Ps.  IS:  1;  23:  1;  Ex.  15:  18;  in  the 
middle  of  a  poem  (Ps.  29:  7).  In  verses  with 
three  members  (tristichs),  the  first  two  may  be 
parallel  and  the  third  stand  more  alone. 

f  "  The  kings  of  the  earth  set  themselves, 
1     And  the  rulers  take  counsel  together 

Against  the  Lord,  and  against  his  anointed." 

— (Ps.  2:  3.) 
(Cf.  Ps.  30:  7;  39:  5;  65:  13.)    Or  the  first  may  stand 
apart  and  the  last  two  be  in  parallelism. 
"  Arise,  O  Lord;  save  me,  my  God: 
fFor  thou  hast  smitten  all  mine  enemies  upon  the 
<  cheek-bone. 

(Thou  hast  broken  the  teeth  of  the  ungodly." 

-(Ps.  3:  7.) 
(Cf.  Ps.  67:  4;  Job  3:  6.)  Sometimes  each  of  the 
three  lines  expresses  virtually  the  same  thought 
(Ps.  15:  3;  40:  10;  46:  9);  or,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  thoughts  of  each  may  be  independent  (Ps. 
18:  35).  More  rarely  there  is  a  correspondence 
between  the  first  and  third  lines  (Ps.  57:  3). 

In  verses  with  four  members,  one  and  two 
usually  correspond,  and  three  and  four, 

"  How  should  one  chase  a  thousand, 
And  two  put  ten  thousand  to  flight, 
Unless  their  Pock  had  sold  them, 
And  the  Lord  had  delivered  them  up  ?  " 

—(Deut.  32:  30.) 
(Cf.  vs.  10,  21,  22,  25,  32,  38;  Ps.  39:  12.)  Occasion- 
ally one  and  three  correspond  and  two  and  four, 
as  Ps.  40:  14;  55:  21.  Sometimes  the  tetrastich 
has  a  double  parallelism,  one  and  two  as  well  as 
three  and  four  being  parallel,  while  one  and 
three  and  twTo  and  four  are  also  related. 

"  Fear  not,  for  thou  shalt  not  be  ashamed, 
Be  not  abashed,  for  thou  shalt  not  bear  reproach; 
For  thou  shalt  forget  the  shame  of  thy  youth, 
And  the  reproach  of  thy  widowhood  shalt  thou  re- 
member no  more."  — (Isa.  54:  4.) 
Or  the  antithesis  may  be  between  one  and  four, 
two  and  three. 

"  For  ye  shall  not  go  out  in  haste, 
Neither  shall  ye  go  out  by  flight; 
For  the  Lord  will  go  before  you, 
And  the  God  of  Israel  will  be  your  rearward." 

—(Isa.  52:  12.) 
Verses  with  five  members  are  less  common  (cf. 
Deut.  32:  14,  39;  Ps.  39:  12).    Those  with  six  lines 
are  also  uncommon,  and,  naturally,  often  fall 
into  three  pairs  (Num.  24:  17;  Hab.  3:  17). 

While  ordinarily  it  is  the  lines  in  a  verse,  be 
they  two  or  more,  that  are  rhythmically  coordi- 
nated to  one  another,  in  one  case  the  words  in 
the  single  member  or  line  itself  are  related  to 
one  another  in  a  peculiar  rhythm.  This  is  the 
kinah,  or  elegy,  in  which  the  line  is  divided  into 
two  parts  by  a  cesura,  the  second  part  being 
shorter,  and  falling  with  a  mournful  cadence. 
"  How  hath  become  an  harlot— the  faithful  city, 
Full  of  justice,  righteousness  lodging  in  her— but 
now  murderers."  —(Isa.  1:  21.) 



(Cf.  Auios  5:  2:  Jer.  9:  21,  22— first  words  of  v.  22 
being  omitted.)  This  elegiac  line  is  sometimes 
treated  as  a  verse,  sometimes  as  half  and  some- 
times as  a  third  of  a  verse.  In  Lam.  8  each  line 
is  a  verse. 
11 1  am  the  man  that  hath  seen  affliction— by  the  rod 

of  his  anger." 
In  ch.  4  each  line  is  half  a  verse. 
V  Even  the  jackals  draw  out  the  breast— give  suck  to 

their  whelps, 
The  daughter  of  my  people  is  become  cruel— like  the 

ostriches  in  the  desert." 
And  in  chs.  1  and  2  the  line  is  mostly  the  third 
of  a  verse. 
"  She  weepeth  sore  in  the  night— her  tears  are  on  her 

She  hath  none  to  comfort  her— of  all  her  lovers, 
All  her  friends  have  deceived  her— they  are  grown 

her  enemies." 
Examples  of  the  elegy,  besides  the  book  of 
Lamentations,  appear  in  Isa.  14:  4  fT.;  47;  Ezek. 
19,  and  in  fragmentary  form,  often  throughout 
the  Prophets  and  Psalms;  e.  g.,  Ezek.  26:  17  fT.; 
32:  19  fT.  This  type  of  rhythm,  however,  was 
made  use  of  in  other  kinds  of  poetry,  e.  g.,  Isa. 
52:  8  ff.,  and  on  the  other  hand,  was  not  always 
employed  in  the  lament  proper.  David's  elegy 
on  Saul  (II.  Sam.  1 :  19-27)  is  in  a  different  meas- 

When  a  number  of  verses  are  grouped  to- 
gether, they  form  a  strophe;  but  here  again 
the  term  "strophe"  is  used  in  a  much  looser 
sense  than  it  is  in  classical  poetry.  The  He- 
brew strophe  is  merely  a  number  of  verses 
containing  the  same  or  similar  thoughts;  the 
number  of  verses  may  be  more  or  fewer.  The 
group  of  verses  is  occasionally  marked  by  the 
recurrence  of  the  same  or  a  similar  refrain; 
e.  g.,  in  Ps.  42  and  43  (to  be  read  as  one)  the 
words,  "Hope  thou  in  God,"  etc.,  occur  at  42:  5, 

11  and  43:  5.  In  Ps.  46  the  words,  "  TJie  Lord 
of  hosts  is  ivith  us,"  etc.,  recur  at  vs.  7,  11.  In  Ps. 
49  the  refrain  is  at  vs.  12,  20;  in  Ps.  80,  at  vs.  3, 
7,  19.  In  Isa.  9:7-10:4  a  series  of  strophes  oc- 
cur, with  the  refrain,  "For  all  this  his  anger  is  not 
turned  away,"  etc.  (cf.  Amos  4 : 6, 9, 11).  Ps.  119  con- 
sists of  twenty-two  strophes  of  the  same  length, 
according  to  the  letters  of  the  alphabet.  Like  the 
"Amen"  (Ps.  106:  48),  the  refrain  appears  occa- 
sionally to  have  been  chanted  responsively  by 
the  congregation  (II.  Chr.  7:3;  cf.  Ps.  136).  Pos- 
sibly such  psalms  as  20,  24,  91,  may  have  been 
sung  antiphonally,  one  body  of  singers  respond- 
ing to  another;  but  more  probably  the  change 
of  voice  is  merely  dramatic. 

The  acrostic,  or  alphabetical  poem,  does  not 
constitute  a  distinct,  kind  of  poetry ;  it  is  merely 
an  example  of  a  somewhat  artificial  and  exter- 
nal manner  of  combining  the  verses  together. 
The  alphabetical  arrangement  was  possibly  used 
at  first  for  the  purpose  of  aiding  the  memory  to 
follow  consecutively  a  number  of  unconnected 
verses,  such  as  separate  proverbial  sayings;  or, 
as  is  greatly  affected  in  the  elegy  (Lam.  1-4),  it 
might  express  the  monotony  of  feeling  charac- 
teristic of  the  lament.  In  some  poems  each 
half  verse  is  marked  by  the  successive  letters  of 
the  alphabet,  as  Ps.  Ill,  112;  in  others,  each 
single  verse,  as  Ps.  25,  34,  145;  Lam.  1,  2,  4;  in 
others,  the  first  of  every  two  verses,  as  Ps.  37 
(Ps.  9,  10,  one  psalm).  Occasionally  the  arrange- 
ment is  more  artificial,  each  of  a  group  of  verses 
being  opened  by  one  letter,  as  Lam.  3,  where  the 
verses  are  grouped  in  threes,  all  commencing 
with  the  same  letter,  and  Ps.  119,  where  the 
eight  verses  of  the  strophe  all  open  with  one 

Books  of  Reference  :  Bhys's  (editor)  Lyrical 
Poetry  from  the  Bible;  Moulton's  Literary  Study  of  the 
Bible;  Schaff' s  Literature  and  Poetry,  and  Church  His- 
tory, Vol.  LLL. 


By  REV.  T.  K.  ABBOTT,  D.  Litt.,  F.T.C.D.,  Professor  of  Hebrew  in  the  University 

of  Dublin. 


Its  Mention.— Music  is  frequently  mentioned 
in  both  the  Old  and  New  Testaments,  although 
no  minute  description  is  given  concerning  it, 
save  what  may  be  learned  from  the  mention  of 
the  instruments  employed,  and  from  the  mu- 
sical terms  found  mainly  in  the  Psalms.  Sing- 
ing men  and  singing  ivomen  are  incidentally  stated 
to  have  formed  part  of  the  accompaniment  of 
the  court  of  David  and  of  Solomon  {LL  Sam. 
19:  35;  Eccl.  2:  8).  Minstrels  are  mentioned  in 
the  New  Testament  as  employed  to  sing  dirges 
over  the  dead  (Matt.  9:  23;  cf.,  in  Old  Testa- 
ment, Jer.  9:  17-20;  Amos  5:  16).  Instrumental 
music  was  employed  on  all  important  occasions, 
and  often  accompanied  with  singing  and  danc- 
ing (see  Ex.  15:  20;  32:  6,  18,  19).  The  prophets 
made  use  of  the  same  (see  I.  Sam.  10:  5,  10;  II. 
Ki.  3:  15;  I.  Chr.  25:  1),  for  it  must  not  be  forgot- 
ten that  what  was  termed  prophesying  was  not 
necessarily  connected  with  any  foretelling  of 
future  events,  but  consisted  largely  in  testifying 
or  bearing  testimony,  often  in  hymns  and  spir- 
itual songs,  to  the  majesty  and  truths  connected 
with  the  worship  of  Jehovah,  and,  in  New  Tes- 
tament times,  of  his  Christ. 

Harmony.— The  Hebrews  do  not  appear  to  have 
used  harmony,  or  at  least  varying  harmony 
such  as  we  use,  or  such  as  the  Greeks  used  (as 
shown  by  Chappell  against  Burney)— see  II.  Chr. 
5:  12.  This  passage  has,  indeed,  been  cited  on 
the  other  side,  as  if  the  remark,  "When  the 

trumpeters  and  singers  were  as  one,"  would  be 
superfluous  if  there  were  no  harmony.  But  the 
exact  agreement  of  a  large  number  of  instru- 
ments in  time  and  tune  might  well  be  thought 
deserving  of  note.  Harmony  of  a  simple  kind, 
as  consecutive  thirds,  or  even  fifths,  is,  how- 
ever, practiced  by  very  backward  nations;  and 
some  Egyptian  paintings  appear  to  indicate 
playing  in  harmony.  Some  of  the  Psalms  were 
certainly  sung  antiphonally,  i.  e.,  by  half  chorus 
alternately,  or  by  the  leader  and  the  choir  an- 
swering one  another  (see  Ps.  24 ;  115 : 9-11 ;  136,  and 
cf.  Isa.  6:  3).  No  authentic  tradition  has  reached 
us  as  to  the  melodies  employed,  there  being  no 
agreement  between  Jews  of  different  countries. 



In  the  absence  of  contemporary  information 
and  authentic  representations,  there  is  much 
uncertainty  about  the  identification  of  the  mu- 
sical instruments  of  the  Hebrews.  What  one 
writer  calls  an  organ  another  thinks  was  more 
probably  a  bagpipe,  and  a  third  perhaps  con- 
siders it  to  have  been  a  guitar.  Nor  is  this  to  be 
wondered  at  when  we  find  the  Alexandrian 
translators  in  a  similar  perplexity,  the  word 
which  is  rendered  u  kithara  "  (lyre,  or  guitar)  by 
one  being  rendered  "organum"  by  another.  The 
Talmud  gives  little  help,  and,  being  much  later 
than  the  Greek  translation  of  the  LXX.,  cannot 



be  supposed  to  be  a  more  certain  guide.  In  this 
perplexity  we  have  recourse  to  the  monuments 
— Egyptian  and  Assyrian.  These  show  as,  at 
least,  what  kind  of'  instruments  the  Hebrews 
probably  possessed,  although  they  do  not  ena- 
ble us  to  idenl  ii'y  them  by  name. 

Classes.— Musical  instruments  generally  may 
be  classified  as  (:1)  stringed  instruments,  (2)  wind 
instruments,  and  (3)  those  of  percussion;  We 
have  these  three  Classes  referred  to  in  I.  Sam. 
10:  5,  "tabret,  pipe,  and  harp,"  and  in  Job  21: 
12,  "timbrel,  harp,  pipe,"  and  elsewhere. 

I.  Stringed  instruments  fall  into  two  classes, 
exemplified  by  the  lyre,  or  harp,  on  one  hand, 
and  by  the  guitar  on  the  other,  the  essential  dif- 
fereneebeing  that  i n  the  forme r  c  1  ass  the  stri ngs, 
at  least  in  their  upper  part,  are  free  on  both 
sides,  While  in  the  latter  they  are  stretched  over 
a  beck  with  finger-board,  in  which  case  dilfer- 
ent  notes  may  be  produced  from  the  same  string 
by  stopping  it  with  the  linger.  Again,  the  tones 
may  be  produced  by  plucking  either  with  the 
linger  or  with  a  plectrum  or  quill  (as  in  the 
zither),  or  else  by  striking  with  hammers,  or 
lastly,  by  a  bow.  The  use  of  the  bow,  however, 
was  unknown  to  the  Hebrews,  as  well  as  to  the 
Egyptians  and  Assyrians. 

paratively  late)  bear  the  figure  of  a  lyre  with 
three,  four,  or  six  strings.  The  kmndr  was  light 
and  portable,  so  that  it  was  carried  about  by 
itinerant  singers  (Isa.  23:  10),  and  was  hung  up 
when  not  in  use  (Ps.  137:  2). 

Nebel  is  represented  in  the  A.  V.  by  "psaltery," 
except  in  four  places  in  Isaiah,  and  Amos, 
where  it  is  "viol."  We  learn  from  Ovid  also 
that  it  was  of  the  class  with  free  strings,  for 
he  speaks  of  sweeping  it  with  both  hands 
(Ars  Am.,  327).  Joseph  us  says  that  it  differed 
from  the  kimidrin  having  more  strings  (twelve, 
he  says),  and  in  being  played  with  the  hand. 
Jerome  says  that  in  shape  it  was  like  an  in- 
verted A.  The  Egyptian  monuments  show  in- 
struments of  this  kind;  but  the  name  nebel 
may  have  included  some  of  a  more  developed 
form,  which  also  appear  on  the  monuments, 
and  may  not  improperly  be  termed  "harps." 
Only  Ave  must  think  of  a  harp  deprived  of  its 
front  pillar,  which  is  absent  from  the  Egyptian, 
as  it  is  at  the  present  day  from  Indian,  Bur- 
mese, and  other  Asiatic  harps  (see  illustration). 
But  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  strings  were 
only  catgut.  Some  of  these  Egyptian  harps 
were  portable,  others  were  as  tall  as  the  player. 
The  R.  V.  renders  the  word  "lute"  in  Isa.  5:  12. 

ft^gSffgiffiL^?  *-,  > 

Elamite  Musicians  coining  to  welcome  the  new  ruler,  Umman-igas,  the  prince  set  on  the  throne  of  Elam  by 

Assur-bani-apli,  king  of  Assyria.    From  a  bas-relief  from  Kouyunjik  {Nineveh). 

British  Museum.    (See  p.  141.) 

Stringed  instruments  in  general  are  designated 
by  "  neginoth,"  which  occurs  in  the  titles  of  sev- 
eral psalms,  as  4,  6,  where  it  is  rendered  in  the 
Q  reek  "  hymnus,"  or  (once)  "psalms."  It  also  oc- 
curs in  Hab.  3:  19,  where  it  is  rendered  "ode," 
but  in  the  A.  V.,  correctly,  "stringed  instru- 
ments." The  word  is  used  also  of  music  so 
played  — "My  songs  to  the  stringed  instru- 
ments" (Isa.  38:  20),  and  of  songs  sung  to  such 
an  accompaniment,  as  Ps.  77:  7,  "I  was  their 
song"  (Job  30:  9),  etc.  The  specifically  named 
instruments  arc  kinnor  and  nebel. 

.kin nor  occurs  first  in  Gen.  4:  21,  where  Jubal 
is  said  to  be  the  father  of  all  that  handle  the 
bar})  and  organ  (II.  V.,  pipe),  i.  e.,  he  was  the  in- 
ventor of  wind  and  stringed  instruments.  In 
the  A.  V.  it  is  always  rendered  "harp."  The 
Greek  rendering  is  usually  "kithara."  but  five 
times  it  is  "psalterion"  and  once  "organon." 
( ►pinions  still  difleras  to  which  of  the  two  classes 
it  belonged  to.  Recent  writers  generally  con- 
sider it  to  have  been  a  kind  of  lyre,  and,  if  so,  it 
doubtless  resembled  those  which  are  represented 
on  Egyptian  monuments. 

An  Assyrian  bas-relief  in  the  British  Museum 
represents  captives  playing  lyres,  and  if,  as 
some  suppose,  these  arc  Jews,  the  doubt  would 
be  solved.  There  has  also  been  found  in  Egypt  a 
picture  of  the  arrival  of  strangers,  apparently 
Semites,  one  of  whom  is  playing  a  lyre  with  a 
plectrum.    Some  Jewish  coins  also  (but  coin- 

But  the  number  of  strings  is  decisive  against 
th  is,  at  least  if  we  trust  Josephus,  and  the  Roman 
nablium  is  also  against  it.  Both  the  kinnOrs 
and  the  nebeU  were  made  of  sandalwood  by 
Solomon  (I.  Ki.  10:12). 

The  word  minnini  occurs  in  Ps.  45:  8  (see  R.  V.) 
and  150: 4,  of  stringed  instruments;  but  whether 
it  is  a  general  or  special  name  is  uncertain. 

2.  Wind  instruments  may  be  divided  into 
those  which  are  blown  from  the  side  like  the 
common  flute,  and  those  which  are  bloArn  from 
the  end  like  a  whistle.  The  latter  may  or  may 
not  have  a  tongue  (or  "reed")  like  the  clarinet 
and  oboe.  The  side-blown  flute  is  depicted  on 
Egyptian  but  not  on  Assyrian  monuments. 
The  other,  or  direct  pipe,  was  sometimes  double, 
two  pipes  of  different  pitch  being  joined  to  one 
mouth-piece.  These  appear  on  both  Egyptian 
and  Assyrian  monuments,  and  are  still  in  use  in 
Egypt.  They  are  sometimes  used  on  solemn 

The  English  "pipe"  represents  the  Hebrew 
chalil,  which  occurs  only  five  times.  The  plain- 
tive pipe  was  possibly  a  reed  instrument.  The 
word  rendered  "dance"  {macfwl)  in  Ps.  149:  3; 
150:  4;  30: 11;  Jer.31 :  4, 13;  Lam.  5: 15,  is  supposed 
by  some  to  mean  "pipe"  (sec  A.  \.  margin,  in 
the  first  two  places). 

More  obscure  is  the  word  rendered  in  the  A. 
V. "  organ,"  viz.,  ugab  (R.  V.,  "  pipe  ").  It  is  men- 
tioned with  "kinnor"  as    invented    by  Jubal 



(Gen.  4:  21);  elsewhere  only  in  Job  21:  12;  30:  31; 
and  Ps.  150:  4).  It  is  plain  from  the  passages  in 
Job  that  it  was  a  cheerful  instrument.  The  Tar- 
guni  always  renders  it  by  a  word  meaning 
"pipe";  the  Greek  in  Genesis  "kithara,"  in  Job 
"psalmos,"  and  in  Psalms  "organum."  The  lat- 
ter word  is  adopted  in  all  cases  by  the  Vulgate, 
and  from  it  by  modern  versions.  It  is  an  indefi- 
nite word  used  of  any  instrument,  but,  as  it  is 
sometimes  applied  to  a  multiple  pipe,  most 
moderns  have  adopted  the  view  that  the  vgab 
was  a  syrinx,  or  Pandean  pipes,  an  instrument 
which  was  certainly  ancient  and  popular  in 
Syria,  with  from  five  to  twenty-three  pipes. 

A  kind  of  shepherd's  pipe,  perhaps  a  Pan 
pipe,  is  mentioned  in  Judg.  5:  10  (A.  V.,  "bleat- 
ings";  R.  V.,  "pipings").  The  word  is  "sheri- 

Of  instruments  of  the  trumpet  kind  the  most 
important,  ceremonially,  was  the  chatzdtzerah, 
for  the  construction  of  which  in  silver  special 
directions  are  given  in  Num.  10:2.  The  name 
was  probably  from  the  sound.  As  these  were 
specially  intended  for  sacred  purposes,  they  are 
doubtless  the  same  that  are  figured  on  the  arch 
of  Titus,  straight,  with  a  bell  expansion  at  the 
end,  and  so  Josephus  describes  them.  Such 
trumpets  were  used  by  the  Egyptians,  but  not 
by  Assyrians.  With  the  exception  of  Ps.  98:  6 
and  Hos.  5:  8  the  mention  of  the  chatzdtzerah 
is  limited  to  the  books  of  Numbers,  Kings,  and 
Chronicles,  with  Ezra  and  Nehemiah.  But  the 
trumpet  most  frequently  mentioned  is  the  shop- 
har,  four  times  rendered  in  A.  V.  "  cornet,"  on 
account  of  "trumpet,"  as  the  rendering  of 
"chatzdtzerah,"  occurring  in  the  same  verse  (I. 
Chr.  15:  28;  II.  Chr.  15:  14;  Ps.  98:  G;  Hos.  5:  8); 
elsewhere  always  "trumpet."  It  was  used  for 
military  purposes,  but  not  for  these  only.  In 
Josh.  6:  5  it  is  called  a  "horn,"  and  in  I.  Chr. 
25 :  5.  This  instrument  is  peculiarly  interesting 
as  being  employed  in  the  synagogue  at  the  pres- 
ent day.  It  is  of  horn,  from  one  to  two  feet  in 
length,  curved  near  the  end  into  about  a  right 
angle.  In  Ps.  98:  6  the  Prayer-Book  version 
has  "  shawm  "  for  "shophar."  Shawm,  from  the 
French  chcdumeau,  which  is  derived  from  Latin 
calamus,  "reed,"  was  a  sort  of  shepherd's  pipe. 
Another  name  for  trumpet  occurs  in  Ezek.  7  :  14, 
viz.,  "takoa." 

3.  Of  instruments  of  percussion  the  toph,  cor- 
rectly rendered  "tabret,"  "timbrel,"  was  a  kind 
6f  tambourine  used  on  joyful  occasions,  chiefly 
by  women,  as  is  still  the  custom  in  the  East.  So 
Jn  Ps.  68:  25,  26  we  have  damsels  playing  tim- 
irels  in  the  sanctuary  (but  see  R.  V.  margin). 
%r  female  singers  in  the  temple  see  I.  Chr.  25 : 

%    Cymbals  consisted  of  two  partly-hollowed 

an  plates  of   metal,  which  were  dashed  to- 

gether. In  I.  Chr.  15:  19  cymbals  of  brass  ap- 
pear to  be  used  by  the  conductors  to  mark  time. 
They  were  called  tziltzclim  or  metziltaim,  and  were 
of  two  kinds,  loud  and  high  (Ps.  150:  5).  The 
word  rendered  "  bells  "  (of  the  horses)  in  Zech.  14 : 
20,  no  doubt,  means  those  small  metal  plates 
often  used  in  the  East,  and  sometimes  in  this 
country,  on  the  trappings  of  horses.  The  golden 
"bells"  on  the  high  priest's  robe  {panamo)  were 
probably  similar  plates,  which  sounded  by  strik- 
ing the  alternating  "pomegranates."  But  bells 
proper  were  used  both  in  Egypt  and  in  Assyria. 
"Castanets"  occurs  in  the  R.  V.  in  II.  Sam.  6:  5 
(A.  V.,  "cornets").  The  margin  gives  "sistra." 
The  sistrum  consisted  of  a  metallic  frame  shaped 
somewhat  like  a  tennis  racket,  crossed  by  one  or 
more  rods  on  which  were  loose  rings. 

The  shallsh  is  mentioned  once  only  in  I.  Sam. 
18 :  6.  From  its  name  it  must  be  three-sided,  or 
three-stringed  (see  R.  V.  margin).  It  may  have 
been  a  sistrum  with  three  rods,  or  the  same  as 
the  Greek  triangle,  trigdnon,  stated  to  be  a  Syrian 
invention,  which  was  probably  a  kind  of  harp. 
The  "pieces  of  silver  "(Ps.  68:  30)  are  supposed 
by  Lowth  to  refer  to  the  Egyptian  sistrum  used, 
as  we  know,  in  their  religious  feasts  —  "which 
excite  themselves  to  dance  with  the  sistrum." 


The  names  of  these  are  familiar  to  every  one 
as  "cornet,  flute,  harp,  sackbut,  psaltery,  dulci- 
mer," in  Daniel.  The  "cornet"  is  the  keren,  or 
horn,  of  Josh.  6:  5.  The  "flute,"  mashrokttha, 
rendered  in  the  Greek  "syrinx,"  was  the  Pan- 
dean pipes,  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  universal 
of  instruments,  sometimes  called  a  "mouth 
organ."  " Harp  "  here  stands  for  kithdris,  i.  e.,  the 
Greek  kitharis,  or  kithara,  already  referred  to. 
This  was  a  kind  of  lyre.  It  traveled  from 
the  Greeks  to  the  Moors  of  Spain,  and  thence  to 
us  as  "guitar,"  and  by  a  different  route  as 
"  zither."  " Sackbut "  represents  sabbeca,  known 
to  the  Greeks  and  Romans  as  the  "sambuca," 
or  "Phenician  lyre,"  received  by  them  from 
Syria.  It  was  (so  AthenaBus  tells  us)  of  a  trian- 
gular shape,  with  four  strings.  "  Psaltery  "  is  in 
Daniel  "psanterion,"  a  word  formed  from  the 
Greek.  The  Persian  santir,  still  in  use,  is  a  dulci- 
mer. The  "  dulcimer  "  in  its  earliest  form  consist- 
ed of  flat  boards  (afterwards  a  box)  of  four  sides, 
two  of  them  converging,  the  strings,  which  were 
stretched  over  it,  being  struck  with  small  ham- 
mers. It  is  the  ancestor  of  the  pianoforte  (the 
sackbut  was  quite  different,  being  a  sort  of 

Books  of  Reference  :  Drysdale's  Early  Bible 
Songs;  Hutchinson's  The  Music  of  the  Bible;  Julian's 
Dictionary  of  Hymnology. 


By  KEV.  OWEN  C.  WHITEHOUSE,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Hebeew,  Cheshunt 

College,  near  London. 

[rom  Genesis  23: 16  we  learn  that  the  precious 

Itals,  when  used  in  commercial  transactions, 

\e  weighed  out.    Precisely  the  same  practice 

i  phraseology  prevailed  among  the  Assyrians 

L   Babylonians.     The    Hebrews,    we   know, 

Isessed  also  standard  weights.    Thus  we  read 

the  "royal  weight"  (lit.,  stone)  in  II.  Sam.  14: 

Dr.  Schrader  points  out  ( Cuneiform  Inscrip- 

w  and  the  Old  Testament,  vol.  i.,  p.  128)  that  in 

}  imperial  or  standard  weights  discovered  at 

tieveh,  in  the  form  of  figures  of  lions,  ducks, 

I.,  the  weight  is  designated  as  imperial  by  the 

■rase  "of  the  king,"  e.g.,  "nrina  (or  maneh)  of 

■■  king."    The  following   tables   of  weights, 

money,  and  measures  will  present  as  clearly  as 
possible  all  that  can  be  ascertained  on  this 
obscure  subject  by  the  highest  authorities. 
Among  the  best  of  these  authorities  may  be 
mentioned  J.  Brandis,  Das  MiXnz,  Maas,  und  Ge- 
wichtswesen  in  Vbrderasien;  and  the  various 
articles  contributed  by  Mr.  F.  W.  Madden,  M.R. 
A.S.  The  figures  furnished  by  the  latter  have, 
in  the  main,  been  followed  by  us.  In  the  early 
history  of  Israel  silver  appears  to  have  been  the 
prevailing  medium  of  commerce,  the  mention 
of  gold  being  comparatively  rare  and  incidental 
(Gen.  13:2;  24:35), 





1  Gerah 0. 

1  Bekah  (lOgerahs) 0. 

1  Shekel  (2  bekahs) 0. 

1  Maneh  or  mina  (60  shekels) 2 . 

1  Talent  {kikkar)  (60  manehs),  i.e.,  weight-talent  "of  the  king" 

Troy  Wreight. 
oz.      dwts.       grs. 

....0 0 12.65 

....0 5 6.5 

....0 10 13 

....7 12 12 

..  158 1 10.. 



I.  Old  Testament  Period. 

Troy  Weight.  Money 

(a)  Silver.  lb.  Value. 

1  Shekel    (holy 

shekel) 0     0     9      8.8...         $0.61 

1  Maneh   (mina) 

(=50 shekels)...    1    11     8     8    ...        32.00 
1  Talent  (=60  ma- 
nehs)   117  (about)  1,920.00 

(6)  Gold. 

IShekel 0     0    10    13    ...  9.60 

1  Maneh  or  mina 

(=50  shekels)...    2     2      6    22    ...       480.00 

1  Talent  (=60  ma- 
nehs)  131      8    14    14    ...28,800.00 

II.  New  Testament  Period. 

{a)  Copper. 

Lepton  (mite) about  .0012 

Quadrans  (farthing) =2  lepta.. about  .0025 

Assarion  or  As  (penny) =4  quadran- 

tes about  .01 

(6)  Silver. 

Denarius    (pen  ny)  =  drachma  =16 

asses about  .16 

Didrachm=2  drachmas  or  denarii. . .  .32 

Stater  or  tetradrachm=shekel .64 

Mina  or  pound  {Attic)=3d  shekels. . .  19.10 

Talent=m  minee  {Attic) 1,146.00 

(c)  Gold. 

Imperial  Aureus 5.04 

Stater 5.28 


Respecting  measures  of  liquid  and  dry  capacity, 
it  is  impossible  to  give  an  accurate  standard  of 
content;  for  rabbinic  authorities  measure  an 
ephah  or  bath  as  four  gallons,  while  Josephus 
assigns  it  double  this  measure.  Assuming,  then, 
eight  gallons  as  an  approximate  hypothetical 
estimate  for  the  content  of  an  ephah,  we  ob- 
tain the  following  table  of  Hebrew  measures  of 
capacity : 

1  Log %  pint. 

1  Cab=4  logs S%  pints. 

1  Hin=3  cabs 1%  gallons. 

1  Omer=lt  cabs 6     pints. 

1  Seah=3>£  omers 2%  gallons. 

1  Ephah  or  bath=3  seabs 8  "  gallons. 

1  Lethech=5  ephahs 40     gallons. 

1  Hoiner=10  ephahs 80     gallons. 

Similarly,  respecting  measures  of  length,  we 
have  insufficient  data  to  enable  us  to  do  more 
than  present  the  following  approximations: 

1  Digit %  inch. 

1  Palm=4  digits 3     inches. 

1  Span=3  palms 9     inches. 

1  Cubit=2  spans \y2  feet. 

1  Reed=6  cubits 9     feet. 

In  the  Greek  and  Roman  periods  the  following 
measures  of  distance  prevailed  in  common  use : 

A  Roman  foot 11.65  inches. 

A  Greek  foot 1  foot  0.135  inch. 

A  Roman  passus 4  feet  10%  inches. 

A  Greek  fathom  (bpyvtd) 6  feet  1  inch. 

A  Greek  furlong  (o-raSioi') 202  yards. 

A  Roman  mile 0.92  English  mile, 

or  about  1,615  yards. 

A  Persian  parasang .8% miles  (nearly). 

Book  of  Reference:  Williamson's  The  Money  of 
the  Bible. 


By  THEOPHILUS  G.  PINCHES,  M.R.A.S.,  Department  of  Egyptian  and 
Assyrian  Antiquities,  British  Museum,  London. 

Assur-bani-apli  ("the  great  and  noble  Asnapper"  of  Ezra  4:  10— see  p.  120),  attended  by  his  eunuch, 
hunting  lions.    From  a  bas-relief  from  Kouyunjik  {Nineveh).    British  Museum. 


1.    HISTORY. 

Of  these  two  great  nations  of  the  ancient  East 
it  is  the  Bible  that  gives  us  the  earliest  account. 
When  Nimrod,  the  mighty  hunter,  son  of  Cush, 
began  to  get  powerful,  the  beginnings  of  his 
kingdom  were  Babel  or  Babylon,  Erech  or  Uruk 
(now  Warka),  Akkad  (a  city  close  to  Sippara, 
now  Abu-habbah),  and  Calneh,  in  Shinar  or 
Sumer,  the  northern  part  of  Babylonia.  He 
then  went  out  into  Assyria  (according  to 
the  translation  of  the  margin  of  the  A.V.  and 
the  text  of  the  R.V.)  and  built  Nineveh,  Reho- 
both-Ir  ("the  streets  of  Ir,"  or  "of  the  city"), 
Calah  (now  Nimroud),  and  Resen  (Assyr.,  Res- 
ini,  "the  head  of  the  fountain"),  "the  great 
city  "  between  Nineveh  and  Calah.  The  confu- 
sion of  tongues  (Gen.  11)  took  place  at  Babel,  the 
Babylon  of  the  Greeks  and  the  Babilam  of  many 
of  the  native  inscriptions,  which  was  changed  by 
a  folk-etymology  to  Bdb-ili  ("gate  of  God  ")  at  a 
very  early  date.  A  very  common  name  of  the 
country  was  Kar-Dunias.  The  province  of 
Akkad  was  also  known  by  the  non-Semitic 
name  of  Uri,  or  Ura,  and  it  is  probably  this, 
rather  than  Mugheir,  which  is  the  Ur-Casdim 
of  the  Old  Testament,  where  Abraham  was  born. 
The  original  inhabitants  of  the  country  were 
apparently  Semites.  How  the  non-Semitic  Ak- 
kadians got  into  the  country  is  not  known,  but 
they  seem  to  have  made  themselves  masters  of 
the  greater  part  of  it,  bringing  with  them  their 

superior  civilization  and  the  now  well-known 
cuneiform  writing,  which  afterwards  became 
the  common  vehicle  of  communication  in  the 
ancient  East.  Probably  one  of  the  states  which 
soonest  became  re-Semitized  was  that  of  which 
the  city  of  Agade  (Akkad)  was  the  capital.  One 
of  the  principal  cities  of  this  part  was  Sipar,  or 
Sippara,  the  center  of  the  worship  of  the  sun- 
god  and  of  the  goddess  Anunit.  Here  ruled, 
3800  B.C.,  according  to  the  native  records,  Sargani 
or  Sargon  of  Agade,  a  warlike  king,  who  subju- 
gated Babylon,  Elam,  Phenicia,  and  set  up  his 
image  on  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean.  His 
son,  Naram-Sin,  was  also  a  warlike  ruler.  At 
a  later  date  ruled  Chedorlaomer  (Kudur-Laga- 
mar),  king  of  Elam,  whom  the  changes  brought 
about  by  time  had  made  overlord  over  a  great 
part,  if  not  the  whole,  of  Babylonia.  Under 
him  were  Arioch  or  Eri-Aku  of  Ellasar  (prob- 
ably the  Babylonian  town  of  Larsa,  or  Larrisa), 
Amraphel  of  Shinar  or  Sumer,  and.  Tidal  (i.e., 
Tudgal,  if  an  Akkadian  name),  king  of  nations. 
Chedorlaomer  was  the  leader  of  these  three  vas- 
sal states  in  the  campaign  against  the  rebellious 
west  country,  which  then,  as  later,  acknowl- 
edged the  sway  of  the  principal  ruler  of  Baby- 
lonia. Akkadian  influence  was  already  on  the 
decline,  notwithstanding  that  Akkadian  names 
appear  in  the  history  of  the  country  until  a 
much  later  date.  About  2300  B.C.  the  consolida- 
tion of  the  Babylonian  states  into  a  single  king- 
dom probably  took  place,  and  Babylon  became 
the  capital  of  the  whole  country,  the  viceroys 
of  Assur,  or  Assyria,  however,  still  maintaining 




their  semi-independent  position.  Foreign  (Sem- 
itic) names  of  rulers  (Khanimurabi,  Ebisu  or 
Abesii',  who  claims  also  to  have  ruled  over  Phe- 
nicia,  Ammi-zaduga,  etc.)  now  appear,  implying 
a  conquest  of  Babylon  by  Semitic  hordes  during 
the  preceding  period.  About  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury B.C.  the  Assyrian  viceroys  seem  to  have 
found  themselves  strong  enough  to  contend  suc- 
cessfully with  Babylonia,  and  declared  their  in- 
dependence. The  influence  of  Babylonia,  how- 
ever, still  continued,  and  the  Babylonian  lan- 
guage and  the  cuneiform  script  became  a  very 
common  medium  of  intercommunication  all 
over  the  western  portion  of  Asia  Minor  as  far  as 

The  now  independent  country  of  Assyria 
proved  to  be  a  troublesome  neighbor  to  Baby- 
lonia, and  the  kings  of  the  former  overran  and 
conquered  the  latter  from  time  to  time,  Tu- 
kulti-Ninip,  king  of  Assyria,  being  recorded  as 
having  ruled  over  Babylonia  for  seven  years  (892- 
885  B.C.).  He  was  killed  in  a  revolt  in  which 
Assur-nasir-apli,  his  son,  who  succeeded  him, 
took  part.  The  new  ruler,  a  most  warlike  and 
cruel  man,  invaded  the  countries  on  almost 
every  side,  and  even  laid  Phenicia  under  trib- 
ute. The  successor  of  Assur-nasir-apli  was  Shal- 
maneser  II.,  who  came  to  the  throne  (according 
to  Assyrian  chronology)  about  860  B.C.  The  king 
continued  the  warlike  policy  of  his  father,  and 
defeated  Benhadad  of  Damascus  and  Ahab  of 
Israel  {Akhabbit  mdt  SirHlda),  with  their  numer- 
ous allies,  at  the  battle  of  Karkar.  Though  the 
allies  were  too  strong  for  the  Assyrian  king, 
who,  notwithstanding  the  victories  that  he 
claims,  obtained  no  real  advantage,  they  must 
have  been  considerably  weakened,  and  perhaps 
demoralized,  and  it  may  have  been  this  which 
allowed  the  Israelites  to  gain  the  advantage  over 
the  Syrians  at  the  battles  of  Samaria  and  Aphek 
(I.  Ki.  20).  In  the  year  842  B.C.  Shalmaneser  re- 
ceived tribute  from  Jehu,  "son  of  Omri,"  and 
the  tribute-bearers  are  shown  on  the  Black  Obe- 
lisk now  in  the  British  Museum  (Plate  IV.) 
(see  p.  139),  which  was  carved  by  order  of  this 
king.  The  old  line  of  Assyrian  kings  seems  to 
have  ended  with  Assur-nirari  II.,  and  in  745  B.C. 
Tiglath-Pileser  III.,  apparently  a  usurper,  came 
to  the  throne.  For  Tiglath-Pileser  the  Baby- 
lonian canon  substitutes  Pulu,  or  Pul  (II.  Ki. 
15:  19),  which  seems  to  have  been  his  original 
name.  In  742  B.C.  Tiglath-Pileser  overthrew 
Hamath,  then  in  alliance  with  Azariah  (Uz- 
ziah),  king  of  Judah,  and  in  738  B.C.  he  received 
tribute  from  Menahem  of  Samaria  and  Rezin 
of  Syria.  In  734  B.C.  he  made  an  expedition  to 
Palestine,  and  received  tribute  from  Ahaz  of 
Judah,  confirming  II.  Ki.  16:  8.  The  name  un- 
der which  Ahaz  appears  in  the  cuneiform  in- 
scriptions is  Jehoahaz,  from  which  it  is  con- 
jectured that  the  biblical  writer  left  out  the 
sacred  name  with  which  it  was  joined  on  ac- 
count of  Ahaz's  wickedness.  In  return  for  the 
submission  of  Ahaz,  Tiglath-Pileser  attacked 
(735-732  B.C.)  Rezin  of  Damascus,  and  Israel. 
Damascus  was  captured,  Rezin,  the  king,  put 
to  death,  and  Syria  became  an  Assyrian  prov- 
i nee.  Next  year  Merodach-Baladan  ottered  hom- 
age to  the  Assyrian  king,  and  two  years  later 
Tiglath-Pileser  overran  Israel  (II.  Ki.  15:  29),  set 
up  Iloshea  as  "king  of  the  land  of  the  house  of 
Omri,"  in  place  of  Pekah,  who  had  been  mur- 
dered, and  imposed  a  tribute  of  10  talents  of 
gold  and  1,000  talents  of  silver.  Tiglath-Pile- 
ser also  made  numerous  other  expeditions. 
In  727  h.c.  Shalmaneser  IV.,  called  by  the  Baby- 
lonians ITlulaa  (Elulseus),  succeeded  Tiglath- 
Pileser  111.  This  new  ruler,  in  consequence  of 
Hoshea's  alliance  with  So,  king  of  p]gypt,  began 
the  siege  of  Samaria  in  724,  but,  as  he  died  in 
722,  it  is  supposed  that  (he  city  was  taken  under 
Sargon  the  Later,  king  of  Assyria,  who  carried 
its  inhabitants,  27,280  souls,  into  captivity.  The 
rest  were  allowed  to  retain  possession  of  their 

land,  however,  seemingly  under  Assyrian  gov- 
ernors. Sargon 's  first  move  was  against  Mero- 
dach-Baladan, king  of  Babylon,  whom  he  de- 
feated. Sargon  then  settled  the  Babylonians  in 
the  land  of  Khatti  (Hit).  In  711  B.C.  he  captured 
Ashdod,  and  laid  all  Palestine  under  tribute. 
In  710  b.c.  he  defeated  Merodach-Baladan,  and 
next  year  mounted  the  Babylonian  throne.  In 
705  B.C.  Sargon  died  (supposed  to  have  been  as- 
sassinated), and  Sennacherib,  his  son,  already  a 
man  who  had  seen  much  service,  mounted  the 
throne  on  the  12th  day  of  Ab  (July-August). 
After  defeating  Merodach-Baladan  at  the  battle 
of  Kes  in  704  B.C.,  he  marched  (B.C.  701)  against 
Hezekiah,  who  had  been  encouraging  the  Ekron- 
ites  in  their  revolt  against  the  Assyrian  domin- 
ion, they  having  delivered  Padi,  their  king,  who 
was  faithful  to  Assyria,  into  Hezekiah's  hands. 
The  Assyrian  king  first  defeated  Hczekiah's 
ally,  Tirhakah,  king  of  Egypt,  at  the  battle  of 
Eltakeh,  and  then,  severely  punishing  the  chief 
men  of  Ekron,  he  overran  Judah,  capturing 
forty-six  fortified  cities  and  numberless  villages, 
of  which  Lachish  was  one.  Whilst  the  siege 
of  Lachish  was  going  on,  Hezekiah  tried  to  buy 
off  the  Assyrian  king,  who  appointed  a  tribute 
of  300  talents  of  silver  and  30  of  gold  (II.  Ki. 
18:  14).  He  did  not  succeed,  however,  in  induc- 
ing the  king  of  Assyria  to  spare  Jerusalem,  for 
the  latter,  after  sending  300,150  Jews,  with  their 
cattle  and  camels,  into  captivity,  sent  the  tar- 
tan  or  commander-in-chief,  the  rab-shakeh  or 
chief  of  the  captains,  and  the  rab-saris  or  chief 
of  the  princes  to  besiege  Jerusalem.  The  dis- 
comfiture of  the  Assyrian  army  is  very  well 
known,  and  after  its  destruction  Sennacherib 
returned  home,  and  afterwards  carried  his  arms 
against  Chaldean  pretenders  in  Babylonia  and 
Elam.  He  was  murdered  in  681  B.C.  by  Adram- 
melech  {Assur-mulih)  and  Sharezer,  his  sons,  who 
afterwards  fled  into  Armenia.  Esarhaddon,  who 
is  supposed  to  have  been  a  younger  brother,  now 
took  possession  of  the  throne,  and  defeated  an 
Armenian  army  (with  which  his  brothers  seem 
to  have  been)  in  eastern  Cappadocia.  Esarhaddon 
captured  and  plundered  Sidon,  conquered  Egypt, 
which  he  divided  into  satrapies,  and  received 
tribute  from  Palestine  and  Cyprus.  Manasseh 
of  Judah,  who  was  afterwards  carried  captive  to 
Babylon  and  confined  there  for  a  time  (il.  Chr. 
33:  11),  is  mentioned  among  the  tributaries. 

Esarhaddon  was  the  first  Assyrian  king  to 
conciliate  the  Babylonians.  He  rebuilt  a  great 
part  of  the  city  of  Babylon,  which  had  been  de- 
stroyed by  Sennacherib,  and  held  his  court 
there,  thus  accounting  for  the  statement  that 
the  "king  of  Assyria"  brought  Manasseh  to 
Babylon,  and  not  to  Nineveh.  Esarhaddon  died 
when  on  his  way  to  Egypt  in  068  B.C.,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  two  sons,  Assur-bani-apli  in 
Assyria  (on  the  12th  day  of  lyyar— April-May), 
and  Samas-sum-ukin  (Saosduchinos)  in  Babylo- 
nia. The  attempted  revolt  of  the  Egyptians 
under  Tirhakah,  who  had  taken  possession  of 
Memphis,  led  to  the  destruction  of  Ni'a  (No,  or 
No-Amon,  i.e.,  Thebes,  "No  of  the  god  Anion," 
not  "populous  No,"  as  in  the  Authorized  Ver- 
sion). The  city  was  sacked,  its  monuments  de- 
stroyed and  carried  away,  and  the  people  carried 
into  captivity.  It  is  to  this  captivity  that  Na- 
limii  refers  in  his  prophecy  (Nah.  3:8)  as  a  re- 
cent event.  Assur-bani-apli  is  generally  re- 
garded as  "the  great  and  noble  Asnappcr"  of 
Ezra  4: 10.  His  portrait  will  be  found  on  page  119. 

After  the  death  of  Assur-bani-apli  the  Assyri- 
an empire  began  to  decline,  and  her  enemies 
began  to  take  their  revenge  upon  her.  In  the 
time  of  Sin-sarra-iskun  (Saracos)  Nineveh  was 
besieged  and  destroyed  by  Cyaxares,  king  of 
Media,  assisted  by  Nabopolassar,  the  rebel  vice- 
roy of  Babylonia.  Nebuchadnezzar  (better  Neb- 
uchadrezzar), son  of  Nabopolassar,  who  reigned 
from  601  to  501  b.c,  raised  the  power  of  Babylo- 
nia to  a  greater  pitch  than  it  had  ever  reached 



before.  Tvre  was  added  to  the  Babylonian  do- 
minions, Palestine  conquered,  and  Jehoiachin 
and  the  Jewish  nobles  carried  into  captivity  to 
Babylon  (596  B.C.).  In  585  B.C.  Jerusalem  was  de- 
stroyed, together  with  the  temple,  and  the  exile 
of  the  remnant  of  the  nation  of  David  and 
Solomon  began.  Nebuchadnezzar  rebuilt  the 
greater  part  of  the  city  of  Babylon,  restoring 
and  enlarging  its  fortifications,  rebuilding  the 

or  Nabonidus,  who  reigned  from  555  to  538  b.c, 
He  does  not  seem  to  have  been  by  any  means 
a  warlike  monarch.  This  king  refers,  in  one  of 
his  inscriptions,  to  his  eldest  son,  Bel-sarra-usur, 
or  Belshazzar,  who  is  also  often  mentioned  in 
private  documents.  He  was  probably  associated 
with  his  father  on  the  throne  of  Babylonia,  and 
might  thus  be  regarded  as  the  second  ruler  in 
the  kingdom  of  which,  on  the  night  of  his 
death,  Daniel  was  made  the  third  (Dan.  5:  29). 
Gobryas  took  possession  of  the  city  for  his 
master,  Cyrus,  who  was  proclaimed  king  in  suc- 
cession to  Nabonidus  and  his  son,  in  538  B.C. 
Nabonidus,  who  surrendered,  is  said  to  have 
been  made  governor  of  Carmania,  and  Babylo- 
nia became  a  part  of  the  Persian  empire. 


The  religion  of  the  Semitic  inhabitants  of 
Babylonia  and  Assyria  seems  to  have  been  orig- 
inally a  very  near  approach  to  monotheism 
(the  worship  of  Ya,  or  Jah),  though  no  records 
of  that  period  are  known,  to  enable  it  to  be  said 
with  certainty  how  far  it  was  so.  The  arrival 
of  the  Akkadians,  with  their  extensive  and 
well-developed  pantheon,  caused  a  great  change, 
though  there  is  the  possibility  that  many  fami- 
lies or  tribes  (such  as  that  of  Abraham)  clung 
with  tenacity  to  their  ancient  monotheistic 
beliefs,  such  as  they  were.  The  Akkadians 
brought  with  them  the  worship  of  Ami,  the  god 
of  the  heavens;  Mi  or  Ae  (Oannes),  the  god  of 
"the  deep";  Mum  (or  Alim),  identified  with  Bel, 
Marduk  or  Mcroclach  (a  corruption  of  Amar-utuk, 
"the  brightness  of  day");  Nana  or  Istar;  Beltis; 
and  a  host  of  minor  gods  and  goddesses.  The 
number  of  divine  personages  amounted  to 
about  5,000  (Assur-nasir-apli  says  65,000),  but  the 
principal  gods  numbered  only  50  or  60.  At  an 
early  date  the  worship  of  the  sun-god  (Samas) 
assumed  large  proportions,  and  the  city  of  Sip- 
para,  the  center  of  that  worship,  attracted  vo- 
taries from  all  sides,  and  offerings  were  made 
even  by  Egyptians.  Other  cities  had  temples  to 
the  moon-god  Sin,  and  Istar  or  Venus.  This 
worship  of  the  heavenly  bodies  was  probably 
due  to  the  study  of  astronomy,  which  induced  a 
kind  of  star  ivorship,  many  of  the  gods  being 
identified  with  th/e  stars  and  planets.  This  star 
worship,  in  later  days,  seems  to  have  found 
favor  with  the  Israelites,  as  is  indicated  by  Amos 
5:  26,  "Yea,  ye  have  borne  Sikkuth,  your  king, 
and  Chiun,  your  images,  the  star  of  your  god 
which  ye  made  to  yourselves  "  (R.V.),  Sikkuth 
being  regarded  as  the  Akkadian  Sakkut,  a  name 
of  the  god  Ninip,  and  Chiun  as  the  Assyrian 
Kaawann,  the  planet  Saturn.  The  "host  of 
heaven"  which  Manasseh  worshiped  (II.  Ki. 
21:  3)  is  probably  the  Ansar  ("host  of  heaven") 
of  the  Babylonian  creation-legend  (cf.  Gen.  2: 1). 
Reference  to  this  worship  is  made  in  II.  Ki.  23: 5, 
where  the  people  are  spoken  of  as  burning  in- 
cense to  Baal,  to  the  sun,  the  moon,  the  planets, 
and  all  the  host  of  heaven,  and  in  Zeph.  1:  5, 
and  Jer.  19:  13,  from  which  we  learn  that  this 
worship  took  place  upon  the  housetops.  These 
idolatrous  practices  were  suppressed  by  Josiah. 
The  idolatries  of  the  Jews  of  the  exile  are  men- 
tioned in  Isa.  65:  3,  where  they  are  spoken  of 
as  sacrificing  in  gardens  and  burning  incense 

upon  bricks,  and  are  contrasted  (v.  7)  with  their 
forefathers,  who  worshiped  upon  the  high  places 
and  hills  of  Palestine.  Horses  and  chariots  were 
also  dedicated  by  the  Jewish  kings  to  the  sun 
(II.  Ki.  23: 11),  as  did  the  Babylonians  at  Sippara 
(the  seat  of  the  worship  of  the  sun-god),  and, 
later,  the  Persians.  Jewish  women  seem  to 
have  been  most  attracted  by  the  Akkadian 
myth  of  Adonis  (from  the  Semitic  adonai, 
"lord"),  which  had  spread  all  over  the  Semitic 
East.  Adonis,  or  Tammuz  (Ezek.  8:  14),  was  the 
Akkadian  Dumu-zi  ("  son  of  life  "),  and  stood  for 
the  sun,  whose  wintry  decline  after  the  summer 
solstice  was  bewailed  by  women,  who  commem- 
orated thus,  in  accordance  with  the  Babylonian 
ritual,  the  descent  of  Istar's  spouse  into  Hades. 
Women  wept  for  Tammuz  even  in  the  north 
gate  of  the  temple  at  Jerusalem  (Ezek.  8:  14). 
Besides  all  the  above-named  deities,  however, 
the  Babylonians  and  Assyrians  believed  in  the 
existence  of  a  large  number  of  evil  spirits  or 
demons,  which  constantly  had  to  be  exorcised, 
and  it  is  probably  from  this  that  the  later  Jews 
borrowed  their  demonology,  of  which  the  book 
of  Tobit  gives  a  specimen  in  the  story  of  Asmo- 
deus  (3:  8),  and  the  description  how  the  evil 
spirit  was  to  be  exorcised  (6:  17;  7:  2).  Clay 
images  of  gods  were  placed  by  the  AssjTrians 
under  the  floors  of  the  palaces,  etc.,  apparently 
to  protect  the  building.  These  remind  one  of 
the  small  images,  or  terapliim,  so  often  men- 
tioned in  the  Bible  (Gen.  31:  19,  34;  II.  Ki.  23:  24; 
IIos.  3:  4,  etc.),  which  were  apparently  the 
household  gods,  from  whom,  also,  oracles  were 
sought  (Zech.  10:  2). 


The  Babylonian  story  of  the  flood  is  inscribed 
on  the  eleventh  tablet  of  the  series  recounting 
the  exploits  of  the  Babylonian  hero  Gilgames 
(pr.  GU-gah-mess,  with  hard  g.)  *The  hero  had 
become  smitten  with  some  disease  (for  which 
in  his  own  land  there  was  no  remedy),  and 
with  the  desire  for  immortality.  He  therefore 
set  out  with  a  companion  named  Ur-Sanabi, 
"the  boatman,"  to  seek  Um-napistim,  the 
Babylonian  Noah,  who  dwelt  "in  a  remote 
place  at  the  mouths  of  the  rivers,"  which  was 
reached,  by  water,  and  which  is  supposed  to  be 
the  island  of  Bahrein.  Whilst  yet  afar  off,  they 
saw  the  patriarch,  and  a  conversation  took 
place,  in  which  Gilgames  mentions  wonder- 
ingly  Um-napistim's  unchanged  appearance, 
and  asks  him  how  he  has  attained  immortality. 
In  answer,  the  deathless  sage  tells  the  story  of 
the  Hood.  The  gods,  who  dwelt  within  the  city 
Suripak,  or  Surippak,  on  the  Euphrates,  decided 
to  make  a  flood,  and  Ea,  or  Ae  (Oannes),  god 
of  the  sea,  repeated  their  decision  to  the  earth, 
saying:  "Land,  land;  field,  field,— O  land,  hear; 
and  field,  understand!  Surippakite,  son  of  Um- 
bara-Tutu  (Otiartes),  destroy  thy  house,  build  a 
ship  (cf.  Gen.  6:  14)  ...  .  cause  the  seed  of  life, 
all  of  it,  to  go  up  into  the  ship  "  (cf.  Gen.  6: 19-21). 
The  god  Ea  then  goes  on  to  tell  him  the  dimen- 
sions of  the  ship,  and  Um-napistim  asks  the  god 
concerning  it.  After  a  mutilated  portion  and  a 
break,  the  building  of  the  ship  is  described,  how 
it  was  caulked,  within  and  without,  with  bitu- 
men (cf.  Gen.  6:  14),  and  how  it  was  provisioned. 
Um-napistim  then  collected  all  his  property,  in- 
cluding his  silver  and  gold,  and  made  all  the 
seed  of  life  to  go  up  into  the  ship,  together  with 
his  family,  his  female  slaves,  and  all  the  beasts 
and  cattle  of  the  field  (cf.  Gen.  7:  7-9, 13-15).  Sa- 
mas (the  sun-god)  appointed  the  time,  and  gave 
directions  to  Um-napistim  to  enter  the  ship,  for 
he  was  about  to  cause  a  heavy  storm  to  come. 

1A  brief  portion  only  of  the  account  is  here  given. 
Its  style  and  narrative  may  be  judged  by  what  is  thus 



Um-napistim  then  says :  "  Four  days  I  watched 
his  [the  sun-god's]  image— the  time  to  be  ob- 
served. I  was  afraid;  1  entered  into  the  midst 
of  Hi.'  ship,  and  shut  the  door.  To  close  the 
ship,  I  gave  to  Buzur-Kurgal,  the  boatman,  the 
great  house  with  its  goods." 

Reverse  of  the  best  preserved  of  the  fragments  in- 
scribed with  the  Babylonian  account  of  the  flood, 
from  Kouyunjik  (Nineveh),  and  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  The  first  (right-hand)  column  tells  of  Bel's 
anger  at  the  preservation  of  a  portion  of  the  human 
race,  how  he  was  appeased  and  conferred  immor- 
tality on  Um-napistim  (-=Noah). 

At  dawn  there  arose   from  the  horizon  of 
heaven  a  dark  cloud,  in  the  midst  of  which 
Hadad  thundered.    In  front  of  it  went  Nebo 
and    Sarru    (=Merodaeh),   and   the    bearers  of 
their  thrones  carried  them  over  mountains  and 
plains.     The  weapon  of  Uragal  (Nergal)  cast 
down,  Ninip  went,  causing  the  storm  to  de- 
scend;   the    spirits   of    the    earth    (Anunnaki) 
raised  their  torches,  lighting  up  the  land  with 
their  brightness  (cf.  Gen.  7:  11-20);  then  Hadad's 
raging  waters  sought  even  the  heavens,  and 
everything  that  was  bright  turned  to  darkness. 
In  the  next  column  the  text  runs  as  follows  (a 
small  portion  only  being  here  given  to  indicate 
its  charaeter): 
Like  a  battle  against  the  people,  it  sought  [to  de- 
They  saw  not  each  other— the  people  in  heaven  rec- 
ognized not  each  other. 
The  gods  feared  the  tempest,  and 
Brew  back,  they  ascfeiided  to  the  heaven  of  Anu- 
The  gods  like  kenneled  dogs  lay  down  in  the  dwell- 
Istar  cried  out  as  one  travailing  [variant:  filled  with 

The  Supreme  One  [variant:   the  lady  of  the  gods] 

made  known  her  goodness: 
"The  past  bath  turned  to  clay 

Because  I  spoke  evil  in  the  presence  [variant:  assem- 
bly] of  the  gods. 
When  I  spoke  evil  in  the  presence  [variant:  assem- 
bly] of  the  gods, 
For  the  destruction,  of  my  people  I  spoke  of  battle. 
Have  I  begotten  mankind?    Where  is  he? — 
Like  the  sons  of  the  fishes  he  filleth  the  sea!  " 
The  gods  above  the  Anunnaki  Inspirits  of  earth]  were 

weeping  with  her. 
The  gods  sat  bowed  down  in  lamentation, 
Pressed  together  were  their  lips  [in  all?]  the  assem- 
The  wind  hloweth,  the  flood  and  hurricane  destroy. 
'the  seventh  (lav,  when  it  came,  Unit  hurricane,  and 

t  lie  advancing  Hood, 
Whiclv-had  stricken  down  like  a  whirlwind, 
Ceased,  the  sea   became  calm,  and  the  storm  and 
flood  stopped  (cf.  Gen.  8:1,2). 

Besides  the  account  given  above,  there  was 
another  story  of  the  flood,  told  in  the  third  per- 
son, in  which  the  principal  personage  is  called 
At r a- k basis  (as  in  line  twenty-three  of  the 
reverse  of  the  above  fragment),  the  Xisithrus 
of  the  Greeks.  Fragments  only  of  this  version 



The  fact  that  Abraham  came  from  Ur  of  the 
Chaldees  probably  accounts  for  a  certain  amount 
of  likeness  between  the  account  of  the  creation 
as  given  in  Genesis  and  the  Babylonian  account, 
as  well  as  the  striking  similarity  that  exists  in 
the  story  of  the  flood  in  the  Bible  and  in  the 
cuneiform  inscription.-  In  the  Babylonian  leg- 
end of  the  creation,  the  beginning  of  all  things, 
the  coming  forth  of  the  gods,  the  creation  of  the 
heavenly  bodies  and  of  the  animals  of  the  earth, 
are  treated  of,  but  there  is  no  division  into 
periods  corresponding  with  the  "days"  of  Gen. 
1.  There  is  also  a  non-Semitic  story  of  the  cre- 
ation which  has  some  analogies  with  the  ac- 
count given  in  the  second  chapter  of  Genesis. 
In  both  these  accounts,  as  well  as  in  the 
story  of  the  flood,  polytheism  plays  a  prominent 
part.  In  the  Semitic  Babylonian  story  of  the 
creation  there  is  a  long  account  of  the  fight  be- 
tween Merodach  and  Kirbis-tiamtu,  the  original 
of  Bel  and  the  dragon,  whose  images  Daniel  is 
represented  as  having  destroyed.  It  is  not  un- 
likely that  the  story  of  the  tower  of  Babel  is 
connected  with  some  legend  current  at  the  time 
when  Abraham  was  in  the  country.  At  a  later 
period,  and  notably  during  the  exile,  the  large 
literature  referring  to  magic  and  charms  had 
effect  on  the  Jewish  mind,  and  we  find,  there- 
fore, Ahaz  using  the  brazen  altar  in  the  temple 
for  the  purpose  of  divination  (II.  Ki.  10: 15),  and 
the  circumstance  of  the  witch  of  Endor,  at  a 
rather  earlier  date,  may  be  due  to  the  same  in- 
fluence, for  the  literature  concerning  witchcraft 
was  very  extensive  in  Babylonia  and  Assyria. 
The  Babylonians  and  Assyrians  were,  on  the 
whole,  very  religious.  They  were  constantly 
invoking  and  adoring  their  gods,  and  prayer 
was  made  to  them  on  every  possible  occasion. 
They  seem  to  have  believed  in  the  immortality 
of  the  soul,  and  it  is  probable  that  they  regarded 
the  spirits  of  the  departed  as  ultimately  attain- 
ing the  bliss  of  life  among  the  gods.  All,  how- 
ever, had  first,  like  Tamiiiuz,  to  go  down  into 
Hades,  the  land  of  no  return,  corresponding 
closely  with  the  Hebrew  Shcol,  and,  passing 
through  its  seven  gates,  there  to  dwell,  in  the 
realm  of  the  queen  Eres-ki-gal,  among  the  bird- 
like spirits  who  filled  the  place,  feeding  on  dust. 
From  this  gloomy  place  the  souls  of  the  dead 
could  only  be  brought  forth  by  magical  incan- 
tations, as  in  the  case  of  the  raising  of  Samuel 
by  the  writch  of  Endor  (see  also  Isa.  8:  19).  The 
Tel-el-Amarna  tablets  (see  Plate  I.)  show  that 
the  legends  of  the  Babylonians  were  known 
even  in  Egypt. 


MAY    BE    TRACED    TO 

The  idolatrous  practices  of  the  Israelites  have 
already  been  mentioned,  as  well  as  the  magic 
and  incantations.  It  is  also  not  unlikely  that 
the  burning  of  sweet  spices  at  the  burial  of 
the  dead  (II.  Chr.  16:  11)  was  borrowed  from 
Babylonia,  where,  however,  the  bodies  seem  to 
have  been  burned— not  committed  to  the  earth. 
Some  of  the  Jewish  festivals,  such  as  the  new 
moons  and  Sabbaths,  may  havecomo  originally 
from  thai  country.  The  "shepherd  of  the  great 
people"  was  not  to  eat  flesh  that  had  been 
cooked  by  a  lire  of  embers,  was  not  to  change 



his  clothing  or  wear  white  apparel,  and  was  not 
to  make  sacrifice.  The  king  was  not  to  ride  in 
his  chariot,  the  seer  was  not  to  disclose  a  secret 
place,  and  the  physician  was  not  to  lay  his  hand 
on  the  sick.  The  king  was  to  make  offerings  to 
Merodach  and  Istar  at  nighttime,  and  to  sacri- 
fice victims,  and  the  raising  of  his  hands  (in 
prayer)  would  be  acceptable  to  the  deity.  The 
nineteenth  day  of  the  month  was  also  a  day  of 
the  same  kind,  because  it  was  a  week  of  weeks 
from  the  first  day  of  the  foregoing  month,  and 
three  weeks  from  the  twenty-eighth  day  of  the 
same.  This  nineteenth  day  was  called  "the 
white,"  apparently  on  account  of  its  extreme 
sanctity.  None  of  these  days,  which  were  un- 
suitable for  work,  had  any  of  the  strictness  of 
the  Jewish  Sabbath,  nor  does  that  name  seem  to 
have  been  applied  to  them.  Besides  the  abqve, 
there  was  another  day  to  which  the  name  of 
Sabattu,  or  Sabbath,  was  really  given,  and  which 
is  explained  as  "a  day  of  rest  for  the  heart." 
This,  however,  was  the  fifteenth  day  of  the 
month,  and  was  probably  only  kept  if  business 
were  not  pressing.  With  the  Akkadians,  Assyr- 
ians, and  Babylonians,  the  number  seven  was 
a  sacred  number,  probably  originally  for  lin- 
guistic reasons,  but  also  because  of  the  seven 
planets,  the  mystic  serpent  with  seven  heads, 
and  similar  things.  The  observance  of  the 
seventh  day  as  sacred  went  back  to  a  very 
remote  period,  and  extended,  with  many  other 
practices,  all  over  the  ancient  East. 


1.    HISTORY. 

The  name  by  which  Egypt  is  mentioned  in  the 
Bible  is  generally  Mizraim,  "the  two  marches" 
or  "boundaries,"  and  it  is  by  that  name,  or  its 
singular,  that  the  country  was  and  is  known  to 
all  Semitic  nations.  The  dual  form  is  generally 
regarded  as  referring  to  the  two  divisions  of 
Upper  (southern)  and  Lower  (northern)  Egypt. 
The  modern  name,  Egypt,  is  from  the  name  of 
the  nome  called  Koptites  in  Greek  (from  Qefti, 
the  capital)  and  Horui  in  Egyptian.  It  is  from 
the  Greek  form  of  this  name  that  the  word 
Copt,  by  which  the  Egyptian  Christians  are 
known,  comes.  Whether  Egypt  be  the  oldest 
kingdom  in  the  world  or  not  is  uncertain,  but 
there  is  no  people  existing  whose  history  can  be 
traced  back  to  such  a  remote  period  as  theirs. 
Manetho,  the  Egyptian  priest  of  Sebennytus, 
gives  thirty  djmasties  from  Menes  to  the  time  of 
Nectanebo  II.  (3-10  B.C.),  extending  over  a  period 
of  3,555  (really  3,553)  years.  The  best  approximate 
date  for  the  foundation  of  the  kingdom  is  there- 
fore about  3893  B.C.  The  chronology  becomes 
more  definite  after  the  beginning  of  the  New 
Empire  (1701  B.C.),  and  the  dates  of  the  kings  of 
Egypt  from  685  B.C.  (the  20th  dynasty)  are  now 
well  known.  The  primeval  monarchy  followed 
the  mythical  period.  Menes  was  the  first  mortal 
king,  and  is  said  to  have  founded  Memphis  (Hos. 
0:  6,  Moph,  elsewhere  Noph,  both  a  corruption 
of  the  Egyptian  Mennofer),  which  was  the  capi- 
tal until  the  sixth  dynasty  (about  2956  B.C.). 
Cheops,  Chephren,  and  Mycerinus,  the  three 
well-known  kings  of  the  fourth  dynasty,  built 
the  three  great  pyramids  of  Gizeh.  Under  the 
twelfth  dynasty  the  scepters  of  Upper  and 
Lower  Egypt  were  united,  and  a  revival  of  the 
art  of  the  country  took  place.  Fortifications 
also  were  erected  on  the  northeast  frontier,  ex- 
tending across  the  present  Isthmus  of  Suez.  It 
was  probably  about  this  time  that  Abraham 
and  Sarah  visited  Egypt  (Gen.  12:  10),  and  other 
Semitic  families  are  known  also  to  have  applied 
for  permission  to  enter  the  country.  During 
the  thirteenth  dynasty  (about  2194  B.C.)  these 
immigrations  became  more  frequent,  and  the 
Semitic  settlers  grew  so  powerful  that  they  were 
able  to  obtain  possession  of  the  whole  of  Lower 

Egypt,  and  were  known  as  the  Hyksos,  or  Shep- 
herd kings.  These  kings  ruled  at  Zoan  (or 
Tanis)  and  Avaris,  whilst  the  native  kings, 
whom  they  had  driven  out,  ruled  in  Upper 
Egypt.  It  was  during  this  period  that  Joseph 
and  Jacob  came  to  Egypt,  and  the  favorable 
treatment  which  they  met  with  at  the  hands  of 
the  king  then  ruling  was  probably  due  to  their 
being  of  the  same  race  as  himself.  According 
to  Brugsch,  the  name  of  the  ruler  under  whom 
Joseph  acted  was  Nub,  a  foreign  prince  who 
ruled  about  1750  B.C.,  and  the  famine  itself,  which 
took  place  during  Joseph's  administration,  has 
been  identified  by  him  with  that  to  which  an 
official  named  Baba  refers  in  an  inscription  in 
which  he  gives  an  account  of  his  services  to  his 
king  and  country. 

Fortune  went  at  last  against  the  foreign  dy- 
nasty, however,  and  the  Shepherd  kings  were 
driven  out  by  the  native  princes,  with  which 
the  New  Empire  (beginning  with  the  eighteenth 
dynasty)  was  inaugurated.  The  "new  king 
who  knew  not  Joseph  "  was  probably  Rameses 
II.  (see  Plate  VII.)  of  the  nineteenth  dynasty, 
after  whom  the  treasure-city  Raamses  (Ex.  1: 11), 
built  by  the  Israelites,  was  named.1  The  op- 
pression of  the  Israelites  is  to  be  attributed  to 
the  fact  that  they  were  associated  with  the 
Hyksos,  upon  whom,  as  conquerors  of  Egypt, 
and  as  a  race  of  heretics,  the  Egyptians  looked 
with  the  bitterest  hatred.  A  great  literary  re- 
vival took  place  during  the  reign  of  Rameses 
II.  Merneptah  II.,  his  successor,  is  generally 
regarded  as  the  Pharaoh  of  the  exodus.  It  is 
not  improbable  that  the  departure  of  the 
Hebrews  from  Egypt  was  due  to  and  facilitated 
by  external  troubles,  namely,  the  inhabitants 
of  Canaan  throwing  off  the  Egyptian  yoke, 
whilst  the  former  country,  weakened  by  its 
struggle  with  Egypt,  would  naturally  fall  an 
easier  prey  to  the  wandering  and  hardship- 
hardened  sons  of  Jacob.  The  residence  of  the 
kings  of  this  dynasty  seems  to  have  been  Tanis 
(Zoan),  thus  confirming  the  statement  (Ps.  7S:  43) 
as  to  God's  "wonders  in  the  field  of  Zoan." 
With  the  next  dynasty  (the  twentieth— that  of 
Rameses  III.  and  his  successors),  a  revival  took 
place,  but  the  throne  was  afterwards  usurped 
by  priests  of  Tanis  (Zoan),  who,  however,  could 
not  exact  obedience  from  their  Asiatic  vassals 
by  force,  and  tried,  therefore,  a  conciliatory 
policy.  It  was  probably  a  daughter  of  a  prince 
of  this  dynasty  that  Solomon  married,  and  from 
whom  he  received  the  many  favors  mentioned 
in  I.  Ki.  3:  1;  9:  16;  10:  28.  Shishak  or  Sheshonq 
1.,  the  founder  of  the  twenty-second  dynasty 
(which  is  supposed  to  have  been  of  foreign- 
Assyrian  or  Elamite— origin),  again  attempted 
military  expeditions,  assisted  Jeroboam,  Solo- 
mon's rebellious  servant  (I.  Ki.  11: 26,  40),  against 
Rehoboam,  and  besieged  and  captured  Jerusa- 
lem (I.  Ki.  14:25,26),  spoiling  the  temple.  His 
conquests,  with  a  list  of  the  towns  taken  in 
Judah  and  Israel  (one  of  the  names  given  reads 
Yudah  malek,  perhaps  "  kingdom  of  Judah  "),  is 
inscribed  on  the  south  wall  of  the  temple  of 
Ammon  at  Karnak.  Osorkon  I.,  his  successor, 
is  supposed  by  some  to  be  the  Zerah  of  II.  Chr. 
14:  9,  who  invaded  Palestine  and  was  defeated 
by  Asa,  but  this  is  very  doubtful,  as  the  Ethio- 
pians do  not  seem  to  have  gained  real  possession 
of  Egypt  until  a  hundred  years  later,  and 
Osorkon  could  hardly  have  been  called  one.  It 
was  about  715  that  the  Ethiopians  took  posses- 
sion of  Nubia  and  Upper  Egyjot,  and  Shabaq, 
the  biblical  So,  made  an  alliance  with  Hoshea 
of  Israel  (II.  Ki.  17:  4),  an  alliance  which  led  to 

*The  other  treasure-city  built  by  the  Israelites, 
Pithom,  has  been  discovered  by  M.  Naville.  The 
monuments  found  on  the  spot  show  that  it  was 
founded  by  Rameses  II.,  thus  confirming  the  identi- 
fication of  this  king  as  the  Pharaoh  of  the  oppression. 
His  mummy  is  now  in  the  museum  of  Gizeh. 



the  Assyrian  captivity  of  the  Israelites.  Later 
on,  also,  the  Jewish  kings  were;  compelled  to 
turn  to  Egypt  for  deliverance,  hut  Egypt  proved 
to  be  but  a  "broken  reed."    Sahatok,  the  suc- 

Ceated  by  Sennacherib  at  the  battle  of  feltakeh. 
After  a  struggle  extending  over  several  years, 
Egypt  was  conquered  by  Esarhaddon  ((>70  n.c.), 
but  revolted  after  his  death,  which  took  place 
as  he  was  again  going  to  Egypt  two  years  later. 
It  was  again  subdued  by  the  generals  of  A ssur- 
bani-apli  on  two  occasions,  on  the  latter  of 
which  Thebes  was  sacked  (Nah.  3),  but  the 
Assyrians  found  it  impossible  to  retain  posses- 
sion of  so  large  and  distant  a  country;  Psahi-, 
metichus,  the  leader  in  the  battle  "with  the 
Assyrians,  ascended  the  throne  about  <i(J(i  B.C., 
and  founded  the  twen(y-sixt  fa  dynasty.  Necho 
his  son  and  successor,  after  slaying  Josiah  at 
the  battle  of  Megiddo  (II.  Ki.  23:29)',  was  defeated 
by  Nebuchadnezzar  at  Carchemish.  Necho 
afterwards  deposed  Jehoahaz,  whom  he  im- 
prisoned at  Hi  blah,  exacted  from  the  country  a 
tribute  or  tine  of  100  talents  of  silver  and  a 
talent  of  gold,  and  made  Jehoiakim  king  in 
his  stead  (II.  Ki.  23;  31-35);  Hophra,  or  Apries. 
i.>!)1-;>70  r>.r.)  captured  Sidon,  and  marched  to 
the  relief  of  Zedekiah  when  the  latter  was 
attacked  by  Nebuchadnezzar  (Jcr.  37:5,  7,  11). 
Jerusalem  having  been  captured  by  the  Baby- 
lonian king,  however,  Hophra  accorded  an 
asylum  to  its  exiled  inhabitants,  including 
Jeremiah,  after  the  murder  of  Gedaliah.  In 
consequence  of  a  defeat,  Hophra's  army  re- 
belled against  him,  and  placed  Amasis  on  the 
throne.  This  king  had  a  prosperous  reign, 
though  beseems  once  to  have  come  into  con- 
flict with  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  on  his  death  in 
526  B.C.  Psammetiehus  III.,  Ins  son,  was  defeated 
by  <  'ambyses,  who  had  invaded  Egypt,  and  the 
counhy  was  reduced  to  the  condition  of  a 
Persian  province.  The  country  passed  success- 
ively under  the  dominion  of  the  Ptolemies, 
Romans,  Byzantines,  and  Mohammedans. 

One  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  Egyp- 
tian religious  belief  was  the  worship  of  the  sun 
(Ra),  which  was  adored  under  various  forms,  as 
the  evening  sun,  the  sun  passing  through  the 
lower  hemisphere  during  the  hours  of  night, 
and  as  the  rising  sun  (as  with  the  Hebrews, 
evening  and  night  preceded  the  morning  and 
day).  The  rising  of  the  sun  daily  to  new  birth 
ty  pi  lied  the  creation,  which  power  was  wor- 
shiped by  the  Egyptians.  According  to  the 
esoteric  or  inner  teaching  of  the  Egyptian 
priesthood,  Ra  was  the  great  Universe,  and  the 
other  gods  merely  personifications  of  his  var- 
ious attributes,  thus  making  a  kind  of  mono- 
theism, which  was  the  belief  of  the  initiated.